Companies relocate in various manners. Some of them move by way of foreign direct investments, other relocate within their countries, regions or local areas of operation (e.g. when a company moves its seat to a different street). This paper focuses on the issue of relocating companies’ seats. Data analysis (on NUTS2 level) indicates that migration of companies leads to an increased concentration of businesses in the Mazovia region, in particular in Warsaw. Additionally, it was demonstrated that in all of the Polish voivodeships the majority of companies that migrate do so within their regions. The weakest “magnet” for businesses are the voivodeships belonging to the least developed areas in Poland (Eastern Poland) and the Opole voivodeship, which undergoes a significant decline in population.
The article presents the essence, goals and instruments of soft (informal, non-statutory) spatial planning, developed in the countries of Western Europe and relatively new in Poland. It targets areas with fuzzy borders (soft spaces) and areas between administration tiers. The article presents conceptual issues and non-formal planning tools used in Western Europe. The planning approaches which are generally described as “soft” are characterised by non-formalised and non-binding procedures, and by their focus on achieving a consensus. In the first part of the article presents the conceptual issues and further informal planning instruments used in Western European countries at different spatial scales The following section presents deficits of spatial planning of metropolitan areas and - against this background - the legitimacy of creating informal plans in Poland, using Metropolia Poznań as an example
Jolanta Korycka-Skorupa and Tomasz Nowacki
Nowadays a lot of people are trying to make maps, and especially digital maps. A wide range of computer tools and high graphic capabilities have together made maps increasingly popular and seemingly easy to prepare for any person who can use a computer. It seems necessary to verify the bases of the cartographic presentation methods. There is a need for a new, formalized view of the method as a sequence of steps from data collection, to correct presentation, to map. Two terms related to cartographic presentation should be distinguished in this article: “methods” and “forms.” A method is understood as the process by which data is transformed into a presentation. A form is understood as the end result of this process, i.e. the resulting graphical image or map. In the article five types of cartographic presentation are indicated. In the successive types, one can observe an increasing degree of complexity of cartographic presentation.
Francisco José Morales Yago, María Luisa de Lázaro y Torres and María Luisa Gomez Ruiz
Inner city perceptions create a mental representation from different approaches: a visual approach, carried out through observation and description; a second approach, focused on evaluation and analysis of a city; and a third approach, which integrates the feelings that a space evokes in individuals known as the sense of the place. In the final analysis the aforementioned approach condition the behaviour (action-decision) of individuals. Image capture mainly happens while people walk in, travel to or visit a city using different ways to get around and they organize a mental map of the city. University students were selected from two Spanish cities: Murcia (215 respondents) and Valencia (300 respondents) to reply to a survey and to draw a map of their city. Results of the images of the cities in which they were currently living also proved useful in providing guidelines on sustainable growth of cities and in detecting deficiencies in order to correct them. The research model could be used in other cities throughout the world.
Shah Md. Atiqul Haq
The study attempts to uncover how people living in vulnerable areas address the relationship between the impacts of extreme weather events (floods) and fertility preference. The study selected a village, Sharat Pur from Sunamganj District, which is highly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of flooding. The study gathered information from 158 respondents by using a semi-structured questionnaire and in-depth interviews. With the small sample size the study used descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis. Findings show that there is still a preference for more sons to recover the damage caused from the impacts of floods. However, people think having a large family is a burden. They emphasize controlling family size through family planning programs and do not take into account the risk of children dying affecting their desire to have additional children. Therefore they consider having more children especially sons as a gift from God and the occurrence of flood events as the wish of God. The intention of the study is not to generalize findings but to comprehend the underlying mechanism between disaster events and fertility behavior. The study collected information from a very small sample size. Future studies might consider a large sample size and explore more deeply the mechanism between the different disaster events and fertility decisions by using a comparative analysis between regions vulnerable to different extreme weather events and not vulnerable to extreme weather events within Bangladesh, and comparing Bangladesh with other South Asian countries.
