The progressive and unprecedented growth of the Earth’s population and the shrinking of the planet’s natural resources make it necessary to look at contemporary consumption from the point of sustainable development goals. The purpose of the paper is to characterise consumers’ attitude towards the idea of sustainable food consumption, which manifests itself in declared undertaking of sustainable behaviours both on the market and in households. The research employed the exploratory survey technique (direct survey) on a sample of 900 consumers from Poland and Slovakia. The most common declared sustainable behaviours include: avoiding overconsumption, monitoring healthy eating, as well as sorting and recycling of waste. On the other hand, the customers of both countries should be more strongly encouraged to reduce the consumption of water, electricity and natural gas when preparing meals. Less than half of all respondents declared such behaviour.
Insurance companies are currently carrying out tasks related to building trust, image creation and giving distinctive features to intangible insurance services, which is associated with paying more attention to the packaging of the service than to the service itself. The packaging of the insurance service consists of people, the appearance of branches, the availability of insurance services and flexibility in customer service. For insurance companies, the knowledge of not only marketing practice, but also the knowledge about customer behaviours or factors affecting their loyalty is becoming important. The purpose of the article is to review the loyalty on the insurance services market in Poland and to examine the factors influencing it. The article discusses the methods of testing customer loyalty on the insurance services market. On the other hand, based on the results of the survey, factors affecting customer that may affect customer loyalty satisfaction are presented.
The article presents the results of three studies conducted by the author concerning the preferences of retail outlet customers with regard to the days of the week on which they most frequently purchase general food and non-food merchandise. This issue has become relevant within the context of the enactment of the Act of 10 January 2018 on limiting trade on Sundays, holidays and certain other days. Previous customer shopping styles as regards weekly shopping schedules must have changed. The aim of the article is to identify consumers’ habits and their changes concerning the weekly shopping schedules before and after the Act implementation. The results are based on direct surveys conducted in 2014, 2016 and 2018 among customers in Podkarpackie Province. A descriptive analysis of the results is supported by the statistical test chi square usage. It may be concluded that both in relation to food and non-food merchandise, the implementation of the Act resulted in a decrease in the number of customers engaging in shopping on Sundays. In the case of food items, the shopping activity moved to Mondays and Tuesdays of the following week, the purpose being to resupply. No increase was identified in the number of customers purchasing food on Fridays or Saturdays preceding non-trading Sundays. The opposite was true for non-food merchandise, where non-trading Sundays resulted primarily in increased sales on Saturdays, with minor increases on Mondays, Tuesdays and Wednesdays as well. The differences in weekly shopping schedules observed between every edition of the study also proved to be more significant than those identified in the individual respondent classification groups used for the purpose of the article.
The purpose of the article is to present the concept of information value of food packaging, characterize determinants of information value and present the results of own research on the identification of key information on packaging affecting purchasing decisions of food consumers. Unit packaging constituting an inherent element of food products equipment should fulfill numerous, overlapping functions, which include: protection, transport andinformation — functional, as well as ecological and promotional. One of the priority functions of product packaging (not just food) is the informative function. It is assumed that the proper selection of information encoded on the packaging should inform the consumer exhaustively, reliably and comprehensively about the packed product, its composition, nutritional values or storage conditions. Analyzing the information included on food packaging, it can be stated that entities introducing these products onto the market still show a tendency to “excessively” label the packaging (as part of optional labeling). It is therefore reasonable to specify what information is analyzed by consumers in the purchasing process and what information constitutes the information value of unit packets from the point of view of individual consumers. The above will allow identifying key determinants of the information value of packaging and may constitute valuable information for entities introducing products to trade in the field of proper selection of characters and codes of unit packets on the food market.
The aim of this paper is to present the sources of information about food, the cost of collecting the information and the perception of messages by consumers in the light of the sustainable food consumption idea. We used primary materials from a direct, personal survey which were later analyzed with the use of Berelson’s content analysis method. We found that a consumer shows low interest in sourcing the information about sustainable food consumption. The most credible, from the consumer’s point of view, information about food, consumption and the food market, comes from reports and scientific papers, as well as from the consumers’ families or friends. Gathering information is connected with devoting time which we spend on finding the right content. The information connected to environmental issues was the most distinctive for the respondents; other categories of information concerned the waste of food, shopping planning, the direction of changes, personal health issues and the influence of food products on one’s health, as well as consumption in connection with recommendations concerning health (among others, in the scope of nutrition, recommendations and specialistic advices). The knowledge of the most credible sources of the information about food consumption, the frequency of acquiring such knowledge, the costs of gathering information and the perception of messages should be reflected in properly chosen communication channels for the promotion of sustainable food consumption. In the research over sustainable food consumption we should focus more on our information needs. The network approach and the perspective of active engagement of consumers in the process of creating innovations in food products give us a new approach for the market analysis, popularization of the idea of sustainable food consumption and let us change some deeply rooted habits and behaviors of consumers. As a result of such engagement, consumers will be more willing to cooperate and trust one another, and thanks to the feeling of social effectiveness, they will be more interested in the development of the sustainable food consumption model and food policy.
