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Open access

Filip Grudzewski, Marcin Awdziej, Grzegorz Mazurek and Katarzyna Piotrowska

Abstract

VR technology is an emerging IT innovation that greatly affects consumer behaviour and consumer perception of products. The aim of this study is to examine how the virtual reality phenomenon can be used as a marketing communication tool and how its usage affects the reception of individual components of a marketing message. The research conducted examined the possible impact of virtual reality on message perception and attitude towards particular offers. Additionally the authors wanted to find out whether there was a relationship between the use of virtual reality and the acceptance of new technologies in marketing communication. To verify the stated hypotheses empirical research was conducted involving an experiment with 150 observations of respondents taking advantage of three different marketing communication tools including: VR presentation with Oculus Rift hardware, video and printed advertisements. The results obtained reveal that VR technology positively and significantly impacts the reception of the offer, the technology involved and the presentation itself.

Open access

Naeem Ahmed and Mudassira Sarfraz

Abstract.

This study examines the stock market volatility of German bench-mark stock index DAX 30 using logarithmic extreme day return. German stock markets have been analyzed extensively in literature. We look into volatility issue from the standpoint of extreme-day changes. Our analysis indicates the non-normality of German stock market and higher probability of negative trading days. We measure the occurrences of extreme-day returns and their significance in measuring annual volatility. Our time series analysis indicates that the occurrences of extreme-days show a cyclical trend over the sample time period. Our comparison of negative and positive extreme-days indicates that negative extreme-days overweigh the positive extreme days. Standard deviation, as measure of volatility used traditionally, gives altered ranks of annual volatility to a considerable extent as compared to extreme-day returns. Lastly, existence of extreme day returns can be explained by past period occurrences, which show predictability.

Open access

Edyta Rudawska, Ewa Frąckiewicz and Małgorzata Wiścicka-Fernando

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to assess the attitudes of company managers in the food and drink sector in Western Europe and Central-Eastern Europe towards implementing marketing strategies that take into account not only economic, but social and ecological aspects as well. Innovation is a growing topic among scholars when discussing issues related to the enhancement of company performance and competitiveness. Such innovation may refer to technological changes (new products, processes), as well as non-technological ones referring to various marketing and organizational methods. In the paper the authors focus on innovations in marketing activities arising from the application of a more socio-ecological orientation. The paper comprises two parts: one theoretical, one empirical. In the first part the role of innovation in the process of creating company competitiveness is presented, as well as the concept of an innovative marketing strategy. In the second part the results of international research are discussed.

Open access

Joseph Menaker and Velga Ozoliņa

Abstract

The paper covers analysis of high-tech industry development in Latvia, as well as its facilitating and restricting factors. High-tech industries become more important in Latvia both in terms of export share and generated value added; also the number of enterprises and employees is increasing. A stable political system, enabling business environment, a relatively low corporate income tax rate, and government aid are considered as some of the most important facilitating factors. The paper emphasizes the government’s role in promoting and developing the high-tech manufacturing. The most significant limitations are the lack of skilled specialists and sophisticated real estate space, and the remote industrial supply companies and the service centres. Recommendations are given on the possible development directions, including improvements in manufacturing infrastructure, enhancements of the skill level of the labour force, and bringing up a new generation of entrepreneurs.

Open access

Andrea Insch

Open access

Rasheed Olawale Azeez and Kabiru Ishola Genty

Abstract

This paper investigated the relationship that exists among inner life, meaningful work, conditions for community, and organisational citizenship behaviour amongst Nigerian academics. The study embraced a quantitative approach using survey research design, which is ex post facto in nature with the engagement of quantitative and correlational methods. Thus, a convenience sampling technique was utilised to administer 328 questionnaires amongst the academics of two Nigerian public universities. Three hypotheses were stated and tested using inferential statistics tools via the IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 and the Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) version 22. The multivariate statistical processes used in this paper are confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation modelling, as well as model fit indices. The results indicated an insignificant positive relationship between inner life and organisational citizenship behaviour. However, it was evident that a strong positive relationship existed between conditions for community and organisational citizenship behaviour. In contrast, the study revealed that there was no significant relationship between meaningful work and organisational citizenship behaviour. Therefore, this paper concludes that the management of universities should always communicate the mutual benefit of engaging in organisational citizenship behaviour to the members of their staff through effective conditions for community, such as aiding of staff personal growth and fair evaluation of work.

Open access

Barbara Mróz-Gorgoń and Grzegorz Szymański

Abstract

The number of Internet users in Poland is permanently increasing, the vast majority of Y generation use the Internet at least once a week, while the youngest generation (born after 2000) consider the Internet to be a part of their normal life. Shopping online should be something natural and ordinary for Internet users and the main barriers of the development of e-commerce such as security of transactions, time and cost of delivery are regarded as a standard and truism. The ROPO effect is a major problem for the rapid development of the e-commerce sector. However, the analyzed clothing industry, due to the individual characteristics of products, is a different e-commerce area than others. The obtained results indicate that about 33% of women and men use the Internet as a place to get information about clothing products. Research Online, Purchase Offline, that is, search for information, reviews, or online prices, while buying in the traditional way. The purpose of the publication is to identify the size of the ROPO effect the clothing industry. In order to meet this goal, we analyzed the results of more than 4.000 respondents who have recently purchased clothing products

Open access

Alexandros Koulis, George Kaimakamis and Christina Beneki

Abstract

This paper investigates the hedging effectiveness of the International Index Futures Markets using daily settlement prices for the period 4 January 2010 to 31 December 2015. Standard OLS regressions, Error Correction Model (ECM), as well as Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) cointegration model are employed to estimate corresponding hedge ratios that can be employed in risk management. The analyzed sample consists of daily closing market rates of the stock market indexes of the USA and the European futures contracts. The findings indicate that the time varying hedge ratios, if estimated through the ARDL model, are more efficient than the fixed hedge ratios in terms of minimizing the risk. Additionally, there is evidence that the comparative advantage of advanced econometric approaches compared to conventional models is enhanced further for capital markets within peripheral EU countries

Open access

Dariusz Dąbrowski

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to identify whether the gathering of market information from different sources - i.e. from customers, competitors and other entities - is related to product innovativeness. The relationships proposed so far have not been empirically investigated but they can have important theoretical and practical implications for product innovation. To achieve the purpose of the paper data concerning 287 new products were used by applying confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The findings indicate that the obtaining of market information from customers and market entities, other than customers and competitors, has a positive impact on product innovativeness, but there was no such relationship in the case of gathering information from competitors

Open access

Grzegorz Maciejewski

Abstract

The aim of the article is to present consumer attitudes in Poland in respect of modern solutions in the retail trade and the influence which these attitudes have on their behaviour in the market. The considerations were conducted using methods of logical inference, based on a critical analysis of available derivative sources and conclusions from quantitative research conducted on a sample of 1.075 consumers. In order to analyse more deeply the research results a cluster analysis was conducted using one of the hierarchical methods - the Ward’s method. Respondents’ attitudes towards modern solutions in the retail trade are generally positive. However they are not always recognized by them. A large percentage of respondents declared that they are not acquainted with particular forms of modern retail trade (mostly Beacon, PSS or RIFID systems). They were mostly consumers from the ‘retreated skeptics’ group, in other words the elderly with basic or vocational education from small towns and villages. The research findings presented may be used by trade enterprises in order to answer to the identified need of consumers from generation Z and to set out the direction of the technological education of consumers and increase the availability of particularised solutions