Design For Accessibility
Structural Funds, Growth And Cyclical Recurrence
Ivan Todorov, Kalina Durova and Aleksandar Aleksandrov
Dodik Setiawan Nur Heriyanto
This study traces the history of the formation of immunities concept and its application in commercial activities in ancient Mesopotamia and Greece. The doctrine of immunity is discussed based on the historical process starting from the myth, concept, and its implementation in the commercial/trade activities. By using historical approach, this study shows that in Mesopotamia and Greece, traders or merchants enjoyed absolute immunity due to their position as the representative of their King or polis in which their commercial acts and diplomatic mission were combined. In Mesopotamia, merchants enjoyed the full confidence of the King, and one would not be wrong to suppose that in such enterprises commercial activity and diplomatic mission were combined. Compared to the Mesopotamian practices that granted all traders with the status of immunity from public obligations, in ancient Greece only traders with honorific conditions could enjoy the status of proxenos.
The following article aims to introduce a scientific work undertaken with the aim of producing an Urban Planning terminology Dictionary in Albanian, accompanied by French and English. The study and exposure of urban planning terminology will be treated in two works, part of one another: *The theory platform for the analyses of linguistic problems represented by this terminology. *The draft of a dictionary with the main urban planning terminology (Albanian - French - English). To accomplish these two works, a preparatory work has been done in the first stage as it follows: 1. A great quantity of urban planning terms has been taken from this branch’s literature (schoolbooks; books published by urban planners about the various urban problems; this branch’s periodical magazines; urban laws throughout the years alongside with the relevant regulations; etc) what makes up the factual material. 2. The theory material has been collected and studied and it includes monographs, articles, references and other editions which have dealt with Albanian terminology problems, obviously by Albanian authors. We have also used foreign literature about terminology problems, mainly in French. On this theory and factual bases and by following the scientific criteria which have been applied to draft the terminology dictionaries (Albanian - Foreign languages) by the terminology section of the Albanian language and literature Institute, we have launched the preliminary wordy of the dictionary and partially completed its equivalent in French. While working with this dictionary, we have begun dealing with one terminology problem which is used in this branch, the one of the meaning phenomena. During this whole process, there urged the need to complete the factual material and naturally to deeply exploit the theory literature.
This paper is focused on the statistical assessment of seasonal effects on farmers' income, their workocupation in farm, and sales of apple products. In focus of this study we have taken two regions Prizren and Korça. By making a comparing between Albania and Kosovo, with regard to significance of the model of seasonal effects for apples. In this paper we have used several statistical and econometric methods to evaluate the seasonal effects on economic phenomena taken in the study. We have used the variation indicators to show the distribution of the observed phenomenon. We also have used dummy variable models. Dummy variables are often used in time series analysis, in seasonal and qualitative analysis of applied data. Each dummy variable is set to 1 if the point of datas is received from a specified season and otherwise 0. To evaluate the seasonal effects in a time series through 1dummy variables, we need to use four dummy variables, one for each quarter, or three dummy variables and a constant. These variables use them as inputs or factors in a regression model. In our paper, we have categorized sales, for apples in 5 different periods. To estimate the magnitude of seasonal effects and to test their significansy are used four dami variables. The purpose of this paper is to show whether the pattern of seasonal effects for apples is significant.
Isabel Babo and Célia Taborda Silva
In Portugal, in 2012, the movement “To hell with troika! We want our lives!” emerged from digital social networks and with demonstration on the street on September 15. This social movement has patented new forms of public mobilization and protest motivated by citizens' dissatisfaction with the austerity measures of the Portuguese government, but it is part of the line of protest that has been taking place at the international level. Social networks were used to trigger mobilization, but the protest did not dispense with the traditional forms of expression in the public space, such as gatherings in the squares, rallies, marches and posters. Using a corpus taken from the written press, the event was analyzed using a theoretical and conceptual framework of theories of public space, social movements, and social networks. In this article we intend to reflect on the current protest movements, social networks and collective action, at a time when activism is exercised in electronic connections and in the street. Through this movement we aim to question whether we are facing new configurations of mobilization, visibility, public action and the creation of a common space, and / or if we are facing a continuity of the traditional social movement with the incorporation of new "repertoires of action".
