The author discusses adaptations of maps from the Atlas of Silesia published by European cartographers in more important atlases and multi-sheet maps from the second half of the 18th and early 19th century. Thanks to such adaptations the cartographic image of Silesia could be observed far beyond its borders. Its quality varied, however, both in planimetric contents and in relief. While situation was mostly represented rather correctly in relation to the maps from the Atlas of Silesia, presentation of orography largely differed from the original as well as from its real character. Even application of three methods of relief presentation on a single map did not bring on proper results, mainly due to the fact that the authors of adaptations did not know Silesia.
Sandra Herber and Iwona Stan-Kłeczek
The aim of the investigation was to study the elastic properties and chemical composition of rock samples based on laboratory measurements. Three cuboid samples of diabase, granite and quartz were tested under laboratory conditions. The shape of samples is a cuboid with dimensions 0.1 × 0.05 × 0.05 m and the measurements were made in three directions. The Pundit Lab+ equipment was used for tests.
The signal frequency value was 250 kHz. The propagation times of P- and S-waves were designated that allows to determine the elastic dynamic moduli values. The Japanese JEOL USA Scanning Electron Microscope was also used for tests. The chemical composition of rocks were determined by characteristic X-rays analysis. Obtained results show that the ultrasonic measurements and SEM are useful tools to assign properties of rocks. This knowledge makes easier recognition in preliminary stages during engineering study.
A.J. Adewumi, A.Y.B. Anifowose, F.O. Olabode and T.A. Laniyan
Thirty-five (35) groundwater samples from Owo area were analyzed for physicochemical parameters. Results show that the mean value of pH is 6.32, TDS is 208.92 mg/l, temperature is 28.77°C, EC is 545.16 μs/cm; TH is 111.09 mg/l, SO4 is 71.73 mg/l, Cl is 0.07 mg/l, HCO3 is 14.09 mg/l, Na is 25.06 mg/l, Ca is 37.07 mg/l, K is 24.36 mg/l and Mg is 4.41 mg/l. The results were compared to the WHO and NDSQW standards. All parameters were within the permissible limit except EC in well OW6 and K is above the stipulated standards in 69% of the total samples. The high concentration of K is linked to the use of NPK fertilizer in the area for agricultural purposes. The groundwater belongs to Ca-Na-K-SO4 and Na-Ca-SO4 water type respectively. The ionic concentration in the groundwater is due to the dissolution of the rock that makes up the aquifer. Plagioclase and silicate-bearing rocks are the sources of major ions in the water. SAR, PI, RSBC and KR reveals that groundwater in the area is good for irrigation purpose. DRASTIC model further revealed that groundwater in the area is less vulnerable to contamination under the current environmental conditions.
Magdalena Mita, Michał Glazer, Radosław Kaczmarzyk, Michał Dąbrowski and Karolina Mita
Mass movements are an ever present threat to building construction, water management, vegetation formation and biodiversity. This paper presents an approach to landslides research based on non-invasive geoelectrical method - Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). Mapping and displacement monitoring of unstable slopes is crucial for the hazards prevention and assessment. The ERT technique is an effective tool to obtain structural differentiation of geological medium through interpretation of 2D electrical resistivity models. The main advantage of the method is a wide range of applicability what makes its useful during field works on a landslide. It is commonly used for measurements of slope instability, determination of shear surface, landslide susceptibility, depth of bedrock, slip plane geometry.
The aim of the work is to identify the geological structures underneath three selected landslides in south Poland: in Racibórz, Milówka and Porąbka. Attempts have been focused on determination of the usefulness of the proposed ERT methodology for evaluation of possible further development of mass movements. On two investigation sites two different arrays have been used: Wenner-Schlumberger and dipole-dipole which allowed to prepare combined data set and resistivity models based on them. Forward modelling of synthetic models based on a priori information allowed to understand anomalies present on resistivity models. Applied approach ensured quality increase of final interpretation of resistivity models.
Francis O. Akinluyi, Abiodun O. Adebola and Adebowale A. Adeseko
The city of Lagos, Nigeria has undergone rapid increase in population due to economic and commercial activities. As a result of this, there has been a persistent change in Land use/Land cover (LULC) of the city and shoreline through the years. This observation necessitated the use of multi-temporal satellite data to characterize shoreline changes between 1984 and 2016. Therefore, the study attempts to determine the shoreline change during the study period and the coastal land use and land cover (LULC) of the study area. Satellite data was acquired and subjected to some image processing techniques such as image enhancement, supervised classification, and shoreline extraction. The digital shoreline analysis system (DSAS) in ArcGIS environment was utilized to cast transects and calculate statistical parameters for the shoreline and spatial data used was Landsat TM, ETM and OLI for the years 1984, 1990, 2000, 2004 and 2016 respectively. The results indicate that LULC changes in built-up areas increases rapidly during the years (1984-2015) from 12.2 -36.2%, water bodies increased from (1984-1990-2000) from 52%, 54%, 52% and reduces to 47.4% in the year 2015 while vegetation cover reduces drastically through the year range from 36%, 33%, 29%, 24% and 16%. A total of 1034 transects were generated with 100m spacing and the average rate of change was calculated for the 32 year period (1984-2016). The linear regression rate (LRR) shoreline result shows a mean of -0.59m/year where 73.1% of transect fall under erosion and 61.8% accretion respectively. The end point rate (EPR) and net shoreline movement (NSM) analysis revealed mean shoreline change of -0.57m/year and -18.1m/period respectively from 1984-2016. The EPR and NSM results both revealed that 231 transect or 22.3% experienced erosion, and 805 transect or 77.9% with accretion. It was observed that significant accretion rate recorded along most sections of the shorelines is attributed to beach nourishment activities.
