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Open access

Shah Md. Atiqul Haq

Abstract

The study attempts to uncover how people living in vulnerable areas address the relationship between the impacts of extreme weather events (floods) and fertility preference. The study selected a village, Sharat Pur from Sunamganj District, which is highly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of flooding. The study gathered information from 158 respondents by using a semi-structured questionnaire and in-depth interviews. With the small sample size the study used descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis. Findings show that there is still a preference for more sons to recover the damage caused from the impacts of floods. However, people think having a large family is a burden. They emphasize controlling family size through family planning programs and do not take into account the risk of children dying affecting their desire to have additional children. Therefore they consider having more children especially sons as a gift from God and the occurrence of flood events as the wish of God. The intention of the study is not to generalize findings but to comprehend the underlying mechanism between disaster events and fertility behavior. The study collected information from a very small sample size. Future studies might consider a large sample size and explore more deeply the mechanism between the different disaster events and fertility decisions by using a comparative analysis between regions vulnerable to different extreme weather events and not vulnerable to extreme weather events within Bangladesh, and comparing Bangladesh with other South Asian countries.

Open access

Jerzy Runge

Abstract

Terminology, that helps to organise research issues, is a significant component of each scientific discipline. In socio-economic geography, such expressions include concepts of a region, a city, or a social space. They are not disjunctive ideas – for example, we find a concept of an urban region where a social space can refer to a city, or a region, and at the same time regional, urban and social research can investigate these same areas. Concepts may also illustrate a specific model of an explanation in science, a particular stage of methodological development of the discipline, or a vision of the world. Bearing in mind the complexity of methodological issues, which is only briefly mentioned here, as well as a multiplicity of definitions of terminological concepts (region, city, social space), the author’s intention was to compare the premises of occurrence of the concepts and their consequences for the development of socio-economic geography. The increases in complexity of socio-economic changes as an effect of the overlapping processes of social modernization, restructuring of economic space, and suburbanization were itemised. The main research tool in this case is the deductive reasoning procedure leading to the generalization of the output of regional and urban research, as well as existing analyses of social space. The rationale for investigating the problem arose from the significance of the above-mentioned research, both the ones carried out during the previous stages of development of socio-economic geography as well as contemporary research trends. The crucial aspect here is the increase in complexity of these processes, and the spatial and functional structures leading to the transition from simple post-modernity to a risk society. Therefore, application of regional, urban and social research is also important, especially in the context of the process of depopulation, and “shrinkage” of cities and regions. It affects the possibilities of creating urban or regional policy. The rationale for investigating the problem also results from periodic necessity to synthesize the research on basic terminological issues, especially in the periods when changes of socio-economic and spatial conditions occur, and affect transformation of the existing set of the basic concepts.

Open access

Katarzyna Łuszczyńska, Małgorzata Wistuba and Ireneusz Malik

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate how the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere from the late 19th century until modern times has been recorded in rings of silver fir trees growing in southern Poland. Samples were collected from 24 firs growing in the Beskid Niski Mountains (Western Carpathians). Using a Pressler borer, a single core was collected from each tree. Within the samples, tree-ring widths were measured. On this basis, reductions of tree-ring widths were calculated and subsequently divided into three classes according to their severity. Study results indicate that growth reductions at the site studied were influenced by the pollution emitted from the now-defunct Central Industrial Region, which developed most rapidly from 1920 to 1940, and began to decline after World War II. These emissions were probably responsible for reductions in the trees sampled in the years 1928–1947. On the other hand, reductions of tree-ring widths dating from 1951 to 1989 were caused by the post-war development of heavy industry throughout Poland, and in particular in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, which developed at its most rapid rate from 1960 to 1990. The results obtained demonstrate that reductions of tree-ring widths in the silver firs studied are related to industrial air pollution in the 20th century. As industrial production declined and environmentally friendly technologies were introduced in the early 1990s, air pollution levels decreased and an increase in tree-ring widths followed in the silver firs studied. Further reductions of tree-ring widths have been observed in recent years (since 2009), which may be caused by air pollution due to low-stack emissions from domestic boilers. The analysis conducted demonstrates that a reduction in tree-ring widths in silver fir is a sensitive bioindicator of air pollution.

Open access

Marula Tsagkari, Alexis Gaona, Juan-Felipe Gonzalez and Jaakko Järvinen

Abstract

International agreements that aim to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have raised concerns due to the risk of carbon leakage caused by trade liberalization. This study aims to analyse the carbon dioxide emissions related to trade flows for the case of Poland, in order to further investigate the interrelationship between emissions and the quick economic growth the country has faced since 2000. The communist past, the quick liberalization of the economy, the trade opening, entrance to the EU and the intense carbon economy, are some of the characteristics that make Poland an interesting case. The data available data from 1996 to 2008 were collected using the World Input-Output Database and were analyzed using the Input-Output method, and more concretely by constructing a multi-regional input-output model for the years studied. The findings indicate that there were substantial effects on the emissions of Poland that resulted from the opening of the economy and joining the European Union. Poland is a net importer of carbon emissions from other European countries; however, this phenomenon seems to be regulated by EU legislation. Additionally, it was shown that Polish imports from countries with less strict environmental policies significantly embody higher levels of emissions than its exports. This observation calls for stricter environmental regulations to avoid carbon leakage.

