The objective of the work was to investigate the possibility of application of carbon and bentonite nanoparticles in carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (XNBR) and the related effects of the nanofillers on the structure, as well as mechanical and barrier properties, of the resulting composites. The composites were designed for use in protective clothing and gloves. XNBR compounds were modified with 2 phr of graphene flakes, graphene oxide, or modified bentonite, and crosslinked with sulfur-accelerator system. Rubber compounds were prepared using a conventional method with a laboratory rolling mill. The composites were studied in terms of structure (WAXS), surface morphology (AFM), the presence of functional groups (ATR-FTIR) barrier properties against chemical substances (mineral oil) and swelling properties, as well as mechanical properties (abrasion resistance and tensile strength). The composites were characterized by very high resistance to oil permeation (breakthrough time >480 min). The type of nanofiller added to the XNBR blend in the amount of 2 phr did not significantly affect mechanical parameters.