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Open access

Jānis Zvirgzdiņš, Kaspars Plotka and Sanda Geipele

Abstract

Economic models are built primarily following the classical economic theories, but a challenge to build good models with classical theories is needed to define the exact value of the Earth, which is hardly definable. Quite often national gross product indicator calculation reuses the same performance indicators, where the resource and income distribution system is not linked to production factors. The resource and income distribution system is primarily associated with low productivity (execution of a sales plan, execution of a profit plan, profitability level, increase in market share, personnel turnover rate, hours worked per employee). Changes in the productive and economic structures of the markets result in new innovative growth patterns which, based on customer motivation, are linked to the concentration of capital in regional and national markets, the growth of transnational markets and the development of technology. At the same time, extensive economic development through natural resources leads to deforestation, landscape changes, desertification, swamping and soil fertility renewal. So far, it often has been assumed that economic growth depends on the use of natural resources, and natural resources are unlimited. The results are “resource crisis”: resources are running out and resource prices are rising, thus invalidating a particular model. On the other hand, the eco-economy approach is a sustainable future for the economic modelling. The principle of eco-economy is based on a production system, which relies on re-cyclicality (the basis is the production of zero waste production). For this to happen, a transition to a completely new mind-set is needed. The research results were previously approbated during the graduate meeting of the Baltic DBU scholarship holders from 4 to 6 May 2018 in Latvia.

Open access

Marian Cosmin Gabriel

Abstract

The process of administrative decentralization of the education system in Romania proceeded in chaotic steps. It was done under the pressure, on one hand, of the EU integration requirements and, on the other hand, of the local administrations who wanted more control over how their money were used in the schools and of the parents committees that wanted to have a say in the local schools. The road was scattered with new reform legislations coming with every change in government composition and ministers. The result was a combination of local autonomy and central control that had the potential to produce confusion and conflict. The multiple and complex blend of divided responsibilities and powers turned out in the process of setting up the new form or entry grade in the Romanian primary education cycle in a rational strategic play scholarly designated as anticommons. Each separated actor tries to obtain a maximizing share of the cooperatively generated benefit for a minimum possible cost. The interactions are modeled as a Game of Chicken where, because actors calculate separately, each selects a higher price/lower quantity position than is optimal, resulting in a lower net payoff both individually and collectively.

Open access

Denisa Valachova, Nada Zdrazilova, Vladan Panovec and Iveta Skotnicova

Abstract

For the best possible thermal-technical properties of building structures it is necessary to use materials with very low thermal conductivity. Due to the increasing thermal-technical requirements for building structures, the insulating materials are developed. One of the modern thermal insulating materials is so-called aerogel. Unfortunately, this material is not used in the field of external thermal insulation composite systems because of its price and its properties. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities of using this insulating material in the civil engineering - specifically a usage of aerogel in the production of windows.

Open access

Ewelina Julita Tomaszewska and Adrian Florea

Abstract

This article aims at identification of the main trends in scientific literature characterising urban smart mobility, on the basis of bibliometric analysis of articles published in the ISI Web of Science and Scopus databases. The study period was set from 2000 to 2017. Authors used a basic technique of the bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature characterising urban smart mobility with the support of the VOSviewer software. The analysis included the number of publications, citation analysis, research area analysis and the most frequent keywords. The analysis led to taking notice of current research trends dealing with the urban smart mobility. The core of the paper is a theoretical framework of research trends, which was developed through a review of scientific literature. The result of this paper is a map showing the existing relationships between key terms, research areas characterising publications dealing with the urban smart mobility and intelligent transport system (ITS). “Smart city” is probably the most “in vogue”, debated and analysed concept among researchers and administrative/ governmental representatives from all over the world. This multidimensional concept is mainly based on smart technology structured around few major components: smart mobility, smart environment, smart governance, smart living, and everything that targets the people’s wellbeing. This work focuses on a hot topic – mobility because of its significant impact on the environment by pollution as well as living by requiring intelligent transport systems.

Open access

Jana Vlčková, Nikola Kaspříková and Markéta Vlčková

Abstract

The level of technological specialisation in the regions of Germany is assessed in this paper, as well as how such specialisation has evolved over time. Further, in three selected regions (Munich, Düsseldorf and Oberes Elbtal/Osterzgebirge), the knowledge space is explored in detail and compared to existing smart specialisation strategies. Average relatedness and knowledge space based upon EPO patent applications are used to measure the specialisation and technology trajectories of the German regions. Between three periods 1988–1992, 1998–2002 and 2008–2012, the specialisation of Germany based on EPO patent applications increased by 10%, despite a decline in many regions. Machinery and transportation industries have increased their significance. The assessment of regional smart specialisation strategies in the three German states shows that the methodology in terms of the identification of prospective industries is largely variegated and insufficiently developed. More attention should also be given to the choice of an appropriate geographical level of aggregation for analysis. Knowledge relatedness and knowledge complexity could be used as methodological tools for selecting prospective industries in smart specialisation strategies.

