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Katerina Pozachenyuk and Irina Yakovenko

Abstract

The conditions and factors of development of the vine landscapes in Crimea and their evolution are considered for the ancient, medieval, imperial, Soviet (first and second halves of the 20th century), and post-Soviet periods. The characteristics of the vineyard landscape zones (South Coast, Foothills and Steppe) are presented. Having reached their maximum areas in the period 1955-1970, the area of the vineyards in Crimea decreased steadily until 2017. The main causes of degradation were the spread of phylloxera, the campaign against alcoholism in 1985, the deterioration of sales after the collapse of the USSR, and the ineffective system of cultivation technology. The current ways of reviving grape landscapes – the introduction of innovative methods of farming, greening and cluster forms of viticulture and winemaking – are addressed.

Open access

Patrycja Fabijańska and Jolanta Korycka-Skorupa

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to produce a multifaceted presentation of a small region. It was realised based on two aims: the collection of spatial and statistical data, and the analysis of the data from the perspective of physical and socio-economic geography. Mrozy commune (Polish – gmina Mrozy) is located in the eastern part of the Masovian voivodeship, in the county of Minsk (Polish – powiat miński).

The initial stage involved obtaining data from various sources. The second phase concerned the assessment of the data’s quality. Next, appropriate visualization methods were selected; the authors used cartographic techniques for data presentation, resulting in a set of thematic maps at a scale of 1:100,000. The final part of this research concerned the evaluation of the results and the verification and correction of errors.

The accuracy of the maps for this small area has been checked and the maps will be made available to the local authorities.

Open access

Concepcion Foronda-Robles

Abstract

The wine sector is a sector that lives and breathes its history and identity; and where developmental alternatives are sought in order to be able to compete in the market. Vineyard areas are sold as rural paradises, where leisure, gastronomy, the landscape, and open-air activities all provide quality tourist experiences. The case of the Sherry Wine Region (Spain) illustrates local restructuring processes, changes in local-global planning, and the socioeconomic impacts of the globalization of food. The symbiosis between the specific, the global, and the historical discourses gives rise to reflections on this region’s territorial redefinition; and highlights its architectural heritage, its landscape, and the gastronomic experiences on offer. Diversification is regenerating the local economy, and wine, and wine tourism, are both the focus of a new territorial policy strategy designed to face the challenges of globalization, and common bonds for partnerships between the public and the private sectors.

Open access

Urszula Myga-Piątek and Oimahmad Rahmonov

Abstract

Considering the general typology of landscapes, winery landscapes are a subtype of agricultural landscapes. A winery landscape is an area in which the dominant land use or indigenous vegetation consists of extensive grapevine crops, that is, vineyards and/or areas covered by wild grapevines; where a specific wine culture has evolved, or grapes constitute an important part of the local diet. In this paper, winery landscapes are studied at two levels: typological (as a repeatable, specific type of area with precisely defined characteristic features), and regional (regional areas that are unique and individual). The authors analyze the evolution of winery landscapes over time and describe their natural and historical aspects. A wide range of factors were taken into consideration: historical and political, socio-economic, cultural and religious influences, as well as the natural environmental background. This paper aims to describe the evolution of winery landscapes in Europe and beyond by considering the Mediterranean Basin, Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, and Central Asia.

Open access

M. Carmen Cañizares and Ángel Raúl Ruiz Pulpón

Abstract

The autonomous community of Castilla-La Mancha is the region with the biggest vineyard area of Spain. The rural landscape is totally adapted to the geographical conditions of the Mediterranean Europe, with signs of proper identity derived from its historical tradition and a peculiar way of working the territory by the population. Its natural dynamics and complexity, consequence of the capacity to adapt to social and economic processes which have conditioned it over time, is united to the importance of the agricultural structure. This work has the objective to analyse that kind of process with the analysis of the vineyard’s historical evolution, transformations derived from the application of the Common Agrarian Policy of the European Union, and its undeniable cultural nature that means an interesting potential to contribute to the territorial development.

