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Jernej Jevšenak, Sašo Džeroski and Tom Levanič

Abstract

Climate-growth relationships in Quercus robur chronologies for vessel lumen area (VLA) from two oak stands (QURO-1 and QURO-2) showed a consistent temperature signal: VLA is highly correlated with mean April temperature and the temperature at the end of the previous growing season. QURO-1 showed significant negative correlations with winter sums of precipitation. Selected climate variables were used as predictors of VLA in a comparison of various linear and nonlinear machine learning methods: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), Model Trees (MT), Bagging of Model Trees (BMT) and Random Forests of Regression Trees (RF). ANN outperformed all the other regression algorithms at both sites. Good performance also characterised RF and BMT, while MLR, and especially MT, displayed weaker performance. Based on our results, advanced machine learning algorithms should be seriously considered in future climate reconstructions.

Open access

Joanna Angiel and Wojciech Pokojski

Abstract

The paper presents the topic of academic education for sustainable development (ESD). A diagnostic survey was made in a form of a questionnaire in three groups of respondents: active geography teachers, participants of postgraduate program preparing for teaching geography and undergraduate students majoring in geography. The conducted research revealed how the groups of respondents differ in regards perception and preparedness to use of SD and ESD in school geographical education

Open access

Marija Horvat, Urs Klötzli, Domagoj Jamičić, György Buda, Eva Klötzli and Christoph Hauzenberger

Abstract

Detailed cathodoluminescence (CL) and back scattered electron (BSE) imaging of zircon crystals, coupled with in-situ U-Pb zircon dating by Laser Ablation Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) were used to develop new insights into the evolution of a monzogranite from Omanovac Quarry (Psunj Mt.), and of monzogranites from Šandrovac Quarry and Kišeljevac Creek (Papuk Mt.), both located in the Slavonian Mountains (Croatia).

U-Pb isotopic data yielded a concordia age of 380 ± 4 Ma for the monzogranite from Omanovac Quarry, and 382 ± 2 Ma and 383 ± 5 Ma for monzogranites from Šandrovac Quarry and Kišeljevac Creek. The results suggest Late Devonian magmatic activity.

Open access

Tadeusz Majcherczyk, Zbigniew Niedbalski and Łukasz Bednarek

Abstract

Back in the early 1980s, coal deposits occurring at depths of ~700 m below surface were already regarded as large-depth deposits. Meanwhile, today the borderline depth of large-depth mining has extended to >1,000 m. Design, excavation and maintenance of mining roadways at the depth of >1,000 m have, therefore, become crucial issues in a practical perspective in recent years. Hence, it is now extremely important to intensify research studies on the influence of large depths on the behaviour of rock mass and deformation of support in underground excavations. The paper presents the results of the study carried out in five mining excavations at depths ranging from 950 to 1,290 m, where monitoring stations with measurement equipment were built. The analysis of data from laboratory and coal mine tests, as well as in situ monitoring, helped to formulate a set of criteria for stability assessment of underground excavations situated at large depths. The proposed methodology of load and deformation prediction in support systems of the excavations unaffected by exploitation is based on the criteria referring to the depth of excavation and the quality of rock mass. The depth parameter is determined by checking whether the analysed excavation lies below the critical depth, whereas the rock mass quality is determined on the basis of the roof lithology index (WL) and the crack intensity factor (n)

Open access

Czesław Machelski

Abstract

This paper analyses the effects of loads that change their location, i.e. moving but quasi-static loads. Displacements defining the deformation of the soil–steel structure’s shell buried in soil are calculated from the results of measurements performed using a dense grid of points located on the circumferential section of the corrugated plate. In this way, all the components of the structure, namely the corrugated plate, the backfill and the pavement with its foundation, as well as the natural (real) principles of their interaction, are taken into account in the solution. In the proposed algorithm, unit strains are converted into displacements, whereby results as accurate as the ones obtained by direct experimental measurements are obtained. The algorithm’s main advantages are that the number of points is limitless, they are regularly distributed on the circumferential section of the shell and any displacement directions can be obtained. Consequently, the deformations of the shell can be faithfully reproduced. The algorithm’s convenient feature is that one can use a simplified computational diagram of the shell in the form of a beam having the shape of the shell in 2D space (without the other components of the soil–steel structure). The advantage of this measuring method (electric resistance tensometry) is that there is no need to build the solid scaffold used for displacement measurements. The research focuses on the analysis of the displacements and the unit strains arising during the primary and secondary (return) travel of the load.