Iancu Miruna Mădălina
It is certainly and without fail that through a simple hovering over the present state of relations between Romania and the Russian Federation, the factual balance is not an encouraging one, the state of mind of the bilateral register being continuously dominated by the same issue: ,,history is a ballast, and the frame in which the two states perceive each other has been fixed a long time ago, clogged and jammed by momentarily political statements, and deprived of any heuristic nuances” (Dungaciu, Tănăsescu, 2013). Therefore and within such optics, based on an undeniable belief that a heuristic approach of the bilateral dimension is an imperative, the present paper aims to provide a first concrete solution likely to create the critical mass necessary to achieve a complex regeneration process of normalizing Romania's relations with its neighbor to the East. Circumscribed to such a sphere of interest, the present paper assumes the fact that beyond the overwhelming historical legacy related to the bilateral register and implicitly, beyond its problematic receipt, the complex process of normalizing the relations between Romanian and the Russian Federation is unavoidably obstructed by an entire arsenal of terms such as ,, reset”, ,,thaw”, ,,recovery”, ,,blocking”, terms which maintain and support a certain negative perception, thus certifying the fact that it prevails a ,,freeze”, a ,,cooling” and an impediment in the bilateral dimension. Starting from this undeniable and undoubted reality, the axial objective of the present paper is to fundamentally reverse this lexical hegemony, thus operating substantive changes at the level of the linguistic universe specific to the bilateral register, in such a manner as to register a major change in regards to the behavioral pattern afferent to the bilateral reports.
The protection of the public interest is the main principle governing the activity regulation of the administrative bodies. This activity, traditionally, has been developed through administrative acts, as an expression of the unilateral and authoritarian willpower of public authority, which creates legal consequences. The administrative act has been and remains the most important instrument for the administration bodies to accomplish their mission, but it is no longer effective. Particularly this lack of efficiency is noticed in recent years when the development of the economy and the needs of the evergrowing society have prompted the administration to adapt its activity by making use of other mechanisms “borrowed” from private law. An important part of public activity can also be achieved through the contract as a way that brings the state closer to the private, mitigating its dominant position and leaving space for the efficiency of private activity to fulfil public engagements. Such contracts today are known as “administrative contracts” or “public contracts”. The terms mentioned above are instruments that establish legal relations, for the regulation of which the principle of public interest is opposed and competes with the principle of freedom of the contractual willpower. The regulation of these types of contracts is reached through the private law, which constitutes the general normative framework of contracts (lex generalis) even for the administrative contracts. But this general arrangement will have effect for as long as it does not contradict the imperative provisions of the specific act of public law (lex specialis), which regulates the administrative procedure for the completion of these contracts. This paper aims to bring to the spotlight the way our legislation predict and regulates administrative contracts, by emphasising particularly the features of their dualistic nature. The coexistence and competition of the principles of the freedom of contractual willpower and the protection of the public interest, evidenced in administrative contracts, is presented in this paper through the legal analysis of the Albanian legal framework which regulates these contracts. Under the terms when the role of the state in providing public services tends to increase and our legislation aims the harmonization in accord with the European legislation, it is necessary to improve the administrative contract regulation and extend its scope of action.
Arbana Zhapaj and Gazmira Birce
Most of the professionals that work in the field of special needs help in development of the healthy relations with the families that have a child with special needs. Others continue to hide their profession behind the analyses conducted through medical diagnoses, and further more others judge the families, laws, conditions and what we normally have, a family of growing problems. The professionals should be active partners together with the families for the future of the children with special needs, by creating a relation based on respect and empathy. The attitudes of the professionals towards the families of the special need children make the relation to head to positivity or negativity. Normally these attitudes come from the perception that the professionals have for the feelings that parents experience, the impact of the child on the family, what they consider important to construct a collaboration and to assess when and how the parents need the professionals, or the characteristics that the relation present with these parents. The aim of the study is to point out the opinions that the professionals have in relation to the family; these opinions will help us to evaluate the attitudes of the professionals and their impact in the development of the collaboration with the families.
The paper consists of these key ideas, first, Italy in Albania reflects cautious, which was accompanied by the formation of an administration with an Albanian element but in the care of Italy. While, on the other hand, felt anxious, due to the publication of the Secret Treaty of London, which was associated with the distrust of Albanians towards Italy's care. Secondly, on the other hand, Italy's politics urged the Albanians of Switzerland to wake up in these very important historical moments for Albania, for the fact that the post-war political conditions of the First World required Albania to be represented in European politics through Italy. Thirdly, the Albanian political class was on its way to maturity, at the same time experiencing disagreement, in the mere political terms, under such conditions Italy had drawn into its politics, some prominent Albanian elements, who sought Italy's help for The formation of the Albanian state. This intervention had created discussions and disagreements between the Albanian political segments that with the echo of the past were perceived as different political streams.