Open access

Petre Brezeanu, Florin Dumiter, Rodica Ghiur and Silvia Paula Todor

Abstract

Throughout this study, we have shown the influence factors generating a significant impact on taxpayers’ tax behavior. We also analyzed the literature in the field, and the categories of factors that have a significant influence. Consequently, we have assigned a macroeconomic indicator in Romania, in an attempt to quantify the factors of influence. In this regard, we have built an econometric model of multifactorial regression and we have determined the impact of some elements such as: poverty, labor productivity, population confidence in state authorities, gross domestic product per capita on fiscal behavior, which was estimated through the proxy variable: tax rate. The empirical results obtained as a result of the multiple regression showed that there is a negative correlation between the fiscal behavior of the taxpayer, namely the tax compliance and the financial capacity, the labor productivity and the confidence the taxpayer has in the state authorities, while the behavior of the taxpayer the gross domestic product per capita we identify a positive correlation.

Open access

Lekë Pula and Alban Elshani

Abstract

The aim of the study is to examine the impact of public expenditure on economic growth of Kosovo. Time series data span for the period of time 2002-2015. The structure of the econometric model is built on Keynesian theories and endogenous growth model. The model estimation is performed only after implementing the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) Unit Root test to estimate if time series are stationary. Several tests have been implemented to determine model validity. The model has met all the assumptions of statistical tests: error term residuals have a normal distribution (Jarque-Bera test), there is no auto-correlation between variables (Breusch-Godfrey Serial test), and error variances are constant, known as the principle of homoscedasticity (Breusch-Pagan-Godfrey test). Gross domestic product is used as a dependent variable in the model, while public expenditure (G), foreign direct investment (FDI), export (EXP) and total budget revenue (TrTax) are used as the endogenous variables. The study results have revealed that there is a positive and statistically significant effect of public expenditures and exports on economic growth. Total budget revenue has a positive impact on economic growth but this has not been proved to be statistically significant. The authors of the research have also found out that FDI is negative and statistically insignificant.

Open access

Maciej Major, Izabela Major, Daniela Kuchárová and Krzysztof Kuliński

Abstract

The paper presents numerical analysis of block made of three layers: concrete with I-shape rubber pads, space filled with air and concrete with embedded cross rubber pads, respectively. The block is subjected to the dynamic load. To the analysis as rubber the hyperelastic incompressible Zahorski material model was assumed. This material well describes the real material properties in the range of large elastic deformations. Embedded rubber pads provide an additional protection against the transversal dynamic load. ADINA software was utilized to perform numerical analysis of determining the percentage damping factor of rubber-concrete composite in comparison with block made of concrete.

Open access

Leonid Diachenko, Andrey Benin, Vladimir Smirnov and Anastasia Diachenko

Abstract

The aim of the work is to improve the methodology for the dynamic computation of simple beam spans during the impact of high-speed trains.

Mathematical simulation utilizing numerical and analytical methods of structural mechanics is used in the research.

The article analyses parameters of the effect of high-speed trains on simple beam spanning bridge structures and suggests a technique of determining of the dynamic index to the live load. Reliability of the proposed methodology is confirmed by results of numerical simulation of high-speed train passage over spans with different speeds. The proposed algorithm of dynamic computation is based on a connection between maximum acceleration of the span in the resonance mode of vibrations and the main factors of stress-strain state. The methodology allows determining maximum and also minimum values of the main efforts in the construction that makes possible to perform endurance tests. It is noted that dynamic additions for the components of the stress-strain state (bending moments, transverse force and vertical deflections) are different. This condition determines the necessity for differentiated approach to evaluation of dynamic coefficients performing design verification of I and II groups of limiting state. The practical importance: the methodology of determining the dynamic coefficients allows making dynamic calculation and determining the main efforts in split beam spans without numerical simulation and direct dynamic analysis that significantly reduces the labour costs for design.

Open access

Radu Lucian Blaga and Alexandru Blaga

Abstract

Buying decisions are determined by two key factors: endogenous factor that belongs to the buyer (which is present at least the attitudinal variable) and exogenous factors such demo-economic, sociological, psychological, marketing mix, linked all more or less by the product or the service offered for purchase and consumption. The study aims to use Rasch’s model to express the likelihood that a consumer will make the decision to purchase a higher educational service. Applied to item solving, Rasch probabilistic model, on which the research methodology study is largely supported, states that the probability of success in solving an item depends on two factors. The one belongs to that who solves the item - the human factor, called the latent trait, and the other belongs to the item, called the facility of the item The purchase decision approach using the Rasch model results validity is mainly based on the isometry of the two situations The results of the study describe behavioral probability situations where customers who make university education services purchasing decisions can themselves be found. We recommend the educational marketing strategies based on the analysis made on the applied model, which may increase the students’ enrolled number in a particular university.