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Katerina Pozachenyuk and Irina Yakovenko

Abstract

The conditions and factors of development of the vine landscapes in Crimea and their evolution are considered for the ancient, medieval, imperial, Soviet (first and second halves of the 20th century), and post-Soviet periods. The characteristics of the vineyard landscape zones (South Coast, Foothills and Steppe) are presented. Having reached their maximum areas in the period 1955-1970, the area of the vineyards in Crimea decreased steadily until 2017. The main causes of degradation were the spread of phylloxera, the campaign against alcoholism in 1985, the deterioration of sales after the collapse of the USSR, and the ineffective system of cultivation technology. The current ways of reviving grape landscapes – the introduction of innovative methods of farming, greening and cluster forms of viticulture and winemaking – are addressed.

Open access

Oluseun Adetola Sanuade, Abayomi Adesola Olaojo, Adesoji Olumayowa Akanji, Michael Adeyinka Oladunjoye and Gabriel E. Omolaiye

Abstract

This geophysical study was carried out to determine the occurrence of phosphate nodules in the Oshoshun Formation of the Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria. The electrical resistivity method, comprising 1D vertical electrical sounding (VES; using Schlumberger array) and 2D geoelectrical imaging (using Wenner array), was used to determine the nature and depth of occurrence of the phosphate nodules. Six profile lines were established within the study area, and inverted sections were generated from the apparent resistivity data using DIPRO inversion algorithm. Five VES points were also acquired in the study area, and Win-Resist programme was used to process and interpret the field resistivity data. Four pits were dug along the profiles to verify the interpreted results. The results obtained by both techniques reveal similar geoelectric units: the top soil, clay, clayey sand and clay at different depths. These layers host pockets of phosphate nodules (78–≥651 Ωm) with varying thicknesses. The strong correlation between the lithology profiles obtained from the pits and the interpreted results of the inverted apparent resistivity sections demonstrates the efficacy of the electrical resistivity method in characterising phosphate occurrence within the formation.

Open access

Oluseun Adetola Sanuade, Akindeji Opeyemi Fajana, Abayomi Adesola Olaojo, Kehinde David Oyeyemi and Joel Olayide Amosun

Abstract

A geostatistical approach was used to model porosity of OBA field in onshore area of Niger Delta using simulation technique. The objective is to understand the spatial distribution of porosity and characterize the degree of heterogeneity of underlying formation. Porosity data from twenty-two wells were loaded into SGeMS software. Univariate statistical analysis, experimental semivariogram and Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) were applied on the data. The data was close to normal approximation of Gaussian based of the results of univariate statistics. However, to construct and model horizontal and vertical semivariograms, the data was log-normalized to reduce the coefficient of variation and to get good fit of the model. Parametric semivariogram model shows the range of 72–6480 m, nugget effect of 0.006 and sills of 0.0095, 0.0099 and 0.0111. Six realizations were generated using SGS algorithm and the results suggest that any one of the realizations can independently represents the true picture of the subsurface geology within the study area. Ranking of realizations shows realization 6 as the best and realization 2 as the lowest. This model could

Open access

Patrycja Fabijańska and Jolanta Korycka-Skorupa

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to produce a multifaceted presentation of a small region. It was realised based on two aims: the collection of spatial and statistical data, and the analysis of the data from the perspective of physical and socio-economic geography. Mrozy commune (Polish – gmina Mrozy) is located in the eastern part of the Masovian voivodeship, in the county of Minsk (Polish – powiat miński).

The initial stage involved obtaining data from various sources. The second phase concerned the assessment of the data’s quality. Next, appropriate visualization methods were selected; the authors used cartographic techniques for data presentation, resulting in a set of thematic maps at a scale of 1:100,000. The final part of this research concerned the evaluation of the results and the verification and correction of errors.

The accuracy of the maps for this small area has been checked and the maps will be made available to the local authorities.