Open access

Ashutosh Mishra

Abstract

Rural development aims at improving the quality of life of rural people, and in the process infrastructure variables play a crucial role. India is the second most populous country in the world and the majority of its population lives in rural areas. Rural development has been India’s prime concern ever since the time of independence, and several strategies and plans were implemented from time to time to achieve a better level of development. However, neither top-down, nor bottom-up strategies of development could bring the desired changes. This article attempts to identify some correlates of rural development and tries to understand why the desired level and pattern of development could not be achieved even after seven decades of the planning process. The study analyses the case of ‘Sadar’ development block of Pratapgarh district in Uttar Pradesh. The analysis of 10 selected variables reveals that there is a vast disparity in the level of development in the study area. However, the study shows that lack of basic education, health and credit facilities is the cause of this disparity and poor level of development. In view of the findings the author suggests that a ‘local resource-oriented development strategy’ should be adopted to ensure the holistic development of the rural areas.

Open access

Adekunle Anthony Ogunjinmi and Charity Omokeme Braimoh

Abstract

This study assessed the level of community awareness and participation in ecotourism in Old Oyo National Park, Nigeria. Data were collected in communities located in four ranges (i.e. administrative and protection zones) of Old Oyo National Park, Oyo State, Southwest Nigeria. The ranges are Tede, Marguba, Sepeteri, and Oyo-Ile. Seven (7) communities out of 27 that are in Tede range were selected, eight (8) were selected from 12 communities in Marguba range, eight (8) were selected from 17 communities in Sepeteri range while eight (8) were selected from 30 communities in Oyo Ile range. The study was a questionnaire survey involving 150 respondents that were randomly selected from communities in the four (4) ranges of the Park. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey’s HSD, t-test and logistic regression. Results revealed that 48% of the respondents were aware of ecotourism while 52% were not. Also, 46% participated in ecotourism while 54% did not participate. A relationship exists between ecotourism awareness and participation (p<0.01). Community type (p<0.01) was the only predictor of community awareness of ecotourism while community type (p<0.01) and awareness (p<0.01) were the predictors of participation in ecotourism in the park. Awareness, active involvement of communities in stakeholder meetings, decision-making and provision of start-up capital are important for ecotourism development in the park.

Open access

Xiaofeng Han, Yan Li and Guodong Liu

Abstract

This paper analyzes the requirements of the information transmission network of ship integrated condition monitoring system, and proposes a design scheme of ship condition monitoring system based on wireless ad hoc network. The wireless ad hoc network protocol was designed, its networking process was analyzed in detail, and the network transmission performance of the monitoring system was tested. The results proved the feasibility of the system. The above solution can be used for the transmission of ship state information that satisfies the requirements of wireless transmission, and has important theoretical and practical significance. The slot allocation algorithm has been receiving extensive attention as an important part of the TDMA system research. This paper analyzes the summarization and summarization of TDMA time slot assignment algorithms from several aspects such as slot synchronization, existing slot allocation algorithm, and slot assignment model, laying an important foundation for researchers to do further research. In the TDMA system, time is divided into non-overlapping time frames, and the time frames are divided into non-overlapping time slots. Each node in the network performs corresponding operations in each time slot.

Open access

Wenfeng Wu, Yubin Yang, Jianwei Zhang and Jinshu Lu

Abstract

Due to the great danger of the collision of oil tankers, lots of research on the collision of oil tankers has been carried out. But, at present, the research on the collision of oil tankers mainly focuses on the loading condition of the struck ship, ignores the impact on the loading condition of the striking ship. However, during the actual oil tanker collision, the striking ship is generally in the state of loading. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out the analysis of the impact of the loading condition of the striking ship on the collision damage of the oil tanker. In this paper, the effect of striking ship with loading on the impact performance of the side structure during the collision of the cargo double hull oil tanker has been investigated. The ship collision model was established by using the finite element software ANSYS/LS-DYNA which is based on 7000 tons of double hull oil tankers. Based on the analysis of the collision force, impact of striking speed changes, impact of striking deep changes and structural energy absorption during the collision process, the influence of the striking ship with loading on the damage mechanism and the impact performance of the double shell oil ship side structure was expounded. The results show that the influence of the striking ship with loading can be great to the damage to side hull during the research of the collision performance of the oil tanker.

Open access

Jun Du, Yan Zhang and Zeliang Cai

Abstract

According to actual engineering test, we design a linear controlled spray ammonia grille, and apply it to the SCR injection system of ship tail gas treatment. In this paper, the geometric model of ammonia injection grid was built in the flue of diesel engine, and the effects of spray atomization, ammonia uniformity and urea droplet distribution on spray atomization were simulated. Then the test bench was set up to observe the injection status of the ammonia injection grille. The NOx content of the outlet was measured by the original data of the flue gas, and the experimental data were processed. We calculate the denitrification rate by taking the average value to verify the correctness of the spray ammonia grid scheme.

Open access

Jianguang Zhao and Jingjing Fan

Abstract

In view of the characteristics of low speed mobile ship network, strong network dynamics and large signal interference, this paper proposes a low-rate mobile sensor network routing algorithm. In mobile wireless sensor networks, network topology changes frequently is a new challenge for resource constrained sensor node. Constantly updated network topology, sensor nodes need to exchange data frequently in order to maintain fresh route, resulting in sensor nodes consume a lot of energy. To solve this problem, to reduce control overhead is considered to be an effctive strategy. In this paper, we present a vector network-based dynamic routes (VNDR) scheme aims to minimize the control cost of the sensor nodes. We propose data exchange based on binary-coded vector address to reduce the control cost, moreover, we present a set of communication rules that govern the routes search procedure thereby requiring little cost of packet analysis to determine the next hop of node. VNDR performance was compared with well known scheme such as SPIN and DD. Simulation results show that, our VNDR scheme reduced the network control overhead and improved network lifetime.