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Open access

Hildegardo Córdova-Aguilar

Abstract

Peruvian cartography in the nineteenth century was very rich and fulfilled the geographic knowledge demanded by the new Republic of Peru. In effect, the country of more than 1,000,000 km2 needed to show the physical environment and to locate the distribution of its natural resources. It was the time when cartography was valued as an element of empowerment and land control, especially when the political borders were rather unstable (G. Prieto 2018). Then, it was timely the publication of Atlas Geográfico del Perú (Geographic Atlas of Peru) by Mariano Felipe Paz Soldán, a prominent Peruvian lawyer and geographer. Author’s purpose is to comment on the new edition of the Mariano Felipe Paz Soldán Atlas Geográfico del Perú, published in Lima in 2012.

Open access

Jordan Tzvetkov

Abstract

The aim of the article is to present different relief visualization techniques created using only free and open source GIS tools, such as QGIS and RVT. The criteria for selection of these techniques are that they should be, on the one hand, simple and fast for implementation and on the other suitable for multiple visualization purposes. Here we present several techniques which combine hillshade with other relief data layers derived from DEM and an assessment of advantages and disadvantages of their visualization.

Open access

Lucyna Szaniawska

Abstract

The paper discusses selected maps of rock strata which exemplify the evolution stages of presentation methods of cartographic data concerning the geological structure of selected countries (France, Great Britain and Germany) which in the first half of the nineteenth century constituted the leaders of the field. The results of geologists’ work are used to present the content of maps, provide explanations and showcase the methods and techniques chosen by the maps’ creators. The analysed maps are accompanied by geological writings which contain descriptions of the chronological order within rock formations and strata defined on the basis of fossils, methods of recreating the geological history of individual regions, and attempts of compiling the acquired knowledge and using it to describe larger areas. The author discusses also two maps of Europe published in the mid-nineteenth century, which are the result of cooperation and research achievements of geologists from different countries.

Open access

Wiesław Ostrowski, Izabela Karsznia and Tomasz Panecki

Abstract

Built-up area is a particularly important element of the content of topographic maps. Its presentation changes significantly when map scales are reduced, due to both conceptual and graphic generalization. What is more, historically, changes in the depiction of built-up area were consequences of changes in the intended use of topographic maps, development of technology and changes in the cultural landscape, of which the built-up area is an important component.1

The authors describe the method of presentation of built-up areas on six Polish topographic maps or series of maps. The above-mentioned maps include the following:

Topograficzna Karta Królestwa Polskiego (Topographic Map of the Polish Kingdom) at the scale of 1:126,000 developed in 1822–1843;

– topographic maps of the Polish Military Geographical Institute (MGI) at the scales of 1:25,000 and 1:100,000, published in 1930s;

– a series of military maps (or military-civilian maps) at the scales of 1:10,000, 1:25,000, 1:50,000 and 1:100,000, developed in 1956–1989, in accordance with the instruction for developing Soviet maps;

– a series of civilian maps at the scales of 1:10,000, 1:25,000, 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 developed after 1995.

The basis for a quantitative comparison of the content of the maps was the number of categories of objects (identifications) which constitute part of built-up area and are presented on individual maps as symbols, as well as the number of characteristics represented by these symbols. These characteristics are divided into two basic types: functional characteristics and physiognomic characteristics.

The analysis shows that military maps issued after the Second World War differ from the civilian maps, as they contain a much larger share of physiognomic characteristics, which is caused mainly from the fact that the vast majority of military maps distinguish between wooden and brick buildings. This difference was to large extent already noticeable among the oldest of the analysed maps – the Quartermaster’s Map and nineteenth-century Russian maps, which were partly modelled on the Quartermaster’s Map, and later also Soviet maps. Due to political reasons, the model of these Soviet maps was later adopted for the development of post-war Polish military maps. Out of all maps drawn up by military services, the inter-war MGI map serves special attention, as it was modelled on German maps. The main difference between military and civilian maps is foremost the fact that civilian maps include more functional characteristics of buildings and take into consideration new physiognomic characteristics related to residential development (compact, dense, multifamily dwellings, single family dwellings).

The analysed maps include not only the characteristics of buildings and built-up area, but also information on the features of the town – population size, number of village houses and the administrative function.

Open access

Roman Wytyczak

Abstract

The author discusses adaptations of maps from the Atlas of Silesia published by European cartographers in more important atlases and multi-sheet maps from the second half of the 18th and early 19th century. Thanks to such adaptations the cartographic image of Silesia could be observed far beyond its borders. Its quality varied, however, both in planimetric contents and in relief. While situation was mostly represented rather correctly in relation to the maps from the Atlas of Silesia, presentation of orography largely differed from the original as well as from its real character. Even application of three methods of relief presentation on a single map did not bring on proper results, mainly due to the fact that the authors of adaptations did not know Silesia.

Open access

Jakub Kuna

Abstract

During the interwar period, an estimated 32–36% of Polish territory was covered by the Polish Military Geographical Institute’s (Pol. Wojskowy Instytut Geograficzny) 1:25,000 detailed map. At the same time, the MGI achieved a full coverage of the country by 1:100,000 tactical map. 50% of tactical map sheets were revised for the 1930s – many covered areas for which no detailed maps had been printed. Considering the fact that 1:100,000 tactical map was updated on the basis of revised 1:25,000 maps, another 17–21% of 1:25,000 detailed map sheets were finished or in progress by the German and Soviet invasion in 1939. The study confirmed additional 4% of 1:25,000 detailed map sheets as ‘partially compiled’ by the MGI and finished by the Germans. Another 17% of detailed map sheets are potentially to be found. Hypotheses, clues and evidence are presented in the paper.

