Energy crises is the one of the major problem that was faced by Pakistan in order to overcome on that crises Pakistan need to be developed and improvement in energy sector, Throughout in the country the demand of water and power increasing day by day therefore hydropower project are the need of the hour in Pakistan. Before initiation of any project EIA play important role in evaluating the nature of the project on different factors. Government of Pakistan planned one of the mega hydropower project diamer basha dam was planned in Gilgit Baltistan. It was intended to conduct the research work on describing significant factors so as to evaluate the influence of the project on them and develop guidelines for environmental assessment for these factors. To find out these significant factors the methodology was adapted to conducting field investigation. Besides to assess the relevant impact questionnaires were developed. Finally, in order to reduce the negative impact of the project on the predefine factor mitigation measure was suggested. It is anticipated that this study work support in developing structure work to be executed as mitigation measures and boost the advantages of the project.
This study presents the estimated remaining quantity of overburden material (topsoil, completely to highly weathered rock) and remaining geological reserve at Sibanyis Quarry, Kuching after the quarry has been operated for years. Desktop study including literature search was carried out prior field investigation. Three boreholes together with latest topographical and detail survey was conducted to obtain the latest data at Sibanyis Quarry, Kuching. Based on this Geological Reconciliation Study, the estimated total remaining geological rock reserve is 40,022,767 metric tons, and the weathered rock and top soil are 2,159,688 BCM and 1,247,697 BCM respectively. The assumptions that are taken into consideration are top soil thickness of 11m, weathered rock thickness of 15m and rock density of 2.64 mt/m3.
Integrated well dataset and seismics delineated the PGS field onshore Niger Delta for reservoir identification. Gamma ray, resistivity, Neutron and density Logs identified four lithologies: sandstone, shaly sandstone, shaly sand and shale. They consist of sand-shale intercalation with the traces of shale sometimes found within the sand Formation. Petrophysical parameters of the reservoirs showed varying degree of lower density, low gamma ray, high porosity and resistivity response with prolific hydrocarbon reservoir G due to its shale volume and the clean sand mapped as a probable hydrocarbon reservoir. 3D seismic data located both seismic scale and sub-seismic scale structural and stratigraphic elements. Risk reduction in dry hole drilling due fault missing in conventional seismic attribute analysis and interpretation, have to be integrated into the Oil companies standard practice.
The Gwal mélange is mapped on a large scale and is divided into the lithological units such as ultramafic, mafic, volcanic, volcanoclastic rocks, pelagic sediments and ophicarbonates. Petrographically, the mapped rocks are classified as harzburgite, dunite, wehrlite, serpentinite, gabbro, basalt, and andesite. These rocks are quite deformed and altered into the secondary minerals. Harzburgite is a layered mantle peridotite consists of olivine and orthopyroxene while dunite lacks the presence of any pyroxene. Serpentinite is the secondary product after peridotite is the product of post magmatic stages. The mesh structure is usually observed when olivine is completely altered to serpentine. The volcanic rocks are structurally sheeted and pillow type while the volcanoclastic rocks are essentially hyaloclastites associated with pelagic sediments. The Ophicarbonate is composed of serpentinite fragments and carbonate minerals, most probably calcite. Minor to trace amounts of opaque minerals are also present in association with major components. The gabbros may be a fragment of the main crustal rocks and have been formed in a magma chamber by fraction crystallization. The origin of ophicarbonate may be due to gas seeps originated by mantle or as the surficial process where ultramafic rocks and carbonates are mixed through processes of gravity, tectonic crushing and sedimentary reworking. The Gwal mélange may the southern extension of Bagh Complex found beneath the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite. The mantle peridotite of the mélange is much like that of the Khanozai peridotite and may represent its detached blocks. Volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks may be the representatives of the uppermost part of ophiolite crust which might have trimmed off from subducting slab and are, now, part of the Gwal accretionary wedge. The mélange may have tectonically emplacement over the Indian platform sediments along with overlying the ophiolite sheet during the Late Cretaceous.
The predominant culture of Sabah consists of a motley of cultures, each of which has been brought in by the different ethnic groups from their indigenous cultures. The total population of Sabah consists of more than thirty different ethnicities and races, and the number of languages and dialects go over eighty. Hence the cultural tourism in Sabah would have varied criteria that can be looked into. The aim of this paper is to use the scoring model in operational research to rank these decision criteria according to highest scores. The preferability of tourist visiting these hot spots is done by ranking their preferability based on a weightage. Highly scored attraction factors would attract more tourists to visit cultural spots in Kota Kinabalu. Therefore, these would help operational managers in the tourism industry to focus on promoting and marketing this sector.