Open access

Marek Wojciechowski

Abstract

A systematic approach to measure the differences between Mohr-Coulomb (MC) and Drucker-Prager (DP) shear strength criteria used commonly in soil and rock mechanics is presented. It is shown that the DP criterion generates a shear strength between 0.6 and 3 times the MC strength, for the same friction angle and cohesion parameters. The appropriate conditions for obtaining equal shear strengths are given. Moreover, some new DP failure surfaces are proposed which minimize the differences relative to the MC predictions. The equivalence of the DP and MC criteria under plane strain conditions is also examined.

Open access

Lamri Dahoua and Fakhridine Boymatov

Abstract

The most important piece of road infrastructure is bridges. Wooden bridges have advanced constantly during the past decades. The trend began in Scandinavian countries but has also now gained significant ground in Russia. This research studies experimental endurance potential of the joints of the wooden beam while considering the coefficient of asymmetry of the cycle, which corresponds to the actual operating conditions. Performance analysis of the composite bars is carried out based on the experiment; the development of a special methodology for calculating the joints of wooden elements with the dowel plates for their better endurance is also introduced in this paper. The results of experimental studies on the performance of bending composite wooden bridge bars based on dowel plates operating under cyclic influences thus determine the endurance limit of wood for composite wooden bridge beams based on dowel plates. The calculation technique and interdependence of the endurance coefficient affecting the asymmetry coefficient of the bent composite wooden bridge bars on the dowel plates under cyclic loading are considered. The experimental data on the endurance of composite wooden bridge beams have been obtained, and separate analysis has been made of the compounds under cyclic loading performance; a method has been developed for calculating the bent composite wooden bridge bars reinforced by the dowel plates under cyclic influences.

Open access

Zb. Młynarek, J. Wierzbicki and W. Wołyński

Abstract

This paper shows an example of the grouping of piezocone penetration test (CPTU) characteristics using functional data analysis, together with the results of clustering, in the form of a subsoil rigidity model. The subsoil rigidity model was constructed based on layer separation using the proposed method, as well as the k-means method. In the construction of the subsoil rigidity model, the constrained modulus M was applied. These moduli were determined from empirical relationships for overconsolidated and normally consolidated soils from Poland based on cone tip resistance.

Open access

Katarzyna Dołżyk-Szypcio

Abstract

Knowledge of the mechanical behaviour of ballast is very important for designing a railway track, especially for high-speed lines. The monotonic drained triaxial tests of scaled and fouled ballast presented in literature were analysed using the Frictional State Theory. The stress–plastic dilatancy relationship shows that four characteristic stages of shearing may be specified. The influence of stress level and water content may be quantified by the use of the Frictional State Theory.

Open access

Andrzej Truty

Abstract

Nonlinear soil–linear structure computational strategy is commonly accepted in the community of geotechnical engineers using advanced finite element software for solving complex soil–structure interaction problems. However, further design procedure of the structural elements is carried out using increased values of the computed elastic stress resultants. It is absolutely not clear whether this method is conservative and, therefore, whether safe or not. To tackle this problem, a fully consistent nonlinear analysis of a deep excavation protected by the diaphragm wall is analysed here. The subsoil is modelled using the Hardening Soil model, while reinforced concrete is modelled using the modified Lee–Fenves model enhanced by the Eurocode 2 (EC2)-compatible creep module, developed by the author. It is shown that the commonly used nonlinear soil–linear structure computational strategy may yield insufficient amount of reinforcement from the ultimate limit state (ULS) and serviceability limit state (SLS) points of view. A consistent and conservative method of combining fully nonlinear analysis and the rules imposed by the EC2 is proposed.