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Mateusz Zawadzki

Abstract

The subject of the article is reconstructing the routes of postal roads within the borders of the Lublin Voivodeship in the second half of the 18th century. The author has attempted to reconstruct the routes of postal roads, using the retrogression method and a cartographic research method with the use of GIS tools. For this purpose, manuscript cartographic and descriptive sources from the late 18th and 19th centuries were used. Cartographic material from the end of the 18th century in connection with descriptive sources constituted the basis for determining the existence of a postal connection. However, maps from the beginning of the 19th century constituted the basis for the reconstruction of the routes of postal roads. The obtained results allowed for the determination of the role of the Lublin Voivodeship in the old Polish communication system. The research has made us aware of the need for further in-depth work on communication in the pre-partition era (before 1795).

Open access

Mariusz Olczyk

Abstract

The author presents the problems associated with geographical name conventions and labels on coloured tactile maps in atlas-type publications for the blind and visually impaired, based on the author’s many years of experience. The detailed description of the ‘keys’ system and Braille ‘abbreviations’ which Polish cartography uses in this type of works shows the benefits of using the system in the editing of map series. A framework of logical and intuitive ‘abbreviations’ presents many possibilities and makes maps easier to read. The system for connecting names of a particular ‘family’ of terms by using a two-letter abbreviation preceded by a unique ‘key’ should be a fundamental principle for creating sets of Braille ‘abbreviations’ for use in a given work. The author also highlights the need to use exonyms, since Braille’s basic alphabet has none of the diacritic characters which typify various languages, which hinders the correct transcription of certain names.

The proposed system for constructing ‘abbreviations’ and ‘keys’ may also be used effectively in individual town plans and maps to improve the communication of information. The comprehensive structure of this system also makes it easier to search through indexes of ‘abbreviations’ and their explanations.

All the described elements have an impact in raising the practical value of tactile maps.

Open access

Anna Bazan-Krzywoszanska and Michał Bereta

Abstract

Records of municipal planning documents directly affect the land use. In this way, the market price of the land is also shaped. Awareness of the economic and social consequences of adapting specific solutions is the primary argument that should condition the local policy in terms of spatial planning. The research results indicate that the network trained with attributes which do not describe a property value by its price was able to estimate it with acceptable and satisfactory results. The possibility to use artificial multilayer networks in spatial policy decision-making seems well founded. The research results show the relevance of the assumption that using them for modeling can be helpful in selecting the most advantageous variant of planning arrangements in a local law document which determines the land use and development, therefore impacts its value.

Open access

Marcelo Romero and Mike Mustafa Berber

Abstract

Twenty four hour GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) data acquired monthly for 5 years from 8 CORS (Continuously Operating Reference Station) stations in Central Valley, California are processed and vertical velocities of the points are determined. To process GNSS data, online GNSS data processing service APPS (Automatic Precise Positioning Service) is used. GNSS data downloaded from NGS (National Geodetic Survey) CORS are analyzed and subsidence at these points is portrayed with graphics. It is revealed that elevation changes range from 5 mm uplift in the north to 163 mm subsidence in the southern part of the valley.

Open access

Edward Nowak and Waldemar Odziemczyk

Abstract

An optimally designed geodetic network is characterised by an appropriate level of precision and the lowest possible setup cost. Reliability, translating into the ability to detect blunders in the observations and higher certainty of the obtained point positions, is an important network characteristic. The principal way to provide appropriate network reliability is to acquire a suitably large number of redundant observations. This approach, however, faces limitations resulting from the extra cost. This paper analyses the possibility of providing appropriate reliability parameters for networks with moderate redundancy. A common problem in such cases are dependencies between observations preventing the acquisition of the required reliability index for each of the individual observation. The authors propose a methodology to analyse dependencies between observations aiming to determine the possibility of acquiring the optimal reliability indices for each individual observation or groups of observations. The suggested network structure analysis procedures were illustrated with numerical examples.

Open access

Damian Biel and Tomasz Lipecki

Abstract

Nowadays, the growing popularity of terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) allows to obtain a point cloud of many industrial objects along with classic surveying. However, the quality and model’s accuracy in comparison to a real shape seem to be a question, that must be further researched. It is crucial especially for Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis, which, being a part of technical design, estimate the values of construction’s dislocation and deformation. The article describes objects such as headgear with steel support and 4-post headframe with steel sheers. Both supports and sheers were modelled basing on point clouds. All the models were compared to the point cloud. The differences in models’ shape were calculated and the maximal values were determined. The results’ usefulness in FEM analysis was described.