Kuat Saparov, Jiri Chlachula and Aigul Yeginbayeva
This study examines the etymology of the principal physiographic entities of the ancient Sary-Arka area–meaning in the old Turkic language Yellowing Ridge – encompassing the present territory of parkland-steppes, rocky highlands and the adjacent mountains of North and East Kazakhstan. The current linguistic evidence points to a complex and chronologically long culture-historical development reflected by the local place names best-recorded for the major rivers and mountains (hydronyms and oronyms, respectively). Not all geo-site names are securely determined by using modern onomastics. Records of material culture provide additional multi-proxy information. Local uniformity of some toponyms across the extensive area assuming a common cultural background attests to a broader ethnic homogeneity and/or mobility of the ancient populations inhabiting this vast and geomorphically mosaic land. This suggests a close relationship and interactions (including demographic exchanges and mixing) between the past pastoral ethics in the parkland-steppe and semi-desert areas north of Lake Balkhash between the Aral Sea and the southern Urals in the West and the Alatau–Altai Mountain systems in the East. Whereas the hydronyms of the Sary-Arka may have a rather complex and not fully clear origin with a connection to the Turkic-Tatar medieval tribes and nations’ occupancy in northern Central Asia eventually modified into the present Kazakh language forms, the oronyms of the East Kazakhstan mountain ranges indicate the Mongolian roots.
Viktoria Volodina, Natalia Karygina, Olga Popova, Elmira Popova, Mariia Grushko and Nadezhda Fedorova
The toxicological study conducted revealed high concentrations of hydrocarbons and highly toxic heavy metals in the liver and subcutaneous fat of the Caspian seal. The increased toxicant level in the fat, as compared to the liver, pointed to the disorder of organism purification processes, leading to chronic polytoxicosis and disorders of the histological structure of the internals. The studies of the morphofunctional state of the stomach of the Caspian pinnipeds revealed the following disorders: hemorrhages, edemata and necrosis of the mucous membrane, and replacement of glandular tissue with the connective tissue. The study of the small intestine of the seals identified the symptoms of catarrhal desquamatory enteritis. Epithelium dystrophy and desquamation were noted, in particular at the tops of the villi. Different types of colitis (acute, ulcerative, chronic) were found in the large intestine of the seals. Dystrophic and necrotic changes of hepatocytes were identified in the liver tissue, which pointed to the liver cell failure. The nature and extent of pathological changes in the internals and tissues of the studied animals point to the functional depression of the digestive system.
Linda Abi-Ayad, Sidi-Mohammed Bahae-Ddine Ghezlaoui, Nassereddine Belkhouche and José Morillo Aguado
This work brings an evaluation of the quality of littoral zone of Algerian in two neighbouring port coasts, namely, Honaine and Beni Saf, chosen as significant discharge sites. This was followed by a comparison of the state of these coasts with those of the Mediterranean coastal areas. The study was conducted in all seasons in the year 2011−2012 by measuring the hydrological physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, turbidity and salinity) and using sea lettuce Ulva lactuca as significant ‘biomarker of the quantity of metal contaminants (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn)’. Harvesting of Ulva and the seawater samples were performed in each season in three stations, characterised by discharges of waste and industrial water and saline discharges from the recent installation of desalination in Honaine. The metal concentrations in seawater showed significant variations between stations and the harvest season, resulting in the appearance of pollution of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn. Also this result was manifested in Ulva in the station S1 (Beni Saf) and S2 (Honaine-beach) with the exception of copper. These results have exceeded tolerable international standards.
Audi Karina Choirunnisa and Sri Rum Giyarsih
This research was conducted in Srigading and Gadingsari Villages, Samas District, Bantul Regency, the Special Region of Yogyakarta. Both of these villages were selected as the study area because of their high vulnerability to coastal erosion. This research aimed to analyse the physical, social, and economic vulnerability and the capacity of communities in both villages to deal with erosion in Samas Coast using primary and secondary database. According to the results of the physical and socioeconomic scenarios, Srigading has a high vulnerability level, whereas Gadingsari has a low vulnerability level. Meanwhile, the equal scenario results in the same spatial distribution of vulnerability as the aforementioned scenarios. This research also finds that the capacity, which was based on knowledge of coastal erosion and its risk reduction measures, is categorized as medium. This capacity level is shaped by the constantly improved preparedness as communities experience coastal erosions directly.