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Open access

Shumank Deep, Mohd Asim, Neeti Kesarwani and Shweta Kandpal

Abstract

Indian construction is a vital domain with an enormous employment potential and its contribution to the economy. Real estate is an essential domain of construction that tackles the housing demands. In the present scenario, this sector is experiencing a slowdown often failing projects. Thus, the aim is to identify the project participant and attributes that lead to delays in the schedule of real estate projects. In this process, we apply the hierarchical analytical process to identify the actor and the causes that result in an overrun. Our findings suggest that to a significant extent delays occur due to contractors under the influence of distinct factors discussed in the study.

Open access

Lutfi Zharku

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to analyse the irregular budget receipts, their behaviour and impact on budget deficits in Kosovo. Since its independence, Kosovo has been engaging in large infrastructure projects based mainly on initially high cash balances and overestimation of revenue capacity, in particular of irregular receipts. This led to the creation of future liabilities and budget deficits, which had to be financed by public debt. Further, the politically motivated increase of wage and salary bill and social transfers increased the burden on budget deficit already caused by infrastructure projects. Thus, budget deficits became the lasting feature of Kosovo economy. All this was supported by a lack of legal infrastructure or fiscal rules for several years. There is extensive literature on the causes of budget deficit, its definition and measurement. The literature review method is adopted in the present study, and research is refined by including selected papers that contain empirical and theoretical studies on budget deficit. Therefore, special-purpose deficit, the so-called “regular” budget deficit, which considers only regular receipts and outlays, has been defined and measured in the present study. This analysis leads to the conclusion that irregular receipts used by the government to engage in large infrastructure projects and/or the politically motivated increase of wage and salary bill and social transfers lead to a budget deficit that has to be financed through public debt. This is a case study of Kosovo and research has been carried out using primary data drawn from Kosovo budget annual financial reports. The implications of the paper may be of high importance for policymakers as well as for academic issues. This is a unique approach to the issues of Kosovo budget deficit and irregular receipts.

Open access

Anurag V. Tiwari and Y R M Rao

Abstract

The rutting and cracking of pavements has become very common problem in India. Also the quantity of plastic waste has significantly increased in the recent year due to industrialization and population growth. Improper disposal of these plastic wastes has caused various environmental problems, hence the alternative use of waste plastic in bituminous concrete for road construction has been encouraged by the community. In the present study the Indirect Tensile Strength Test has been carried out on Marshall Samples confirming to ASTM D6931-12. Three different processes (dry process, wet process and combined process) of mixing of waste plastic were used during experimentation. It was found that the indirect tensile strength (ITS) and tensile strength ratio (TSR) of sample significantly increase up to 8%, 6% and 12% for dry process, wet process and combined process respectively for LDPE and HDPE type of waste plastic.

Open access

Stănescu Răzvan Marian

Abstract

For new railway bridges with short spans (L ≤ 35.00 m) superstructures with steel beams embedded in concrete are recommended or used, which can ensure the requirements of strength and stiffness in particular, regardless of velocity. They are built relatively easily compared to reinforced concrete structures or steel structures, they have high durability if designed, built and maintained correctly and don’t have high sensitivity to fatigue degradation in service. They are also used for road bridges when it is desired to achieve a reduced construction height.

In all the design prescriptions used so far for structures with steel beams embedded in concrete, the calculation is a simplified one, made on a single insulated longitudinal beam of the deck, if certain conditions related to the geometry of the structure are met (obliquity, curvature). Simplifications are also made regarding the state of deformation of the decks made in this constructive solution by introducing an effective moment of inertia in the displacement calculation, as an average of the inertia moments of the cross section considered to be cracked and respectively un-cracked.

The article aims to validate steel and concrete elasto-plastic models, based on an experiment from the technical literature, necessary for complex analyses of the percentage of concrete involved in the stiffness of the cross-sections, in case of bridges with steel beams embedded in concrete.

Open access

Ashfaq U. Rehman, Azizul Hakim, Khalid Khan and Ihsan Ullah Khan

Abstract

The objectives of the study were to measure the efficiency in trade and transport through China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and to ascertain efficiency in trade and economic development through developed transport infrastructures. The present study was conducted in Peshawar, Pakistan. The data was collected from the relevant developing sectors and stakeholders through CPEC including investors of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Chamber of Commerce and Peshawar Railway Station track employees. Majority of bi-variate analysis through chi-square test result showed that there was a strong and significant association between the project of CPEC and efficiency in trade and transport in terms of economy. Similarly, a strong and significant association was found between the development of transport routes through CPEC and smooth transportation of goods and services. Furthermore, a strong and significant association was found between CPEC project and improvement in travelling potential. Similarly, a significant association was found between development in transport infrastructure and fastness and reliability in business travelling. In the same way, a significant association was found between CPEC and increase in the geographical size of the labour market. As in the chain, a strong and significant association was found between the development of transport infrastructures through CPEC and increase in labour force productivity along with an increase in the range of choice of individual and firms. This could come true that CPEC as a project would ensure smooth efficiency transportation of trade goods and services in terms of reducing time distance and cost. CPEC as a project should not be only limited to economic activities, rather it should contribute to the overall socio-economic development of the region.