Open access

Przemysław Kuras, Łukasz Ortyl, Tomasz Owerko and Aleksandra Borecka

Abstract

The article presents an example of supplementing geotechnical monitoring with geodetic observations. The experimental flood embankment built within the ISMOP project (Information Technology System of Levee Monitoring) was subjected to continuous monitoring based on built-in measuring sensors. The results of geodetic monitoring used for observation of earth-filled flood embankment subjected to external loads are presented in the paper. The tests were carried out on an experimental food embankment forming a closed artificial water reservoir. The observations were carried out for two purposes. The first was long-term monitoring, which was aimed to determine the behaviour of the newly built embankment. The second purpose was to check the reaction of the levee to the simulated flood wave, caused by filling and draining the reservoir. In order to monitor the displacements of the earth-filled embankment, it was necessary to develop the proper methodology. For the needs of research works, an appropriate network of 5 reference points and 48 survey markers has been designed and established. The periodic measurements were carried out using precise robotic total station. The stability of the reference frame was each time checked and displacements of survey markers were determined based on it. The final results allow to reveal the reaction of levee to external loads. The displacement values were referred to the course of the filling and draining experiment to indicate the relationship between them. In the field of long-term monitoring the results clearly imply the dominance of displacements outside the reservoir for points located on the embankment, in contrast to points on the crest and foreground, which do not show significant movements. On the other hand, in the field of testing the embankment reaction to the flood wave, obtaining reliable results was possible thanks to high-accuracy geodetic measurements. Small displacement values, often at the level of their determination errors, were averaged for groups of points with the same height of foundation. A sizable number of points allows to perceive some tendencies and the relation between embankment soaking, hence its movement directions can be noticed. During periods when the levee was still saturated with water, slight movements outside the reservoir were revealed. On the other hand, the following period of drying caused movement in the opposite direction.

Open access

Judit Pető, Attila Hüvely, András Palkovics and Viktor Vojnich

Abstract

The rural development grants - among others - help to promote the competitiveness of the agricultural activities. Plantations take great interest in the southeastern part of Hungary. Farmers need to make soil tests before plantation of fruit and grape. We investigated the distribution of the main physical characteristics in this area. For the establishment of vineyards, the areas were adequate according to the pH, and salt content. The results of the soil tests show some strong relationships between the determined physical parameters.

Open access

Myrtill Gráff, Edit Mikó, Bence Zádori and József Csanádi

Abstract

A total of 46 Swiss alpine does were examined. We analysed the composition of the milk and evaluated the body condition of the animals (BCS: 0.5 to 4.5 scale) on the same day in the last third of lactation. Goats were grouped according to their body condition for statistical calculations. We found that there was a statistically detectable relationship between body condition and milk composition of the goats. Together with the increase of BCS, the fat, protein and mineral contents in the milk increased as well. Significantly more fat, protein and mineral contents were found in the milk (6.01%;3.55%; 0,98%) in case of the well-conditioned (BCS 3.5) animals than in the thin ones (BCS 1.5-2) (4.56%, 3.11%, 0.77%) (P<5%). The concentration of milk sugar was similar between thin and better conditioned groups of animals, so the body condition did not affect these values. The importance of our study is that, the high fat and protein content of milk increases the yield of dairy products. If the animals can produce milk that has higher fat and protein content, than we can produce more dairy products that will bring more economic benefits. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of body condition on milk yield and quality (milk composition) in dairy goats.

Open access

Jaroslav Andreji, Petr Dvořák and Martin Fik

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of Ni, Co, Pb, Cd and Hg in the muscle, hepatopankreas, kidney and gonads of European chub (Squalius cephalus) from the middle course of the Nitra River, during spring and autumn seasons by AAS method. The concentrations of metals (mg.kg-1 wet weight) in the muscle ranged as follows: Ni 0.15-1.18, Co 0.09-0.58, Pb 0.39-1.66, Cd 0.04-0.29, Hg 0.85-2.71. Statistically significant differences among individual tissues, as well as between seasons have been recorded. Higher metals concentrations were detected in inner organs than in muscle. Permissible limits for safe consumption in the case of Pb, Cd and Hg have been exceeded in 100%, 95% and 100%, respectively. Currently, for the Co and Ni are not set any permissible limits.