The paper presents the issues of wearable technology, their role and use in the current economy. Ubiquitous digital transformation and universal access to broadband Internet are the foundation for the creation of interoperable ecosystems, where wearable technology is responsible for communication often in the relationship between machine to machine and machine to human. The authors researched the level of knowledge about these devices and the degree of their use. It turned out that despite the knowledge of worn devices and relatively positive attitudes, the degree of their use is low. The article is theoretical and empirical.
The aim of the article is describinig the role and place of image and reputation in a university and research institution in the process of competing on the education market. The article presents current views on the scope of these concepts as well as the mutual relations between the image and reputation in business entities. The fundamental importance of university relations with internal and external stakeholders in shaping both image and reputation was pointed out. The second part presents a set of image and reputation determinants in the case of a university. In addition, the role and place of the university rector was emphasized in building the image and reputation of the parent university in the light of Act 2.0.
Marketing communication of scientific units has gained a lot of importance at the time of the emergence and development of the hypermedia environment, in particular the Web 2.0 era. The objective of this article is to assess the degree of use of the website by scientific units in the context of potential cooperation with companies. The article presents the results of research conducted in the period 09.2017–03.2018 using the method of critical analysis of secondary sources in the form of websites of all parameterized scientific units located in the Lodz region. Research of the content of websites of scientific units confirmed that scientific units do not use the available spectrum of marketing communication tools in cooperation with companies and that they do not use the language of market benefits in the description of knowledge being the subject of commercialization.
The decreasing supply of qualified people ready to take up employment, observed for several years on the labour market, results in the strengthening of the employee’s position. The consequences of this process affect not only the companies but also scientific institutions. The employee’s market, which is shaped as a result of the following changes, forces employers to focus increasingly on activities aimed at attracting and retaining individuals who constitute their human capital. The aim of our article is to diagnose satisfaction levels of various job facets and differences in attachment to the workplace in groups of scientists with varied job expectation profiles. On this basis, it will be possible to indicate the job facets that scientific institutions should take into consideration in order to provide researchers with a high level of job satisfaction. To broaden knowledge about the subject, we used data collected by the National Information Processing Institute in 2017 in a nationwide representative sample of 840 scientists who were at various stages of their academic career, represented all areas of science and worked in all types of scientific units in Poland. By performing factor analysis and a clustering procedure on variables describing researchers’ job expectations we were able to categorize the respondents into three groups: 1) demanding, 2) aspiring and 3) unengaged. The demanding employees have high expectations in all job facets that we examined, i.e.: economic and organizational matters, developmental and social opportunities as well as employment flexibility. The aspiring scientists above all appreciate developmental and social opportunities more than other groups. On the contrary, the unengaged employees value developmental and social opportunities the least while other job facets are moderately significant for them. The survey of satisfaction of particular groups of scientists with their current employer indicates the need to focus the scientific institutions employing them on different aspects of work. In the case of demanding employees, it is important to take care of their economic well-being. On the other hand, in order to increase satisfaction from work of scientists from the aspiring group, it will be important to provide them with a higher level of satisfaction from the development and social sphere. The greatest challenge may be the satisfaction of unengaged employees who declare a relatively low general level of satisfaction with the workplace, and at the same time do not have well-established expectations towards the institutions employing them.
This paper describes factors of material environment that are particularly important for employees comfort on the example of a selected University. The main goal of the presented research was to identify factors of work comfort related to material and social-living conditions of work and their assessment based on the opinion of employees in a selected institution. A two-stage study conducted in 2016–2018 among 440 university employees made it possible to identify factors relevant to the comfort of work, mainly related to material conditions. Based on the opinions of university employees (questionnaires and interviews), problem areas were identified in the scope of shaping comfortable working conditions.