Open access

Davidich Natalia, Halina Faletska, Galkin Andrii, Melenchuk Tatyana, Chumachenko Igor and Davidich Yurii

Abstract

The significance of the criteria for assessing the quality of the urban passenger transport is investigated in the article. The results of the processing of field studies have identified factors that can be used for the assessment of the quality of the projects of urban passenger transport. The method of estimation of indicators of quality for the passengers during the trip is given and the values of weighting coefficients of individual quality indicators for the elements of the trip are determined. The method of determining the complex quality indicator during the performance of the trips in the projects of public transport is developed. It is shown that the trip components influence the quality of passenger trips in the following order: waiting time at the stop, time of the pedestrian part of the trip, travel time, dynamic coefficient of capacity utilization.

Open access

Inah Okon

Abstract

The promotion of walking has become a global strategy in sustainable urban transportation planning. This is with the aim of reducing the urban commuter’s problems that result from the dominance of motorized urban transit, especially in developing countries with an increasing rate of urbanization. This study is carried out in Calabar, Southern Nigeria with the aim of assessing the conditions under which pedestrianism is enhanced. Research questionnaires were administered to household heads in all 22 localities with political delineation (wards) in the city. Respondents were sampled using the stratified sampling technique where every 10th residential house is sampled after the initial listing of houses. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict the conditions under which about 382 household heads (about 98% respondent rate) in Calabar could undertake utilitarian walking using factors such as motorized traffic, weather conditions, lack of safety of pedestrians and socio-economic variables as category predictors. A test of the full model against a constant single model was statistically significant, indicating that the predictors, as a set, reliably distinguished utilitarian walking and non-walking (chi square = 60.544, p < .001 with df = 17). Nagelkerke’s R2 of .232 indicated a moderately strong relationship between prediction and grouping. Prediction success overall was 70.5% (53.5% for non-walking, and 81.5% for walking). The Wald criterion demonstrated that only pedestrian conflict, lack of safety of pedestrian and the age of the pedestrian made a significant contribution to the prediction in model 1 (p = .000). Furthermore, about 99.2% of pedestrians indicated walking distances of not more than 5km while on the other hand, they can afford 0.8km to bus station, 3km to school, 5km for shopping, and about 20km for recreation trips. The study recommended counseling strategies for promoting pedestrianism among which is the development of pedestrian walkways and complementary facilities to enhance pedestrian safety and comfort.

Open access

Alhossein Mohamed, Peng Qiyuan and Malik Muneeb Abid

Abstract

Introduction. Station route allocation plan is an important extension of the train running diagram and the both are closely intertwined so the overall research on the synergetic preparation method is more beneficial in improving the preparation quality of the train running diagram and providing better service for passengers. Therefore, the research topic has practical significance.

Methodology. Based on extensive literatures, this paper studies the synergetic preparation method of train running diagram and station route allocation plan in detail and analyses their association for providing a theoretical basis for the synergetic preparation method.

Results. This work introduces the synergetic, analyses the systematic characteristics of the operation organization system of high speed railway and puts forward the optimization strategy of train running diagram and station route allocation plan.

Conclusions. The work provides the solution for the preparation of the train running diagram and station route allocation plan by solving the examples based on the relevant optimization factors, such as train running in districts and train arrangement.

Open access

Jānis Zvirgzdiņš, Kaspars Plotka and Sanda Geipele

Abstract

Economic models are built primarily following the classical economic theories, but a challenge to build good models with classical theories is needed to define the exact value of the Earth, which is hardly definable. Quite often national gross product indicator calculation reuses the same performance indicators, where the resource and income distribution system is not linked to production factors. The resource and income distribution system is primarily associated with low productivity (execution of a sales plan, execution of a profit plan, profitability level, increase in market share, personnel turnover rate, hours worked per employee). Changes in the productive and economic structures of the markets result in new innovative growth patterns which, based on customer motivation, are linked to the concentration of capital in regional and national markets, the growth of transnational markets and the development of technology. At the same time, extensive economic development through natural resources leads to deforestation, landscape changes, desertification, swamping and soil fertility renewal. So far, it often has been assumed that economic growth depends on the use of natural resources, and natural resources are unlimited. The results are “resource crisis”: resources are running out and resource prices are rising, thus invalidating a particular model. On the other hand, the eco-economy approach is a sustainable future for the economic modelling. The principle of eco-economy is based on a production system, which relies on re-cyclicality (the basis is the production of zero waste production). For this to happen, a transition to a completely new mind-set is needed. The research results were previously approbated during the graduate meeting of the Baltic DBU scholarship holders from 4 to 6 May 2018 in Latvia.

Open access

Virgil Florescu, Laurențiu Rece, Ștefan Mocanu and Amelitta Legendi

Abstract

The safety of railways has been and remains a critical topic. Whether it is infrastructure or rolling stock, the issue of safety is a permanent concern of the utmost importance, being reflected in the efficiency of any transport system.

This paper focuses on the safety in operation of pressure vessels that equip railway tanks. There are many articles and works on this subject, and it is well-known that there are both national and international regulations regarding their design, execution, operation and maintenance. Also, there are quite a few reports on the BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion) phenomenon resulting in material damage and significant casualties. The BLEVE-type explosion is not considered a chemical explosion derived from a gas-air explosive environment (also present in non-flammable gases), but rather a mechanical explosion through over-pressurization.

Thus, we propose a comparative study between the results obtained using theoretical methods and those obtained as a result of tensoresistive measurements on such a tanker.