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Alkasim Kabiru Yunusa, Munir Abba Dandago, Sa’adatu Mukhtar Ibrahim, Nura Abdullahi, Abdulrashid Rilwan and Aminu Barde

Abstract

The aims of this research were to estimate the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity from different parts of cucumber. The antioxidant activity was investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total flavonoid and phenolic contents were estimated using aluminium chloride and Folin-Ciocalteau reagents assays, respectively. Our finding showed that the ethanolic peel extract contained the highest phenolic (23.08 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (14.02 mg QE/g). Also, ethanolic peel extract demonstrated significantly (p<0.05) higher FRAP value. Pearson correlation revealed that there were positive correlations (p<0.01) between TPC and TFC with FRAP assay. These findings suggest that consumption of cucumber with peel may provide optimum health benefit than its peeled counterpart.

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Open access

Yanuar Sigit Pramana, Titi Candra Sunarti and Purwoko

Abstract

Cassava pulp, the side product of tapioca industry consists of starch and fiber as the major component. Acid treatment was employed in the conversion process of cassava pulp into dietary fiber to remove the starch component, to increase fiber content, and to modify the structure of fiber. This study purposed to obtain optimum process conditions (acid concentration, temperature, and reaction time) in the production of dietary fiber from cassava pulp. Process optimization was conducted using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for maximizing Total Dietary Fiber (TDF), Water Holding Capacity (WHC) and Oil Holding Capacity (OHC) as the responses. The optimum process was gained at 6% H2SO4 concentration, 127°C, and 45 mins. Prediction values of TDF, WHC, and OHC were 100%, 10.47 g/g, and 3.60 g/g, respectively. Validation was carried out and resulted in TDF 96.95%, WHC 10.47 g/g, and OHC 3.55 g/g. Physicochemical properties of the resulting dietary fiber were significantly improved. The fiber structure has modified which characterized by the changes in morphology and crystallinity.

Open access

Helen Weldemichael, Shimelis Admassu and Melaku Alemu

Abstract

Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization of enset fermentation process. Two numerical (time and amount of starter culture) and one categorical variable (types of starter strain) was used for evaluation of sensory quality of kocho. The physicochemical properties, proximate composition and color of kocho product were also analyzed. It was found that the coefficient of determination (R2) of the response variables were greater than 80% described that high percentage of the variability was defined by the model. These findings revealed that fermentation time, amount of starter culture and types of starter strain affected the sensory attributes of kocho. The preferred sensory quality of kocho was produced using 2% L. plantarum as starter strain at 6 days of fermentation time.

Open access

Emmanuel Agomuo and Peter Amadi

Abstract

This study evaluated the nutrient properties of parts of Dacryodes edulis (DE), Persea americana (PA) and Canarium schweinfurthii (CS) oils using standard methods. Pulp oils of DE and PA had the least moisture, melting point, acid, and saponification values. Occurrence of C10-12 fatty acids was between 0 and 1.46%, and C22-26 between 0 and 4.3%. Anthocyanins, epicatechin, and ribalinidine were undetected in CS seed oils, while oils from the pulp and peels of PA showed the highest amounts for catechins (57.73µg/ml) and kaempferol (57.91µg/ml) respectively. The pulp oils contained higher amounts of Na, K, Zn, Ca, vit A and D. This study has shown that the seed oils suits industrial needs, and the pulp oils for therapeutic purposes.

Open access

He Chen, Sha Mei, Chunji Dai, Yunxia He and Jianjun Yu

Abstract

In order to improve the protein content of straw feed and reduce the amount of nutrients added, in this paper, the cell wall structure of corn stalk was destroyed by thermophilic digestion and the polysaccharide was degraded into monosaccharide by complex enzyme, and then transformed into bacterial protein by double strain Candida utilis 1807 and Pachysolen tannophilus 1771 fermentation. Single factor experiments and orthogonal test were made to obtain the best process for the feed of double-bacteria synchronous fermentation of stalks. The optimum amount of each nutrient and the inoculation amounts of double bacteria (accounts for the percentage of the original dry straw quality): ammonium sulfate 6.79%, urea 2.72%, yeast powder 1.63%, magnesium sulfate 0.27%, Candida utilis 54.31% and Pachysolen tannophilus 54.31%; The operational parameters of fermentation process were: fermentation temperature 29°C, rotate speed 100 r/min and fermentation time 55 hours. The yield of stalk feed and crude protein was 82.04%, 23.33%, respectively. The crude protein content of stalk feed was 28.44%, which was 4.33 times of original dry stalk. The results showed that the multi-strain distribution and degradation of protein production provide important significance for corn straw bio-utilization.