Water is indispensable for human life and without water, life cannot exist on earth. Every person required 33 to 35-gallon water per day for drinking and demotic purpose. But due to lack of quality, inefficient water supply designs, intermixing of sewage water and unlined sewage water system, quality of water is deteriorated specially in recent decades and affecting a number of people. In present study, it was inevitable to design a water supply system for selected area to provide safe water supply design for a small community. For this purpose, a study area was selected named as chak.no. 253 RB, Samundri Road Faisalabad. The existing water supply system of the village was built 30 years ago with the problems of leaky pipes, mixing of sewerage water with drinking water was causing water-borne diseases like Diarrhea, Cholera, Giardiasis, Typhoid fever, Schistosomiasis. A computer software abbreviated as EPANET (Environment protection agency network) was used to design a water supply system of the area providing input parameters to the software. For this a profiling survey was conducted to determine the length of pipes and the elevation of each junction. The other input parameters such as the diameter of pipes, pipe network map, head losses were provided. Conclusively, EPANET gave a detailed water supply system plan for specific design period. By adopting this design provided by detailed surveys of the area and EPANET will help to control intermixing of sewage water which ultimately improves the quality of water. The new design is based on technology by using modern techniques (Software). It will provide save and continue supply of water to community. It will also reduce the cost of water billing, leakage, decrease the diseases rate and improve the life standard of people’s lives in that area.
The Zhob Ophiolite is divided into three detached blocks including the Omzha block. The Omzha block is mapped and divided into lithological units such as ultramafic rock, mafic-felsic rock, and volcanic–volcaniclastic–pelagic rocks. These units are quite deformed and mixed up and are associated with one another by thrust faults. Petrography and geochemistry divide them into gabbro, diorite, plagiogranite, pheno-tephrite and trachy-andesite basalt, trachy basalt, chert, limestone, and mudstone. The ultramafic rocks are dominantly serpentinized harzburgite, dunite, and a minor lherzolite. Petrography of peridotite shows that it may be depleted in nature and may have residual after processes such as partial melting and the melt-rock reaction of a lherzolitic source. The gabbroic rocks are less well-developed and highly deformed. They are cross-cut by diorite, plagiogranite and anorthosite’ intrusions. The gabbro may be the plutonic section of Omzha block’ crust while the intermediate-felsic igneous rocks may have formed by the anataxis of crustal gabbro. The volcanic–volcaniclastic–pelagic rocks unit may be corrected with Bagh complex found underneath the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite. The metamorphic sole rocks of Omzha block are highly deformed and dismembered are comprising of metamorphic facies such as amphibolite, quartz-mica schist, and greenschist.
Three dimensional (3D) seismic survey was acquired and processed in Bornu-Chad basin, Nigeria with the aim of detecting and attenuating multiples to aid proper imaging of the subsurface. The 25.5km2 volume was processed using SeisUp processing software on a 32-Node Cluster Infrastructure (CI) hardware. Considering the imaging objectives and depth of interest of 1.2s-4.5s, the minimum, middle and maximum offsets were set at 500-2300m, 2500-4300m and 4500-7300m respectively. Since the study area comprised of dry open land and swampy Lake Chad, vibroseis and dynamite sources were used respectively. Charge depth was 0m (surface) for vibroseis and 25m dynamite. The dataset was first pre-conditioned, normalized, regularized before application of demultiple process. The detection and demultiple processes based on multiple characteristics of periodicity and velocity discrimination were applied as the multiples have comparable velocity with the primaries. The near-surface reverberations and short-period multiples were attenuated using predictive deconvolution and radon transform algorithms. High resolution radon was performed on post-migrated common-mid-point (CMP) gathers and stacked with 1kmx1km target line velocities. Internal multiples were detected and attenuated using data-driven methodology of extended internal multiple prediction (XIMP). Multiples detected were short, long period and interbed multiples on all frequencies ranges of 0 – 90Hz but useful seismic frequency range was between 20Hz and 70Hz. The frequencies and amplitudes of the primaries and multiples were very comparable, therefore great care was taken in the attenuation processes. The results of this work has produced better seismic section for interpretation of subsurface geology in the study area.
The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was used to study the soil erosion processes in Edda-Afikpo mesas, Lower Cross River watersheds,Nigeria. The mesas occupy an area estimated at 60km2 on a surface relief of about 284m. DEM data, satellite images and basemap of the area were used. Remotely sensed data were ground-truthed through extensive field works. The results show that the process is facilitated by the Trifecta of hill slope hydrology, geology and land use practices. Steep hill Slope of values 78 % at the major hot spots, very fragile, dry and non-plastic sandy soils all aid sediment detachment. Analysis of the index properties which include Liquid Limit(LL) of 25-30, moisture content(w%) of 5.9-7.4, permeability of 1.541x10-3 – 1.636x10-3 cm/s and shear strength of 36-42 KN/m2 predispose the sediments to detachment and erosion. Based on the analysis, the amount of soil loss in the project area is about 1373.79 ton per year. Soil erosivity factor is high at the mesas(5023.83 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1 - 5069.51 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1) The sandy layer attain thickness of 50m-60m in places and with high pore pressure development, slope failure are triggered during intense storm events. In terms of vulnerability level in erosion risk, high to very high constitute 4.1% of the watershed which translate to 5.05km2 of the 59km2. The various processes occur simultaneously and are exacerbated by human factors through seasonal bush burning and development along drainage lines. The study reveals that 18.8% of the available land for development is at high to very high risk of erosion. The soil loss model has been validated and the hotspots from the map coincide with the gully sites. The results of this research can therefore be used for conservation and adaptation purposes.