Open access

Eugeniusz Sobczyński and Jerzy Pietruszka

Abstract

The history of the development of military aeronautical charts began immediately before the First World War. The first charts created at that time did not differ much from topographic maps. Air planes were fairly slow back then and had a small range of action, which meant that the charts were developed at the scale of 1:200,000. When speed of aircraft increased, it soon turned out that this scale was too large. Therefore, many countries began to create charts with smaller scales: 1:300,000 and 1:500,000. The International Map of the World 1:1,000,000 (IMW) was frequently used for continental flights prior to the outbreak of the Second World War, while 1:3,500,000 and 1:5,000,000 maps were commonly used for intercontinental flights.

The Second World War brought a breakthrough in the field of aeronautical chart development, especially after 7 December 1941, when the USA entered into the war. The Americans created more than 6000 map sheets and published more than 100 million copies, which covered all continents. In their cartographic endeavours, they were aided foremost by the Brits.

On the other hand, the Third Reich had more than 1,500 officers and about 15,000 soldiers and civil servants involved in the development of maps and other geographic publications during the Second World War. What is more, the Reich employed local cartographers and made use of local source materials in all the countries it occupied. The Germans introduced one new element to the aeronautical charts – the printed reference grid which made it easier to command its air force.

The experience gained during the Second World War and local conflicts was for the United States an impulse to undertake work on the standardization of the development of aeronautical charts. Initially, standardization work concerned only aeronautical charts issued by the US, but after the establishment of NATO, standardization began to be applied to all countries entering the Alliance. The currently binding NATO STANAGs (Standardization Agreements) distinguish between operational charts and special low-flight charts. The charts are developed in the WGS-84 coordinate system, where the WGS-84 ellipsoid of rotation is the reference surface. The cylindrical transverse Mercator projection was used for the scale of 1:250,000, while the conformal conic projection was used for other scales.

The first aeronautical charts issued at the beginning of the 20th century contained only a dozen or so special symbols concerning charts’ navigational content, whereas currently the number of symbols and abbreviations found on such charts exceeds one hundred. The updating documents are published every 28 days in order to ensure that aeronautical charts remain up-to-date between releases of their subsequent editions. It concerns foremost aerial obstacles and air traffic zones.

The aeronautical charts published by NATO have scales between 1:50,000 and 1:500,000 and the printed Military Grid Reference System (MGRS), while the aeronautical charts at scales between 1:250,000 and 1:2,000,000 contain the World Geographic Reference System (GEOREF).

Nowadays, modern military air planes are characterised by their exceptional combat capabilities in terms of speed, range and manoeuvrability. Aside from aircraft, contemporary armed forces make increasingly frequent use of aerial robots, drones and unmanned cruise missiles. This is why, there has been a noticeable increase, especially in NATO, in the amount of work devoted to the standardization and development of aeronautical charts, as well as deepening of knowledge of navigation and aeronautical information.

Open access

Tomasz Panecki

Abstract

The author presents an overview of the scope of content of selected topographic maps of Polish lands from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century in its quantitative aspect. 19 maps were analysed and a common conceptual model linked to the Database of Topographic Objects (DBTO10k) was developed on the basis of catalogues of object types. Quantitative statistics were also prepared for the object types from maps before and after harmonization. Differences between their numbers within the same maps reflect the conceptual variety of said maps. The number of types of objects (before and after harmonization) was then juxtaposed with selected thematic layers: water network, transport network, land cover, buildings, structures, and equipment, land use complexes, localities and other objects. Such factors as scales, publication dates and topographic services which created analysed maps were also taken into consideration. Additionally, the analysed maps demonstrate uneven levels of generalization. Inclusion of objects typical for large-scale cartography on topographic and general maps is one of the distinctive features.

Open access

Beata Konopska and Teresa Bogacz

Abstract

The article tackles the difficult problem of identity creation of new inhabitants of western and northern Poland after 1945 and of relativism in the understanding of national identity after 1989. One of the manifestations are geographical names, which are reflected on maps. The authors of the article looked at this difficult, historically unprecedented process of integration and identification of new inhabitants with the geographical space through the prism of maps, entering into the contemporary discussion about the transformations taking place in the understanding of national identity.

Open access

Waldemar Spallek

Abstract

The evolution of the mathematical foundations of maps in school geographical atlases, especially in 19th and 20th century, was one of the elements of the perception of progress in cartography by the didactics of geography. The biggest changes, ongoing also today, concerned cartographic projections used to maps design.

The evolution of the geographical coordinate system is a part of this process and the basis of the theory of cartographic projections. In the paper there are described changes concerning the location of the Prime Meridian and the method of the description of longitude – elements necessary for the construction of the grid of meridians and parallels. These changes are presented on the basis of analysis of 665 atlases, what means all editions of Polish school geographical atlases between 1771 and 2012 identified by the author.

The evolution of the mathematical foundations of maps in Polish school atlases over more than two centuries is an example of assimilation of the newest trends and scientific researches that takes place between science and education.