Róbert-Csaba Begy, Szabolcs Kelemen, Hedvig Simon and Claudiu Tănăselia
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Iron Gates (IG) hydroelectric power station on the Danube Delta sediment dynamics, and to assess the heavy metal concentrations and pollution in a typical Central Danube Deltaic lake.
Eight sediment cores were analysed. The total 210Pb content was measured with 210Po using alpha spectrometry, and the supported 210Pb (226Ra) and 137Cs were measured by gamma spectrometry. The age depth model was derived by applying the 210Pb dating method, and for the calculation of the ages and the sedimentation rates the CRS model was used.
The sedimentation rates can be divided into four periods:1940–1972, 1972–1980, 1972–1989 and 1989–2013. In the case of Lake Iacob in the first period, the average sedimentation rate was 0.418 g/cm2y, while in the second it slowly decreased to 0.376 g/cm2y. In the third period, the sedimentation fell to 0.209 g/cm2y, which means the retention of 27.3% of the sediment by the IG dam. In the case of Lake Isac the changes were more visible: in the first period the average sedimentation rate was 0.446 g/cm2y, while in the second it decreased to 0.197 g/cm2y, which means a 42.35% retention of sediment. In the last period, in both cases, a high increase in the sedimentation rate is shown: 0.677 g/cm2y for Lake Iacob and 0.715 g/cm2y for Lake Isac. The heavy-metal concentrations for As, Co, Cr and Ni show decreasing and Hg increasing tendencies, while Cd and Pb show constant values of 310 ± 12 ppb and 9 ± 1 ppm respectively.
Jarosław Majka, Mateusz P. Sęk, Stanisław Mazur, Bożena Gołębiowska and Adam Pieczka
Tourmaline occurring in hornfelses from the eastern envelope of the Karkonosze Granite (Western Sudetes, Poland) reveals at least two stages of crystallization expressed by its complex zoning. The cores and mantles of the crystals probably grew during prograde metamorphism under intermediate pressure-temperature conditions reflected by increasing Mg, Ti and Ca. Outermost rims show enrichment in Al and Ca, indicating growth during contact metamorphism in the presence of an Al-saturating phase. The Ti-content in biotite indicates that the temperature of the contact metamorphic event did not exceed 650ºC. The presence of andalusite and the lack of garnet and cordierite also indicates pressure conditions of ~ 2-3 kbar, typical of the C1 bathozone of Carmichael (1978) or the P1 bathozone of Pattison (2001).
Bambang Suharno, Fajar Nurjaman, Achmad Rifki, Robby Krisnaldo Elvin, Alif Ardiansyah Putra and Deni Ferdian
The effect of coke and bituminous coal on the reduction of medium-grade manganese ore in ferromanganese production was investigated. Charges of 30 kg medium grade manganese ore, 12 kg limestone and varied amounts of coke and coal were smelted in a Submerged Electric Arc Furnace (SAF) at temperatures of 1300°C to 1500°C. The composition of the ferromanganese and the slag were determined by X-Ray Fluorescence. It was found that using coke as a single reductant resulted in a 96% yield of ferromanganese which was higher than by using coal either as a single reductant or in a mixture of coal and coke. It was also found that using coke as a single reductant resulted in the lowest specific energy consumption. Using coal as reductant produced ferromanganese containing high sulfur and phosphorus.
Fuqiang Li, Baotian Pan, Zhongping Lai, Hongshan Gao and Xianjiao Ou
The partial bleaching of the luminescence signal prior to deposition results in age overestimation, and can be a problem in delineating fluvial evolution within an OSL chronological framework. The Inner Mongolian reaches of the Yellow River are characterised by a high sediment load and complex sources of sediments. To test the incomplete bleaching occurring in this type of environment, the residual doses and the luminescence signal characteristics of different particle size fractions from 14 modern fluvial sediment samples were investigated. Furthermore, 26 OSL ages derived from drilling cores were compared with 11 radiocarbon ages. Our results show that the residual equivalent doses principally range between 0.16 and 0.49 Gy for silt grains, and between 0.35 and 3.72 Gy for sand grains of modern samples. This suggests that medium-grained quartz has been well bleached prior to deposition, and is preferable to coarse-grained quartz when dating fluvial sediments in this region. The results also show that the De values of coarse-grained fractions display a stronger correlation with distance downstream. In addition, a comparison of OSL and radiocarbon ages from drilling cores establishes further confidence that any initial bleaching of these sediments was sufficient. As a result, we believe that the studied fluvial samples were well bleached prior to deposition.