Piotr Srokosz, Ireneusz Dyka and Marcin Bujko
The problem is a continuation of the research conducted at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Institute of Building Engineering. It concerns the development of methods for the interpretation of the shear modulus measurements based on the tests conducted on a torsional shear (TS) apparatus. The issue has significant importance in determining the deformation parameters, essential to perform numerical simulations of the interaction between a geotechnical structure and the subsoil. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the various methods of interpretation of research results based on direct and reverse analysis, as well as automated classification of the first cycle of the relationship between the shear stress and the shear strain components obtained from the TS test. The methodology for verification of the presented interpretative methods consists in carrying out a series of laboratory tests on non-cohesive and cohesive samples of different granulation and state parameters. The course of the research includes the following steps: elaboration of the granulometric composition of several samples of soil, determination of soil index properties and execution of TS tests. Various methods of interpretation of obtained results were taken into account, in addition to conducting a comparative analysis. The study used a non-standard interpretation approach consisting of analysing one-fourth of the hysteresis loop of the first load–unload cycle of the tested samples. The obtained results confirmed the hypothesis that it is possible to estimate the degradation value of the shear modulus based on a part of the TS test results carried out under quasi-monotonic load conditions. The proposed methods of interpreting test results have confirmed their high usefulness, which is devoid of the uncertainty associated with standardised resonant column/TS testing.
Elżbieta Raszeja and Joanna Badach
The limitation of territorial expansion and the implementation of the idea of a compact city are generally accepted paradigms of spatial development of contemporary cities. In consequence, actions are taken to improve the quality of city landscape and revitalise vacant areas. This study approaches the process of city regeneration as transformation and supplementation of the existing urban structure as well as creation of multifunctional, structurally, socially and ecologically sustainable spaces. The article presents the problem of creation of new-inner city residential areas. The study was conducted on three housing estates located in post-industrial and post-military areas: Harbourside Development in Bristol (UK), City Park and Ułańskie Estate in Poznań (Poland) and Browar Gdański in Gdańsk (Poland). The article includes analyses of relations between the estates and their surroundings, spatial structure parameters and architectural, urban and scenic characteristics. It includes assessment of the legibility, consistency, diversity and quality of the urban landscape.
J. Anděl, I. Bičík and J. D. Bláha
This article is a continuation of the same authors’ study entitled ‘Concepts And Delimitation Of The World’s Macro-Regions’ prepared for the 1/2018 of this journal (Anděl et al. 2018). The main aim of the first part was an evaluation of the concepts and factors which have been used as a basis for the delimitation of the different macro-regions of the world. In this second part, the authors propose their own macro-regionalisation of the world – this is a combination of four concepts, with relatively different contents: those of De Blij and Muller (1997), Cole (1996), Huntington (1996) and Hampl (2009). This macro-regionalisation arises from sociocultural affiliation, economic interrelationships and territorial continuity. Along with the concept of the macro-regional differentiation of the world itself, we focus on evaluating the importance of the shaping of macro-regions, as well as assessing the positive and negative features of individual concepts and their influence on the macro-regional differentiation of the world.
Companies relocate in various manners. Some of them move by way of foreign direct investments, other relocate within their countries, regions or local areas of operation (e.g. when a company moves its seat to a different street). This paper focuses on the issue of relocating companies’ seats. Data analysis (on NUTS2 level) indicates that migration of companies leads to an increased concentration of businesses in the Mazovia region, in particular in Warsaw. Additionally, it was demonstrated that in all of the Polish voivodeships the majority of companies that migrate do so within their regions. The weakest “magnet” for businesses are the voivodeships belonging to the least developed areas in Poland (Eastern Poland) and the Opole voivodeship, which undergoes a significant decline in population.
The article presents the essence, goals and instruments of soft (informal, non-statutory) spatial planning, developed in the countries of Western Europe and relatively new in Poland. It targets areas with fuzzy borders (soft spaces) and areas between administration tiers. The article presents conceptual issues and non-formal planning tools used in Western Europe. The planning approaches which are generally described as “soft” are characterised by non-formalised and non-binding procedures, and by their focus on achieving a consensus. In the first part of the article presents the conceptual issues and further informal planning instruments used in Western European countries at different spatial scales The following section presents deficits of spatial planning of metropolitan areas and - against this background - the legitimacy of creating informal plans in Poland, using Metropolia Poznań as an example
Jolanta Korycka-Skorupa and Tomasz Nowacki
Nowadays a lot of people are trying to make maps, and especially digital maps. A wide range of computer tools and high graphic capabilities have together made maps increasingly popular and seemingly easy to prepare for any person who can use a computer. It seems necessary to verify the bases of the cartographic presentation methods. There is a need for a new, formalized view of the method as a sequence of steps from data collection, to correct presentation, to map. Two terms related to cartographic presentation should be distinguished in this article: “methods” and “forms.” A method is understood as the process by which data is transformed into a presentation. A form is understood as the end result of this process, i.e. the resulting graphical image or map. In the article five types of cartographic presentation are indicated. In the successive types, one can observe an increasing degree of complexity of cartographic presentation.
Cafaro Francesco, Miticocchio Emanuele and Marzulli Valentina
Scale modelling should be a very useful strategy for the design of lunar structures. Preventing structural damages in the lunar environment is crucial and scale models are helpful to achieve this aim. The size of these models must be scaled to take into account the different gravitational levels. Since the lunar gravity acceleration is about one-sixth of the terrestrial one, it follows that the models on Earth will be very smaller than the prototype to be realized on the Moon. This strategy will represent an opportunity for engineers working on lunar structure design, provided that the errors, both computational and experimental, related to the change of scale are quantified, allowing reliable extension of the physical scale modelling results to the prototype. In this work, a three-dimensional finite element analysis of walls retaining lunar regolith backfill is described and discussed, in order to provide preliminary results, which can guide a future experimental investigation based on physical scale-modelling. In particular, computational errors related to the scale effects are assessed, with respect to a virtual prototype of the lunar geotechnical structure, and compared with errors from other sources of discrepancy, like the adopted constitutive model, the variability of the geotechnical parameters and the calculation section used in the 3D analysis. The results seem to suggest the soundness of this strategy of modelling and are likely to encourage new research, both numerical and experimental, supporting the structure serviceability assessment.
Barbara Tomaszewska, Anna Sowiżdżał and Anna Chmielowska
Geothermal resources have been used in Poland since the 90s of the last century. Since then, several geothermal heating plants, recreation and balneological centers have been operated.
Accessing geothermal resources is possible due to deep boreholes that are either brand-new wells or old but revitalized petroleum and/or exploratory wells. In this case, the construction of production and injection wells is of significant importance. The utilization of deep geothermal energy resources is strongly dependent on the binding domestic law regulations – primarily in case of acquiring the concession enabling an execution of geological and drilling works, and subsequently a proper exploitation.
The paper presents the current state of development of the geothermal energy sector in Poland, indicating examples of exploitation systems based on deep boreholes. Furthermore, the constructions of existing wells are discussed extensively. The existing examples of old but reconstructed wells in Poland, are characterized. The importance of national law and its influence on the development of a geothermal investment is highlighted, as well.