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Open access

Joanna Makuchowska-Fryc

Abstract

Studies of the efficiency of Ni, Cu and Cd cations removal from water solutions were carried out, with the use of clay limestone, hen eggshells from eggs for consumption and hen eggshells after hatching, which main element is calcium carbonate. Hen eggshells are a waste product, which can be used as a substitute of clay limestone in removing heavy metals from wet flue gas desulphurisation installation. Mixed solutions of Ni, Cu and Cd were used in the research, with the composition similar to the waste water from wet flue gas desulphurisation installation: Ni (0.009-0.053 mmol/dm3), Cu (0.008-0.057 mmol/dm3) and Cd (0.003-0.008 mmol/dm3). The metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (F-AAS). Kinetics of the process was analysed and equilibrium parameters were estimated, taking into consideration changes of the solutions pH during the process duration. It was demonstrated that the dominating mechanism of cations removal is their binding in hydroxides and carbonates. The studies demonstrated comparable characteristics of hen eggshells versus clay limestone, in the context of their application in removal of heavy metal cations from solutions.

Open access

Przemysław Drzewicz, Grzegorz Nałęcz-Jawecki, Agata Drobniewska, Anna Zgadzaj, Adam Smoliński, Marcel Krzan and Anita Starzycka

Abstract

The oil containing drilling waste is a worldwide environmental problem associated with oil and gas exploration. In Poland, the problem of the drilling waste has become important since starting of shale gas exploration. The results of thermal treatment of drilling waste from shale gas exploration are presented. It has been shown that organic content vaporized completely at temperature up to 500 °C. The main problem is high content of chloride, sulfate, sodium, potassium, magnesium in the waste and its water leachate. Toxicity tests confirmed that high salinity of the samples pose important risk for environment. Due to the high content of barium, the drilling waste may be utilized in production of cement with high chemical and heat resistance and opaque to X-ray. Thermal treatment process is a viable option for remediation of the drilling waste; however, the product of the process needs further treatment in order to remove its high salinity.

Open access

Małgorzata Olek, Witold Żukowski and Jerzy Baron

Abstract

Combustion of fuels, including renewable fuels and thermal treatment of waste (CFCs, pesticides), is associated with emissions of pollutants including halogens. The reversible process of sorption/desorption of HCl, in a fluidized (bubbling) bed reactor (BFB), during co-combustion of Cl-materials, was carried out. The thermal decomposition of methylene chloride (DCM, CH2Cl2) in an inert sand bed with the addition of the hydroxyapatite sorbent (HAp, Ca5(PO4)3(OH)) was investigated. The process parameters were as follows: temperature - 930 °C, the air excess - 1.3, stream rate of CH2Cl2 - 50 cm3/h. The concentration of HCl, CCl4, CHCl3, CH2Cl2, CH3Cl, COCl2 in the exhaust gases were monitored online with FTIR spectroscopy. The main chlorine product was hydrogen chloride. Samples of unprocessed HAp, taken from the bed during the process, and solid apatite residues were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The content of chlorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3Cl) in the analyzed samples was respectively 11, 53 and 19 %. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis showed the molar ratio of Ca:P:Cl was: 1.00:0.36:0.01, 1.00:0.36:0.09, 1.00:0.37:0.04 respectively. The HAp could be used as an sorbent of the HCl(g) during combustion of materials containing chlorine.

Open access

Jakub M. Gac and Monika Petelczyc

Abstract

A method for the reconstruction of the dynamics of processes with discrete time, developed in our previous papers, has been applied for study the dynamics of concentration of sulfur dioxide in lower troposphere. For the analysis, recordings of sulfur dioxide concentration from four measurement stations located in Poland (two of them has been located in huge cities and two in rarely inhabited regions) were used. We managed to obtain the deterministic and stochastic component of this dynamics. In result, we estimate the lifetime of sulfur dioxide in troposphere and the increase of sulfur dioxide concentration influenced by anthropogenic sources.

Open access

Agata Zdyb and Stanisław Krawczyk

Abstract

Natural flavonoids quercetin, morin, fisetin and luteolin were studied as potential photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Spectroscopic methods were used to investigate the formation of dye/TiO2 nanoparticles assemblies and the development of their absorption spectra. The results show that the flavonoids adsorb well on TiO2 nanoparticles and this process causes the shift of absorption spectra from the near UV into the visible range of solar light. The mode of binding of the dye molecules on TiO2 surface is analyzed by comparison of spectral absorption properties and with the use of structural differences introduced by fisetin and luteolin for discrimination between several possibilities.

Open access

Jan Bogacki and Jarosław Zawadzki

Abstract

Magnetic material may be added to proppant, as the magnetic marker allows to determine the range and efficiency of hydraulic fracturing. However, magnetic proppant may be also used in flowback fluid treatment and monitoring of environmental pollution. As a result of shale gas hydraulic fracturing, large volume of flowback fluid is created. Flow back fluid have similar properties to fracturing fluid, but it is potentially enriched with large amount of salts and organic compounds leached from shale. Magnetic proppant may serve as a heterogeneous catalyst during organic pollutants decomposition. Additionally, in case of leakage and consequently the fracturing fluid pollution, magnetic proppant is placed into the soil environment. It can be detected using magnetometric methods. This article discusses the above-mentioned issues based on the knowledge and experience of the authors and the literature review.