Open access

Concepcion Foronda-Robles

Abstract

The wine sector is a sector that lives and breathes its history and identity; and where developmental alternatives are sought in order to be able to compete in the market. Vineyard areas are sold as rural paradises, where leisure, gastronomy, the landscape, and open-air activities all provide quality tourist experiences. The case of the Sherry Wine Region (Spain) illustrates local restructuring processes, changes in local-global planning, and the socioeconomic impacts of the globalization of food. The symbiosis between the specific, the global, and the historical discourses gives rise to reflections on this region’s territorial redefinition; and highlights its architectural heritage, its landscape, and the gastronomic experiences on offer. Diversification is regenerating the local economy, and wine, and wine tourism, are both the focus of a new territorial policy strategy designed to face the challenges of globalization, and common bonds for partnerships between the public and the private sectors.

Open access

Mathias Harzhauser, Oleg Mandic, Matthias Kranner, Petra Lukeneder, Andrea K. Kern, Martin Gross, Giorgio Carnevale and Christine Jawecki

Abstract

Sarmatian and Pannonian cores, drilled at the western margin of the Vienna Basin in the City of Vienna, reveal a complex succession of marine and lacustrine depositional environments during the middle to late Miocene transition. Two Sarmatian and two Pannonian transgressive–regressive sequences were studied in detail. Identical successions of benthic faunal assemblages and similar patterns in magnetic susceptibility logs characterise these sequences. This allows a correlation of the boreholes over a distance of ~3.5 km across one of the major marginal faults of the Vienna Basin. Biostratigraphic data, combined with rough estimates of sedimentation rates, reveal large gaps between these sequences, suggesting that only major transgressions reached this marginal area. In particular, during the Sarmatian–Pannonian transition, the basin margin completely emerged and turned into a terrestrial setting for at least 600 ka.

Open access

Giuseppe Stella, Luis Almeida, Lilia Basílio, Stefania Pasquale, Jorge Dinis, Miguel Almeida and Anna M. Gueli

Abstract

Cross-dating of bricks and mortars from historical building, through thermal (TL) and optically stimulated (OSL) luminescence have achieved good accuracy and precision. However this approach is, in many cases, not exhaustive especially for buildings with different construction phases closely temporally spaced to each other. The uncertainties of experimental data added to the reuse of old bricks and/or the presence of mortars applied on restorations represent the main limits to obtain the complete chronology. In the case of the Convento de S. Francisco (Coimbra, Portugal), the dating results were crossed with the stratigraphic study of the building, mineralogical characterization by XRD and colorimetric data of the mortar samples. Thanks to luminescence ages, mineralogical composition and color specification, two phases of construction were identified: the first from the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century and the second from the second half of the 18th century to the first half of the 19th century. These results were confirmed by mineralogical characterization and colorimetric measurements of mortars that identify two different types of materials in aggregate/binder ratio terms and superficial optical characteristics.

Open access

Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences

An international journal of the Austrian Geological Society

Open access

Małgorzata Pietrzak and Marek Angiel

Abstract

The paper deals with the issues of the symbolic dimension of a city created from the urban and social subsystems. The city and its landscape are understood here as a system of signs functioning in two distinct orders of reality, yet still dependent on each other, i.e. the material order and the imaginary one. In the paper, we ask questions about the role of the symbol in the contemporary process of creating the specificity of a place. We also speak about the identity of a place, about endowing a place with features of familiarity, about the social need to recognise the symbol. The presence of a dragon, a creature born in the human imagination, in the urban space of Krakow was chosen as an example of the symbolic dimension of the city. Krakow is a historic city, the former capital of Poland, a city rich in diverse symbolic capitals. The dragon is a symbol of Krakow. It is present in the legend about the city’s origins, and is also commonly present in the material space of Krakow. It is part of the city’s identity.

Open access

Adam Radzimski

Abstract

Area-based interventions are one of the ways of addressing problems of disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods. In this paper we take the example of the German urban development support scheme (Städtebauförderung) with the purpose of determining the factors behind the spatial distribution of funds from this policy. The results show a positive association with unemployment rate, and a negative one with the dynamics of population and jobs. This suggests that the allocation of funds to a large extent resembled the distribution of structurally weak areas in Germany. Using geographically weighted regression, we found spatial differences in the goodness of fit of the model as well as in coefficients of explanatory variables. Finally, we also point out some differences between specific programmes forming part of the urban development support scheme.