Open access

Mohamed Zobiri, Mohamed Mazour and Boutkhil Morsli

Abstract

Water erosion remains a major concern on the marly slopes. Where erosive processes continue to increase and continue to pose serious problems and where knowledge is still insufficient on erodibility and its evolution and on solutions to soil erosion problems. The aim of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the functioning of soils on marl substrate in relation to erosion and to evaluate the effectiveness of the anti-erosion measures used in this type of environment. The Isser watershed, where several anti-erosion techniques were used, is the subject of this study. The analysis of the anti-erosion installations shows that most of the developments have been made according to standards and have worked well. But their effectiveness is different from one technique to another. The earthen thresholds seem to be the most suitable and the most effective. The effectiveness of earthen structures is summed up in stability, durability, cost-effectiveness, sediment storage, flood plating and water storage for a significant length of time, and had a positive impact on reducing erosion and the silting rate of the dam. The gabion thresholds also have a better stability and a good seating, but they are very sensitive and can undergo damage that reduces their effectiveness with regard to erosion. Dry stone thresholds are the least desirable and are often inadequate and inefficient in this type of terrain. A purely mechanical and/or biological vision in this type of environment is however insufficient, the mechanical arrangements associated with the biological developments are more effective.

Open access

Marzieh Mokarram, Mehran Shaygan and Dinesh Sathyamoorthy

Abstract

The study of groundwater resources in relation to topography is important. Clearly, in different topography, depth of the water level is different. Therefore, the aim of this study is the determination of the relationship between landform classes with compound topographic index (CTI) and depth of the water for the Maharlou-Bakhtegan watershed, Fars Province, Iran. In order to evaluate the depth of the water for the study area, CTI and geomorphology (landforms) were derived from a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM). The results of landform classes extracted using topographic position index (TPI) showed that the largest landform is open slope, while the smallest are plains. It was found that CTI and depth of the water values are high in plain classes, while they are low in local ridges. High depth of the water were found to be mostly confined to the pit regions in the plain landform, because groundwater recharge occurs in the zones where standing water remains for sufficient long period of time and has favourable condition for recharge.

Open access

Przemysław Ciesiółka

Abstract

Regeneration of degraded areas takes an important position in the Polish development policy. It is included in the legal framework resulting from the Regeneration Act and the Physical Planning and Spatial Development Act. It constitutes a significant element in the programming of socio-economic and spatial development. This is largely thanks to the EU funds which are the basis for financing the projects and programmes for regeneration. In the country’s development policy a complex approach to regeneration is promoted, manifested by the concentration of activities in the most neglected areas, integrated activities carried out with a broad social participation which will be continuously monitored and evaluated on this basis. The Polish model of regeneration, formulated in such a way, gives hope for the elimination of critical situations in cities and communes.

Open access

George Mark Onyango

Abstract

Kisumu has had a massive growth of informal settlements forming a belt around the urban core. These settlements house more than half of the city’s population. Because of the unplanned nature of these areas there has been very poor road infrastructure development, with narrow, unpaved roads constituting the road infrastructure. This situation has limited the opportunities for regular urban transport minibuses providing transport for the majority of the urban poor who live in these settlements. The coping mechanism and the development of alternative coping strategies are explored and assessed to see how effective they are in providing public transport for this majority of unserviced urban population.

Open access

E. Gunilla Almered Olsson

Abstract

Strategies and action plans for sustainable food provisioning and urban food security are in progress in many urban regions both in the global North and South. A number of urgent challenges need to be confronted such as increasing uncertainty and unpredictability related to stronger dependence on a global market for food import, ongoing political unrest and environmental conflicts, increasing resource scarcity and climate warming making food production hazardous. There is an increased vulnerability with respect to food security for human societies, both in developing and developed countries. The food security dimension of access to healthy food is related to equality and poverty and is relevant for cities in the North via the segregation challenges. The food system issue is well-suited for assessing sustainable development since food provisioning is both a multiscale and cross-sectorial issue and thus addresses more than the three dimensions of social, economic and environmental sustainability. How is the planning for sustainable food strategies in urban regions in Europe concordant with the United Nations Global Sustainable Development Goals and with the transition towards sustainable futures? This paper deliberates on using the food system issues for sustainability transition, drawing on the forthcoming 2018 IPBES (Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services) work on pathways for sustainable futures and a recent survey of existing urban food system strategies. Against this background, some reflections are given relevant for the ongoing work on a local urban food strategy for the city of Gothenburg, Sweden.