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Open access

Eugeniusz Sobczyński and Jerzy Pietruszka

Abstract

The history of the development of military aeronautical charts began immediately before the First World War. The first charts created at that time did not differ much from topographic maps. Air planes were fairly slow back then and had a small range of action, which meant that the charts were developed at the scale of 1:200,000. When speed of aircraft increased, it soon turned out that this scale was too large. Therefore, many countries began to create charts with smaller scales: 1:300,000 and 1:500,000. The International Map of the World 1:1,000,000 (IMW) was frequently used for continental flights prior to the outbreak of the Second World War, while 1:3,500,000 and 1:5,000,000 maps were commonly used for intercontinental flights.

The Second World War brought a breakthrough in the field of aeronautical chart development, especially after 7 December 1941, when the USA entered into the war. The Americans created more than 6000 map sheets and published more than 100 million copies, which covered all continents. In their cartographic endeavours, they were aided foremost by the Brits.

On the other hand, the Third Reich had more than 1,500 officers and about 15,000 soldiers and civil servants involved in the development of maps and other geographic publications during the Second World War. What is more, the Reich employed local cartographers and made use of local source materials in all the countries it occupied. The Germans introduced one new element to the aeronautical charts – the printed reference grid which made it easier to command its air force.

The experience gained during the Second World War and local conflicts was for the United States an impulse to undertake work on the standardization of the development of aeronautical charts. Initially, standardization work concerned only aeronautical charts issued by the US, but after the establishment of NATO, standardization began to be applied to all countries entering the Alliance. The currently binding NATO STANAGs (Standardization Agreements) distinguish between operational charts and special low-flight charts. The charts are developed in the WGS-84 coordinate system, where the WGS-84 ellipsoid of rotation is the reference surface. The cylindrical transverse Mercator projection was used for the scale of 1:250,000, while the conformal conic projection was used for other scales.

The first aeronautical charts issued at the beginning of the 20th century contained only a dozen or so special symbols concerning charts’ navigational content, whereas currently the number of symbols and abbreviations found on such charts exceeds one hundred. The updating documents are published every 28 days in order to ensure that aeronautical charts remain up-to-date between releases of their subsequent editions. It concerns foremost aerial obstacles and air traffic zones.

The aeronautical charts published by NATO have scales between 1:50,000 and 1:500,000 and the printed Military Grid Reference System (MGRS), while the aeronautical charts at scales between 1:250,000 and 1:2,000,000 contain the World Geographic Reference System (GEOREF).

Nowadays, modern military air planes are characterised by their exceptional combat capabilities in terms of speed, range and manoeuvrability. Aside from aircraft, contemporary armed forces make increasingly frequent use of aerial robots, drones and unmanned cruise missiles. This is why, there has been a noticeable increase, especially in NATO, in the amount of work devoted to the standardization and development of aeronautical charts, as well as deepening of knowledge of navigation and aeronautical information.

Open access

Roman Wytyczak

Abstract

The author discusses adaptations of maps from the Atlas of Silesia published by European cartographers in more important atlases and multi-sheet maps from the second half of the 18th and early 19th century. Thanks to such adaptations the cartographic image of Silesia could be observed far beyond its borders. Its quality varied, however, both in planimetric contents and in relief. While situation was mostly represented rather correctly in relation to the maps from the Atlas of Silesia, presentation of orography largely differed from the original as well as from its real character. Even application of three methods of relief presentation on a single map did not bring on proper results, mainly due to the fact that the authors of adaptations did not know Silesia.

Open access

Tomasz Panecki

Abstract

The author presents an overview of the scope of content of selected topographic maps of Polish lands from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century in its quantitative aspect. 19 maps were analysed and a common conceptual model linked to the Database of Topographic Objects (DBTO10k) was developed on the basis of catalogues of object types. Quantitative statistics were also prepared for the object types from maps before and after harmonization. Differences between their numbers within the same maps reflect the conceptual variety of said maps. The number of types of objects (before and after harmonization) was then juxtaposed with selected thematic layers: water network, transport network, land cover, buildings, structures, and equipment, land use complexes, localities and other objects. Such factors as scales, publication dates and topographic services which created analysed maps were also taken into consideration. Additionally, the analysed maps demonstrate uneven levels of generalization. Inclusion of objects typical for large-scale cartography on topographic and general maps is one of the distinctive features.

