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Sukru Aslan, Sayiter Yildiz and Mustafa Ozturk

Abstract

Adsorption of Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions onto the waste powdered activated sludge biomass (PWB), which was obtained from the biological wastewater treatment plant, was investigated in this experimental study. The effects of contact time, pH, temperature, initial sorbate and sorbent concentrations on the adsorption were determined. The BET surface area, pore volume, and pore diameter of PWB were found to be about 0.51 m2/g, 0.0053 cm3/g, and 41.4 nm, respectively. Considering the R2 value, qexp and qcal, the Langmuir and Freundlich models were well described for Cu(II) and Ni(II) adsorption, respectively. The adsorption mechanism of Cu(II) and Ni(II) onto the PWB could be better simulated by the pseudo-second-order kinetic mechanism than the pseudo-first-order, intra particle diffusion and Elovich models. Thermodynamic aspects of the adsorption of heavy metals were also investigated. Considering the applied desorbing agents for reuse of PWB for Ni(II) recovery, desorption cycle is not feasible due to the deterioration of the PWB structure.

Open access

Michal Greguš, Pavlo Ďurč, Julia Lačná, František Foreti and Peter Kubáň

Abstract

In this work, various parameters that influence the ionic content and pH of exhaled breath condensate in of the noninvasive diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease were studied. Exhaled breath condensate samples were collected using a miniature and inexpensive sampling device. Capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection was used to monitor the ionic content of exhaled breath condensate. Background electrolyte composed of 20 mM of 2-(N-Morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, 20 mM of L-Histidine, 2 mM of 18-Crown-6 and 30 M of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide facilitated the rapid separation of anions and cations, both in less than 2 minutes. The possibility of contamination of the exhaled breath condensate by saliva is discussed in detail. The day-to-day repeatability (n=5) of the ionic content and pH of the exhaled breath condensate was studied and was satisfactory, reflecting mainly the physiological variability

Open access

R. Vaira Vignesh, R. Padmanaban and Chinnaraj K.

Abstract

Aluminium alloy AA5083 is prone to intergranular corrosion in marine environments. In an attempt to reduce the intergranular corrosion, AA5083 was subjected to friction stir processing (FSP). The FSP experimental trials were conducted as per face-centered central composite design with three levels of variation in FSP process parameters viz. tool rotation speed (TRS), tool traverse speed (TTS) and tool shoulder diameter (SD). Intergranular corrosion susceptibility of the processed specimens was assessed by performing nitric acid mass loss test. The mass loss of the specimens was correlated with the intergranular corrosion susceptibility as per the standard ASTM G67-13. The experimental results indicate that FSP had significantly reduced the intergranular corrosion susceptibility of the AA5083 alloy. Soft computing techniques namely Artificial Neural Network, Mamdani Fuzzy system, and Sugeno Fuzzy system were used to predict the intergranular corrosion (IGC) susceptibility (mass loss) of the friction stir processed specimens. Among the developed models, Sugeno fuzzy system displayed minimum percentage error in prediction. So Sugeno fuzzy system was used to analyze the effect of friction stir processing process parameters on the IGC of the processed specimens. The results suggest that stir processing of AA5083 at a TRS of 1300 rpm, TTS of 60 mm/min and SD of 21 mm would make the alloy least susceptible to intergranular corrosion.

Open access

Dana Moravcová and Josef Planeta

Abstract

The monolithic capillary columns (0.1 mm x 150 mm) prepared by the acidic hydrolysis of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and urea were modified by zwitterionic stationary phases and evaluated under HILIC separation conditions by employing a mixture containing nucleosides and nucleotides. The polymeric layer of zwitterions did not affect the high separation efficiency of the original silica monolith. The prepared zwitterionic columns exhibited high separation efficiencies in a range 61,000-289,000 theoretical plates/m for a 2- methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-based stationary phase and in a range 59,000-135,000 theoretical plates/m for a [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide-based stationary phase under optimal separation conditions. The grafted layer of zwitterions on the silica monolithic surface also significantly improved the separation selectivity to compounds of interest

Open access

Kateřina Hamáková, David Potěšil, Ondřej Bernatik, Igor Červenka, Matěj Rádsetoulal, Vitězslav Bryja and Zbyněk Zdráhal

