The primary purpose of the research is to examine and validate determinants of user intention to use AutoCAD software, utilising the constructs from prior studies in a more integrated model. The paper proposes a revised Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) for measuring the adoption of AutoCAD. In the study, a latent construct PPA (perceived physical accessibility) was added to the proposed research model as a new determinant of AutoCAD adoption. An online survey of AutoCAD users was conducted to collect data. This data was empirically used to test the proposed research model. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique was used to evaluate the causal model, and the confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine the reliability and validity of the measurement model. The study results show that user behavioural intention to use AutoCAD is significantly affected by three determinants: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived physical accessibility of the software. This finding contributes to an expanded understanding of the factors that promote acceptance of AutoCAD software. Moreover, the main contribution of this study is to verify the impact of the added PPA variable on the behavioural intention to use and the actual use of AutoCAD, and also to create measurement scales for this new latent variable in TAM.
Determining the competencies required for engineering programmes has become important due to the increasing challenges faced by engineers after graduation and the tremendous development in technology. This research aims to identify the general competencies that fresh graduate students of engineering schools in Jordan believe they need to become competent and effective in their profession as engineers. This study was the first of its kind with students as respondents, and it was the first study of this kind in Jordan. Competencies were collected from a previous study with 48 competencies split into 11 groups. A questionnaire was prepared with these competencies, then rated for the degree of importance by answering “What engineering competencies graduates will require for their future work in Jordan?” The study showed that all competencies were vital, including technical, personal, non-technical and attitudinal competencies. This study will help to link the outputs of university education provided by engineering departments with market needs as well as to harmonise study programmes offered by Jordanian universities. Also, the research outputs are expected to facilitate the transition process of students from one university to another. The empirically identified competencies could be used to help assess different engineering study programmes in Jordan.
The literature on product variety provides great insights into various businesses. However, little research has been conducted on product variety in the healthcare industry. This study aims to explore the influence of product variety on inventory in hospitals. Since most hospitals are known to replenish products using a homegrown ad-hoc system, a model is developed for exploring all possible product combinations and substitutions. This article presents the behaviour of product substitution, which may be either one-to-one or many-to-one for both sterile and non-sterile products, in the hospital with cost factors. It discusses the product variety reduction and its corresponding cost impacts. The data on a hospital inventory over the course of six years has been procured from a hospital in Norway. Based on the results, the hospital could have a potential product variety reduction of approximately 11% and cost savings from the spending of approximately NOK 3.6 million. Reducing the variety of products in hospital inventories proves to be an approach to reducing costs. The model developed for the research is universal in nature and could be used in other fields, such as retail, marketing etc.
Hospitals are the most important and costly component of the healthcare system. Therefore, hospital performance evaluation (HPE) is an important issue for the managers of these centres. This paper presents a new approach for HPE that can be used to calculate the efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity of hospitals simultaneously. Efficiency refers to the ratio of inputs and outputs, effectiveness refers to the extent to which outputs align with predetermined goals, and productivity refers to the sum of both efficiency and effectiveness. To this end, a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model is developed to simultaneously measure the efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity (DEA-EEP) of hospitals. DEA is a linear programming technique that in its traditional form, calculates the performance of similar decision-making units (DMUs) that have both inputs and outputs. In this study, the inputs are the number of health workers, the number of other staff, and the number of patient beds; while the outputs are the bed occupancy rate and the bed turnover rate. A target value is set for each output to measure the effectiveness of hospitals. The advantage of the developed model is the ability to provide a solution for non-productive units so that they can improve their performance by changing their inputs and outputs. In the case study, data of 11 hospitals in Tehran were evaluated for a 3-year period. Based on the results, some hospitals experienced an upward trend in the period, but the efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity scores of most hospitals fluctuated and did not have a growing trend. This indicates that although most hospitals sought to improve the quality of their services, they needed to take more serious steps.
Servitization in developed countries is an increasingly popular strategy for building a competitive advantage. Its level varies depending on different market conditions as well as between sectors. The Polish economy is that of a developed country, but still, its level of development is slightly lower compared to the most developed countries. The current state of knowledge indicates that the machinery manufacturing sector usually characterises the highest level of servitization in comparison to other manufacturing sectors. To the author’s knowledge, no study on the servitization of Polish manufacturing companies has been conducted. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to fill the gap by analysing and evaluating the level of servitization in manufacturing companies operating in the Polish market. Aiming to assess whether the Polish manufacturers follow the global trends of servitization, the questionnaire survey was conducted with 150 machinery manufacturers operating in the Polish market. The survey was performed using the Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) technique between May and July of 2018. The results showed that in surveyed companies, the level of servitization, which was assessed based on a range of the most frequently provided services, was rather low. Although most manufacturers offer services to their customers, these services mostly support their products, and the revenue derived from the services constitutes a comparatively small part of the company’s total revenue. This paper makes two types of contribution to the development of research in the field of servitization. First, the study on the servitization of the Polish manufacturing companies revealed that in a country with the well-developed economy, industrial enterprises still rely on manufacturing rather than service delivery. And the potential for services is not yet recognised. Secondly, the original model for classifying the level of product and service integration in the activity of a manufacturing company is proposed. The model requires empirical verification and further studies. Nevertheless, it stands for a theoretical contribution to the research field of servitization.
