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Katerina Pozachenyuk and Irina Yakovenko

Abstract

The conditions and factors of development of the vine landscapes in Crimea and their evolution are considered for the ancient, medieval, imperial, Soviet (first and second halves of the 20th century), and post-Soviet periods. The characteristics of the vineyard landscape zones (South Coast, Foothills and Steppe) are presented. Having reached their maximum areas in the period 1955-1970, the area of the vineyards in Crimea decreased steadily until 2017. The main causes of degradation were the spread of phylloxera, the campaign against alcoholism in 1985, the deterioration of sales after the collapse of the USSR, and the ineffective system of cultivation technology. The current ways of reviving grape landscapes – the introduction of innovative methods of farming, greening and cluster forms of viticulture and winemaking – are addressed.

Open access

Patrycja Fabijańska and Jolanta Korycka-Skorupa

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to produce a multifaceted presentation of a small region. It was realised based on two aims: the collection of spatial and statistical data, and the analysis of the data from the perspective of physical and socio-economic geography. Mrozy commune (Polish – gmina Mrozy) is located in the eastern part of the Masovian voivodeship, in the county of Minsk (Polish – powiat miński).

The initial stage involved obtaining data from various sources. The second phase concerned the assessment of the data’s quality. Next, appropriate visualization methods were selected; the authors used cartographic techniques for data presentation, resulting in a set of thematic maps at a scale of 1:100,000. The final part of this research concerned the evaluation of the results and the verification and correction of errors.

The accuracy of the maps for this small area has been checked and the maps will be made available to the local authorities.

Open access

Concepcion Foronda-Robles

Abstract

The wine sector is a sector that lives and breathes its history and identity; and where developmental alternatives are sought in order to be able to compete in the market. Vineyard areas are sold as rural paradises, where leisure, gastronomy, the landscape, and open-air activities all provide quality tourist experiences. The case of the Sherry Wine Region (Spain) illustrates local restructuring processes, changes in local-global planning, and the socioeconomic impacts of the globalization of food. The symbiosis between the specific, the global, and the historical discourses gives rise to reflections on this region’s territorial redefinition; and highlights its architectural heritage, its landscape, and the gastronomic experiences on offer. Diversification is regenerating the local economy, and wine, and wine tourism, are both the focus of a new territorial policy strategy designed to face the challenges of globalization, and common bonds for partnerships between the public and the private sectors.

Open access

Mathias Harzhauser, Oleg Mandic, Matthias Kranner, Petra Lukeneder, Andrea K. Kern, Martin Gross, Giorgio Carnevale and Christine Jawecki

Abstract

Sarmatian and Pannonian cores, drilled at the western margin of the Vienna Basin in the City of Vienna, reveal a complex succession of marine and lacustrine depositional environments during the middle to late Miocene transition. Two Sarmatian and two Pannonian transgressive–regressive sequences were studied in detail. Identical successions of benthic faunal assemblages and similar patterns in magnetic susceptibility logs characterise these sequences. This allows a correlation of the boreholes over a distance of ~3.5 km across one of the major marginal faults of the Vienna Basin. Biostratigraphic data, combined with rough estimates of sedimentation rates, reveal large gaps between these sequences, suggesting that only major transgressions reached this marginal area. In particular, during the Sarmatian–Pannonian transition, the basin margin completely emerged and turned into a terrestrial setting for at least 600 ka.

Open access

Giuseppe Stella, Luis Almeida, Lilia Basílio, Stefania Pasquale, Jorge Dinis, Miguel Almeida and Anna M. Gueli

Abstract

Cross-dating of bricks and mortars from historical building, through thermal (TL) and optically stimulated (OSL) luminescence have achieved good accuracy and precision. However this approach is, in many cases, not exhaustive especially for buildings with different construction phases closely temporally spaced to each other. The uncertainties of experimental data added to the reuse of old bricks and/or the presence of mortars applied on restorations represent the main limits to obtain the complete chronology. In the case of the Convento de S. Francisco (Coimbra, Portugal), the dating results were crossed with the stratigraphic study of the building, mineralogical characterization by XRD and colorimetric data of the mortar samples. Thanks to luminescence ages, mineralogical composition and color specification, two phases of construction were identified: the first from the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century and the second from the second half of the 18th century to the first half of the 19th century. These results were confirmed by mineralogical characterization and colorimetric measurements of mortars that identify two different types of materials in aggregate/binder ratio terms and superficial optical characteristics.