Open access

Guowei Shu, Mengqi Tian, Binyun Cao, Changfeng Wang and Ni Xin

Abstract

Development of synbiotic yogurt having multiple health benefits has become a new trend. The purpose of this study was to obtain the optimum stachyose concentration of the goat yogurt fermented by probiotics including Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) or Lactobacillus casei (LC) besides Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus by measuring pH, acidity, viable counts and the change of stachyose content. The optimal stachyose concentration of goat LA-yogurt and goat LC-yogurt were 0.4% and 0.8%. Under the above concentrations, the total bacteria number and the viable counts of LA were 2.02×109cfu/mL, 3×107cfu/mL, respectively; the total bacteria number and the viable counts of LC were 2.55×109cfu/mL, 2.53×108cfu/mL, respectively. The results indicate that stachyose can effectively improve the vitality and the viable counts of strains in goat yogurt.

Open access

Guowei Shu, Xin Yang, Zhangteng Lei, Dan Huang and Yaling ZHAI

Abstract

Saccharomyces boulardii, as a probiotic yeast, had been commonly used in food, medicine and feed to treat diarrhea in humans or livestock. However, there are few researches focusing on the preparation of its freeze-drying S.boulardii powder. In this study, the effect of carbohydrates (glucose, sucrose, maltose, fructose, lactose, mannose and trehalose), prebiotics (isomalto-oligosaccharide, xylo-oligosaccharide, raffinose, stachyose, inulin, galacto-oligosaccharide and fructo-oligosaccharide) and salts (NaHCO3, MgSO4, sodium glutamate, sodium ascorbate, and phosphate buffer) on the freeze-dried survival of S. boulardii were investigated to screen the cryoprotectant by using single factor experiments. As the result, trehalose and XOS had better protective effect, the survival rate was 23.72% and 20.70% respectively, the number of viable cells reached 0.91×1010 CFU/g and 0.85×1010 CFU/g respectively; the addition amount of NaHCO3 was 0.3%, the freeze-dried survival rate reached the maximum value of 12.92%. The phosphate buffer additive amount and the bacterial sludge weight were 0.8:1, the freeze-dried survival rate reached a maximum of 14.14%, the freeze-dried survival rate of sodium glutamate, sodium ascorbate and MgSO4 groups was increasing, reaching a maximum of 20.26%, 16.47% and 6.29% when the addition amount was 2%, 10%, 0.5%.

Open access

Isabela Crăciun

Abstract

An important role in human nutrition is played by fats, both of plant and animal origin. Fats are a category of foods rich in liposoluble vitamins and fatty acids. They are widely used in nutrition, in cosmetics, in the content of creams as well as in pharmaceutical products, in the form of dietary supplements, such as capsules with oils rich in fatty acids and the addition of liposoluble vitamins. The objective of this paper was to study the content in vitamins and fatty oils of two vegetable oils (wheat germ and sea buckthorn oils) and an animal oil (fish oil). The results show that these oils are rich in liposoluble vitamins, omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids. Hence, these oils can be used successfully in daily nutrition as substitutes for synthetic vitamins.

Open access

Mao Ye and Maocheng Deng

Abstract

Esterase is an industrial enzyme that is widely used in food, medicine, fine chemicals. The total genomic DNA was extracted from traditional fermented food in China to construct a metagenomic library that included a novel esterase gene (est_115). Sequence homology analysis showed that the highest homology with the carboxylester hydrolase from Pseudomonas lutea was 38%, indicating that esterase belongs to a new class of esterases. Then, an est_115 gene recombinant expression vector was constructed and expressed. The Est_115 had higher catalytic activity to p-nitrophenol ester, with a short acyl-carbon chain. The enzyme can maintain high catalytic activity and salt tolerance in 10%–18% NaCl, suggesting that this novel esterase can be used in processing food using high osmotic pressure.