Open access

Wen-Pin Lin

Abstract

Forest can adjust climate and provide resources for the development of the society and tourism as well as promote the progress of human civilization, which is of great significance to the survival and development of human beings. With the industrial development and the improvement of people’s living standard, the development strength on forest resources is becoming higher than ever before. As forest resources are important resources which can maintain the ecological balance of the earth, its monitoring and protection is necessary. Hence, remote sensing technology has been developed for monitoring the changes of forest resources, which has the quickness characteristics and real-time spatial information acquisition and analysis capacities. This paper firstly introduced the geographical location, geomorphology, climate status, soil and vegetation types of Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province and the basic theory of remote sensing monitoring such as vegetation spectral reflectance and normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI). Then, the NDVI was used to analyse the vegetation coverage and area ratio of Zhangjiakou City in 2006, 2010 and 2016. It was found that the vegetation coverage during the ten years from 2006 to 2016 showed an overall trend of growth. Conclusions: It is concluded that dynamic monitoring can effectively monitor and protect forest vegetation, which provided ideas for the follow-up forestry planning and ecological tourism development in Zhangjiakou.

Open access

Paweł Stolarek, Stanisław Ledakowicz and Radosław Ślęzak

Abstract

Thermogravimetry (TG) is the fast and reliable method for characterization of thermal decomposition of any material and in particular to determine the kinetics of pyrolytic decomposition of sewage sludge. Two types of sewage sludge with and without addition of lime were investigated from kinetic point of view. For TG analysis samples of selected sewage sludge were heated under the inert atmosphere of argon with constant heating rate from 303 to 1273 K; the three heating rate β = 5, 10 and 20 K/min were chosen. The iso-conversion methods of Friedman and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall were employed for analysis of TG results. As the sewage sludge decomposition is very complex process it cannot be described by a simple stoichiometric equation, therefore the so called lumping of reactions in the selected temperature ranges were used with detailed principles arising from visual analysis of DTG curve. The deconvolution of DTG curves performed according to Fraser-Suzuki asymmetric profile allowed the identification of number of lumps and their contribution to the overall mass loss. So the decomposition of sewage sludge with lime addition could be described with five groups of reactions while the one without lime by means of six lumps. The thermal decomposition of sewage sludge was assumed to proceed according to the scheme of parallel concurrent independent reactions of n-th order. The values of the apparent activation energies at different constant values of conversion degrees were determined by the iso-conversion analysis. To estimate the kinetic parameters the non-linear regression with Levenberg-Marquart optimization procedure was used. The kinetic parameters such as activation energy, pre-exponential factor, reaction order and fraction of total mass loss associated with a given reaction were determined. The impact of sewage sludge liming revealed in essential differences of pyrolysis products and pyrolysis kinetics of limed sludge and without lime one was highlighted.

Open access

Andrzej Mazur

Abstract

Poland is under threat of potential accidents in nuclear power plants located in its close vicinity, in almost all neighboring countries. Moreover, there are plans to establish a new nuclear power plant in Polish coast. In this paper the analysis of atmospheric transport of radioactive material released during a potential accident in the future nuclear power plant is presented. In the first part of study transport of radioactivity as seen from the long time perspective is analyzed. This involves trajectory analysis as a tool for describing the statistics of air pollution transport pattern and screening the meteorological situations for episode studies. Large sets of meteorological data for selected episodes were stored as a result of this process. Estimation of risk includes both analysis of the consequences and probability analysis of an occurrence of such situation. Episodes then were comprehensively studied in the second phase of the study, using the Eulerian dispersion model for simulation of atmospheric transport of pollutants. This study has proven that the time needed for reaction in case of (hypothetical) accident is enormously short.

Open access

Anna Szczucińska, Maciej Dłużewski, Rafał Kozłowski and Przemysław Niedzielski

Abstract

In arid areas, with rivers functioning episodically, alluvial resources are the main source of water. Considering the intensified regulation of discharge in montane catchments, supplying the intermittent rivers, in the nearest future alluvial aquifers will gain key importance for the functioning of people in arid zones. The research aimed to investigate the diversified chemistry of alluvial waters typical of large intermittent river valleys in hot arid zones as well as to analyse processes determining the water chemistry and affecting its diversity. The detailed study, carried out in October 2015, covered the Draa river valley (1100 km total length) in the region of the Mhamid Oasis. The examined water was sampled from all wells found in the study area. Concentrations of the main cations: Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, NH4 +, and Li+, anions: Cl, SO4 2−, HCO3 , and NO3 , as well as trace elements: Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn, were identified. Results were analysed with statistical, hydrochemical, and geochemical modelling methods. Alluvial waters of the eastern and western part of the oasis differed in concentrations of numerous components, what resulted from the regulation of irrigation. Specific electrical conductivity showed a 3.5-fold increase, from 3800 to 13800 μS/cm, consistent with the direction of water flow in the oasis, from east to west. Even a greater rise was observed for ions: Cl (6x), Na+ (5.5x), Mg2+ (5.0x), Ca2+, and SO4 2− (3.5x). Such a composition indicated multiionic hydrochemical type of waters dominated by Na+ and Cl. Additionally, high Pearson correlation coefficients were recorded for Na+ and Cl (0.98) as well as Mg2+ and Cl (0.97). The saturation index suggested that the main water components originated from dissolving of minerals such as halite, anhydrite, sylvite, and gypsum. Groundwater chemistry in the Mhamid Oasis was determined mainly by geogenic processes, such as dissolving of evaporates, precipitation of carbonate minerals, and ion exchange.