Open access

Beata Konopska and Teresa Bogacz

Abstract

The article tackles the difficult problem of identity creation of new inhabitants of western and northern Poland after 1945 and of relativism in the understanding of national identity after 1989. One of the manifestations are geographical names, which are reflected on maps. The authors of the article looked at this difficult, historically unprecedented process of integration and identification of new inhabitants with the geographical space through the prism of maps, entering into the contemporary discussion about the transformations taking place in the understanding of national identity.

Open access

Waldemar Spallek

Abstract

The evolution of the mathematical foundations of maps in school geographical atlases, especially in 19th and 20th century, was one of the elements of the perception of progress in cartography by the didactics of geography. The biggest changes, ongoing also today, concerned cartographic projections used to maps design.

The evolution of the geographical coordinate system is a part of this process and the basis of the theory of cartographic projections. In the paper there are described changes concerning the location of the Prime Meridian and the method of the description of longitude – elements necessary for the construction of the grid of meridians and parallels. These changes are presented on the basis of analysis of 665 atlases, what means all editions of Polish school geographical atlases between 1771 and 2012 identified by the author.

The evolution of the mathematical foundations of maps in Polish school atlases over more than two centuries is an example of assimilation of the newest trends and scientific researches that takes place between science and education.

Open access

Paweł E. Weszpiński

Abstract

The article discusses the problem of cartographic presentation of immaterial elements of city space. On the example of old city maps of Warsaw from the period between 1641 and the end of the 19th century, the image of objects and places in Warsaw is linked to the image of activities happening in them, or in connection with them. The author presents results of the analysis of the methods of presentation of immaterial elements, distinguishing three most numerous groups of them: nomenclature, functions and significance of objects, and property and administrative issues. The conclusions base on the analysis of 61 general city maps of Warsaw covering the whole city, elaborated in the periods 1641–1800, 1801–1900, and, supplementary, 1901–1939.

Open access

Jolanta Korycka-Skorupa and Jacek Pasławski

Abstract

The discovery in the cartographic collections of the Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies at the University of Warsaw of an original map by Charles Dupin – the first choropleth map – provided an opportunity to conduct a closer methodological analysis of the map and to investigate the subsequent development of this presentation method during the first half of 19th century. From relatively early on, the accepted principle was for choropleth map presentations to use statistical data still imprecisely referred to as relative, as well as using a distribution series as a method of generalizing data.

Open access

Ignacio Suay-Matallana

Abstract

This paper focuses on how two Spanish chemists—Antonio Casares Rodríguez (1812–1888), and his son José Casares Gil (1866–1961)—constructed their expertise in chemical analysis in modern Spain. It considers both their family connections and local networks as crucial elements in the consolidation of their scientific authority, as well as the importance of travels and textbook writing, in shaping expertise in places usually considered peripheral. Finally, this article shows how both experts were able to circulate between different spaces, notably the laboratory and the field, in this case natural springs and spas; the university and governmental committees and institutions, in this way forging new possibilities for the consolidation of analytical chemistry as a scientific discipline in Spain.

Open access

Poisons, trials and experts:

Pere Mata i Fontanet (1811–1877) and Spanish nineteenth-century toxicology

Mar Cuenca-Lorente

Abstract

Pere Mata i Fontanet (1811–1877) was the most important Spanish toxicologist in the nineteenth-century. However, he remained an invisible character outside Spanish borders. He was the author of the most influential Spanish treatise on legal medicine and toxicology, which had six editions but was never translated. His treatises did not include experimental results but rather a rhetorical discussion and a place where he discussed and claimed for changes to be made in those new sciences. His participation in famous trials such as poisoning cases contributed to increase his claimed authority as an expert. This paper will show that it was precisely during those trials, when experts had to face the puzzling questions of lawyers and jurors, that toxicology was built.