The current research study aimed to explore the utility of selected problem-solving tools and techniques in root-cause analysis to demonstrate their practical application. An experimental research design adopting a positivist empirical approach with a deductive strategy was followed to assess the effectiveness of a combined (8D & Six Sigma) problem-solving approach in reducing a high defects rate of a mixer shower assembly line. A novel application of the 8D framework in combination with Six Sigma and other analytical tools was found highly effective in reducing the reject rate from 11.84% to 0.11%. Successful identification of the root cause led to the implementation of permanent corrective action ensuring a long-term stable assembly process. The research study provided a problem-solving framework that was found effective in resolving a complex problem and implementing long-term corrective action in an assembly production line. However, this framework can be used in other industries. The research study provides a solution to a high number of leak rejects in a sub-assembly where "O-seals" are used between mating parts. It also provides analytical tools that were found highly effective during the problem-solving process.
There is an increasing focus on bridging human behaviour and attitudes towards sustainability. This article focuses on the factors that influence sustainable behaviour of working people. Based on a systematic and comparative analysis of scientific literature, the authors of the paper present the theoretical conceptual model, which illustrates sustainable behaviour. The aim of the empirical research is to examine how employees relate to sustainable behaviour across generations, genders and different modes of education through economic, environmental and social domains. A quantitative method in the form of a survey was selected to capture individual employee attitudes and actions regarding sustainable behaviour. A total of 412 complete responses from Lithuanian employees were used for data analysis. The results of empirical research revealed a significant relationship between gender, generation and education, and sustainable employee behaviour.
The article addresses the need to identify and quantify the external costs of air pollution on the health of the population, especially children. The subjects of evaluation are the respiratory illnesses acute nasopharyngitis and acute bronchitis, both of which have very high incidence in connection with air pollution. The aim of this paper is to estimate the cost of morbidity and to determine the amount of additional social costs of airway morbidity among children aged 0–15 years in Ostrava city, one of the most polluted cities in Europe, compared to the incidence of these diseases in the whole Czech Republic. Estimation of social costs is based on the Cost-Of-Illness approach, in which the total value is made up of the costs actually incurred in treating illness and in loss of productivity. Using this approach, additional costs related to the treatment of illnesses were calculated at approximately €20 million per year, which represents approximately 0.4% of Ostrava's regional gross domestic product (GDP).
The paper focuses on the main features of corporate volunteering in companies from the Sverdlovsk region (Russian Federation), with a population surpassing 4.5 million inhabitants. Corporate volunteering is analyzed in the context of the trend characteristic for the post-Soviet space. The article systematizes approaches to the definition and study of this phenomenon, implemented by researchers from different countries. The main goal of the article is to identify the specific features of corporate volunteering in a large Russian region, considered typical for industrial territories in post-Soviet areas, seen through the social value that local communities attribute to corporate volunteering. The paper is based on the results of a public opinion poll and structured interviews, carried out in the Sverdlovsk region, where there is a concentration of enterprises of “hard” industries. The responses obtained in the poll were further subjected to analysis using statistical methods. The data are supplemented with information collected through the qualitative interviews. Interviewed experts are the top managers of enterprises and the deputy directors for HR, GR, or social issues. The study shows that in Russian industrial cities, where large enterprises are the main employers for most residents, many questions on the implementation of social policy fall under the responsibility of these enterprises, and not of the local government. Researchers argue that corporate volunteering is not widespread in the large Russian regions. It most often develops within the framework of event planning and environmental projects, managed by enterprises in cooperation with social and cultural institutions of local communities and not with the non-profit sector. The traditions of the organization of mass social work formed during the socialist period are still deeply rooted in enterprises, and managers rarely identify volunteering as a new managerial tool, thus being untangled from the global trend of promoting corporate volunteerism as a means of building corporate culture.
This paper deals with the principle of subsidiarity in asylum law. It exposes some of the most important ‘push’ factors that have been considered by the European Union (EU) as arguments for the centralisation of asylum law. Through the application of an economic approach, this text examines the need for harmonization of asylum standards to reach the goal established in Article 5 of the Treaty on European Union. An economic methodology is used to investigate the application of the subsidiarity principle by considering some of the most important economic criteria for both centralisation and decentralisation, and by applying the findings to the asylum law. Specifically, this paper considers the Tiebout model, the problem of the ‘race to the bottom’, the reduction of transaction costs, and the importance of the protection of refugee human rights. These theories are commonly used in the cases of a specific issue with a transboundary nature, which produces [negative] international externalities. In addition, they reflect the significance of equal conditions within the EU Member States as well as the role of the EU as a sui generis organisation protecting human rights. It should be noted that this paper does not deal with the basic normative question of whether or not refugees deserve protection, but it aims to expose the advantages and disadvantages of an EU asylum policy. In its conclusion, the paper discusses the advantages of a centralised EU policy that also allows, within certain conditions, some type of competition between the Member States.