Abstract

The focus of this paper is the human Dishevelled 3 protein (hDvl3), an essential component of the Wnt signalling pathway that contributes to their regulation. Mass spectrometry-based analysis of hDvl3 phosphorylations induced by eight associated kinases was performed revealing several dozens of phosphorylation sites. The main outcome of this study was the description of Dvl phosphorylation “patterns” induced by individual kinases

Open access

Anikό Kilár, Ágnes Dornyel, Viktor Sándor, Ferenc Kilár and Béla Kocsis

Abstract

Much interest is at present focused on bacterial endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), as they are responsible for the development of clinical symptoms of Gram-negative sepsis which is the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Endotoxicity is associated with the special phosphoglycolipid part of LPS, termed lipid A. Main challenges in the structural elucidation of lipid A arise from its amphiphilic character and inherent heterogeneity. A mass spectrometrybased de novo method combined with reversed-phase liquid chromatography for the detailed structural characterization of complex lipid A mixtures (obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of LPS) from different bacterial sources has been developed. Tandem mass spectrometric measurements were performed with an electrospray-ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF) mass spectrometer in both negative- and positive-ionization modes in order to explore fragmentation pathways. It was found that characteristic product ions in the positive-ion mode could be used for the unambiguous assignment of the phosphorylation site, whereas the use of both ionization modes provided consistent and/or complementary information about the fatty acyl distribution between the two glucosamine moieties of lipid A. Since the immunostimulatory (advantageous) vs. proinflammatory (endotoxic) effect of the lipid A is closely related to the fine chemical structure, our relatively simple structural elucidation strategy could offer great potential in the bioanalysis of native lipid A samples and lipid A-based vaccines

Open access

K. Nechvílová and A. Kalendová

Abstract

Generally, organic coatings which contain zinc ferrites are able to protect metal substrate, most often low-carbon steel, by inhibition mechanism. Conductive polymers are using a system of conjugated double-bonds to transfer a charge over the chain thereby providing their own electrical conductivity in the organic coatings. The charge from the chain in combination with the iron substrate generates electrons to the formation of passivation products on the surface of paint film. This paper is focused on combination of zinc ferrite with conductive polymer and using of synergic effect of these two components. The organic coatings were formulated from hematite and specularite on pigments concentration line 5, 10, 20 and 25 wt.% for better recognizing of the effectiveness of zinc ferrite component. The content of the conductive polymer was consistently set at 3 wt.% in each organic coating. A solvent-based epoxy-ester resin was used as a binder. The physico-mechanical and corrosion tests were performed for all samples. The corrosion signs were evaluated on the surface of coating and also on the surface of metal substrate. In the end, the efficiency was compared alone zinc ferrite and alone polymers and also their combinations.

Open access

M. Zheng, M. Shuai and J. Yu

Abstract

The influence of deformation on electrochemical properties of Q235 steel is studied. The uni-axial tension of the steel is conducted on universal testing machine to get a series of strain, 0.07%, 6%, 11% and 24%, respectively. The deformation process for strain of 0.07% is controlled by load, and the others are controlled by displacement correspondingly. Afterward, the tests of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are conducted for the deformed steel in 0.01 mol.dm−3 NaCl solution. The results showed that plastic deformation leads to crystalline grains refine and elongate, and crystalline boundary increases, it induces more corrosive possibility and lower corrosive resistance; the corrosion potential of Q235 steel becomes more negative with the increase of deformation amount, and the corrosion current density increases with the amount of deformation; the corrosion resistance decrease with the increase of deformation seriously.

Open access

K. Ch. Strachotová and M. Kouřil

Abstract

High sensitivity of lead to organic compounds leads to degradation of historical lead objects stored in the depositories of museums or archives. High concentration of organic compounds in the atmosphere of depositories is caused by degradation of organic materials (wood, glue, leather, paper). Organic materials are stored together with lead objects or they are used as a packaging material. This study was aimed on the influence of packaging material properties to aggressiveness towards lead with different state of surface by the resistometric method. The results showed that aggressiveness of packaging material is determined by a complex influence of material properties. The presence of corrosion products on the lead surface significantly increases its sensitivity to organic compounds.