Open access

Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences

An international journal of the Austrian Geological Society

Open access

Urszula Myga-Piątek and Oimahmad Rahmonov

Abstract

Considering the general typology of landscapes, winery landscapes are a subtype of agricultural landscapes. A winery landscape is an area in which the dominant land use or indigenous vegetation consists of extensive grapevine crops, that is, vineyards and/or areas covered by wild grapevines; where a specific wine culture has evolved, or grapes constitute an important part of the local diet. In this paper, winery landscapes are studied at two levels: typological (as a repeatable, specific type of area with precisely defined characteristic features), and regional (regional areas that are unique and individual). The authors analyze the evolution of winery landscapes over time and describe their natural and historical aspects. A wide range of factors were taken into consideration: historical and political, socio-economic, cultural and religious influences, as well as the natural environmental background. This paper aims to describe the evolution of winery landscapes in Europe and beyond by considering the Mediterranean Basin, Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, and Central Asia.

Open access

M. Carmen Cañizares and Ángel Raúl Ruiz Pulpón

Abstract

The autonomous community of Castilla-La Mancha is the region with the biggest vineyard area of Spain. The rural landscape is totally adapted to the geographical conditions of the Mediterranean Europe, with signs of proper identity derived from its historical tradition and a peculiar way of working the territory by the population. Its natural dynamics and complexity, consequence of the capacity to adapt to social and economic processes which have conditioned it over time, is united to the importance of the agricultural structure. This work has the objective to analyse that kind of process with the analysis of the vineyard’s historical evolution, transformations derived from the application of the Common Agrarian Policy of the European Union, and its undeniable cultural nature that means an interesting potential to contribute to the territorial development.

Open access

Marek Grodzicki and Marek Rotkegel

Abstract

The article presents a comparison of the roadway supports currently used in mines in the Soma basin in Turkey with new one proposed by Huta Łabędy and Central Mining Institute (GIG) in terms of resistance parameters and work in conditions of specific loads. The strength analysis of the frame was carried out using the finite element method, using the COSMOS/M program, based on the methodology developed and applied in GIG.

The frame models were built corresponding to their geometry and cross-sectional parameters of the sections used. Beam elements (BEAM3D) were used for building models, which were given cross-sectional parameters of the V36 section. This resulted in three frame models that were loaded in three ways (three load variants). The first option included roof load, acting on the roof bar in a uniform manner, at a length of about 3.0 m. In the second variant, the same load was adopted but the resistance of the side wall was omitted. However, in the third variant, the same roof load was assumed in addition to a side load, acting on the sliding arch, at a length of about 3.0 m, a value corresponding to half the load of the roof. As a result of the calculations carried out, the distribution of reduced stresses in the analysed frames and the maximum load values were obtained.

The proposed roadway supports retain the functionality of the previously used frames in terms of width, height, cross-sectional area of the support and the number of elements. They are characterised by the same weight and at the same time, they have up to 24% more load capacity because of the replacement of straight sections of curved side sections. This treatment was possible by forming individual elements of the arch with two bending radii. The additional load increase was obtained by using S550W steel.

Open access

Krzysztof Sternik and Katarzyna Dołżyk-Szypcio

Abstract

Calculation of pullout capacity of anchoring concrete cylindrical block by finite element method is carried out. 3D model of the block assumes its free rotation. Alternative solutions with one and two pulling forces attached at different heights of the block are considered. Dependency of the ultimate pulling force on the points of its application, the block’s embedment depth as well as contact friction are investigated. Results of FE analysis and simple engineering estimations are compared. The maximum pullout resistance results from FE analysis when the rotation of the block is prevented.