Information behavior, as a part of human behavior, has many aspects, including a cognitive aspect. Cognitive biases, one of the important issues in psychology and cognitive science, can play a critical role in people’s behaviors and their information behavior. This article discusses the potential relationships between some concepts of human information behavior and cognitive biases. The qualitative research included semistructured face-to-face interviews with 25 postgraduate students who were at the writing-up stage of their research. The participants were selected using a purposeful sampling process. Interviews were analyzed using the coding technique of classic grounded theory. The research framework was the Eisenberg and Berkowitz information behavior model. The relationships that are discussed in this article include those between the principle of least effort on the one hand and availability bias and ambiguity aversion on the other; value-sensitive design and reactance; willingness to return and availability bias; library anxiety and ambiguity aversion, status quo bias, and stereotypical bias; information avoidance and selective perception, confirmation bias, stereotypical bias, and conservatism bias; information overload and information bias; and finally, filtering and attentional bias.
As a scientific field, scientific mapping offers a set of standardized methods and tools which can be consistently adopted by researchers in different knowledge domains to answer their own research questions. This study examined the scientific articles that applied science mapping tools (SMT) to analyze scientific domains and the citations of these application articles. To understand the roles of these application articles in scholarly communication, we analyzed 496 application articles and their citations from 14 SMT by classifying them into library and information science (LIS) and other fields (non-LIS) in terms of both publication venues and analyzed domains. In our study, we found that science mapping, a topic that is deeply situated in the LIS field, has gained increasing attention from various non-LIS scientific fields over the last few years, especially since 2012. Science mapping application studies practically grew up in LIS domain and spread to other fields. The application articles within and outside of the LIS fields played different roles in advancing the application of science mapping and knowledge discovery. Especially, we have discovered the important role of articles, which studied non-LIS domains but published in LIS journals, in advancing the application of SMTs.
The construction industry is changing constantly and becoming more complex. It requires new strategies for compliance with national and international scenarios. Developing each project is associated with many limitations, including time, cost, changes, wastes, and errors, which are often not avoidable. Due to numerous project stages and complexities in the construction industry, usually, different mistakes and duplications occur. Meanwhile, Building Information Modeling (BIM) has created one of the most important and essential changes in this industry and results in more in-depth cooperation among project stakeholders. BIM is one of the most recent innovations in the construction industry, which resolves the problems of projects faster. BIM can be applied by architects, engineers, contractors, project managers, etc. to achieve objectives such as reducing design errors, reducing time and cost, improving design and construction integration, and increasing coordination and cooperation among different sections. Given the significance of project success in every country and several problems in each project, using BIM is an appropriate solution, which its proper implementation requires understanding its benefits that is the main aim of this study. This research identifies and classifies these benefits through the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) method, describing the significance of using BIM in infrastructure projects.
health-related problems and even death among animals and human beings. Agriculture is the main food source; thus, many interventions are made such as that of irrigation by the local county and national government initiated through the National Irrigation Board (NIB). Despite the irrigation projects food insufficiency still persists, therefore their sustainability is questionable. One such approach to improving the sustainability of irrigation projects is participatory monitoring and evaluation which leads to ownership and then higher sustainability. In the study, the objective was to asses if taking corrective action after participatory monitoring and evaluation (PME) influence project sustainability. The study used a descriptive survey and correlation designs to collect data from 316 respondents selected using stratification sand purposeful with strict randomization. Questionnaires were administered and interviews were conducted on selected sample respondents on appointed dates. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25.0 to get descriptive statistics, correlations coefficients were obtained to test association and degree of strength. Testing of the hypothesis was done using linear regression. The study findings were that a large number of respondents were between ages 31 to 40 years and most were female with their highest level of education being primary school. The influence of PME capacity building on the dependent variable and irrigation projects sustainability found that the farmers were not taken for exposure visits and project officers were not accountable for money use. Age, gender, and education level have very minimal influence on PME capacity building. PME capacity building had a weak positive influence of r = 0.290 and it explained only 8.4% of irrigation projects sustainability in Kitui County. The study recommends that to improve project capacity building: project revenue must be controlled on use, farmers must be taken for exposure visits to learn from successors, project officers should be accountable for funds use, and project guidelines should be improved to increase sustainability. Implementation of these recommendations will reduce the loss of Arid and Semi-Srid Lands (ASALs) and attain higher and longer sustainability in food projects, thus, reducing the recurrence rate of food shortage, improve and hasten the implementation of irrigation projects, show the need to involve primary stakeholders in project monitoring and appraisal for sustainability, better and efficient decisions by policymakers to increase chances of project’s success.
The construction project being studied is a government investment related to the relocation of a biomedical institute delivering research-based knowledge and contingency support in the fields of animal health, fish health and food safety. The project covers a total of 63,000 square meters distributed over 10 buildings with a very high degree of complexity. The design alone has required 1 million hours, which relates to a client cost of about 100 million Euro. The purpose of this paper is to study the applied methodology for managing the detailed design to identify lessons learned from the project. The theory underlying the study is inspired by lean design management and design theory linked to design as phenomena, including reciprocal interdependencies, iteration, decomposition, design as a “wicked problem”, learning, gradual maturation, etc. The article is based on an abductive research design and has been implemented as a case study where both qualitative and quantitative methods have been used.
The incorporation of new technologies to financial activities implies challenges and opportunities to financial authorities. They are reacting to the unavoidable trend towards digitalization of financial activities with the objective of preserving stable and efficient payment and financial systems. Uruguay, for instance, has promoted the use of electronic payment instruments and tested in the real economy a central bank digital currency called e-Peso. Digitalization of payment systems would reduce transaction costs by (partially) replacing less efficient means of payment, e.g. paper-cash and checks. In this paper we find that the cost of using cash in Uruguay is approximately 0.61% of GDP. Interestingly, 98.1% of this cost is borne by the private sector: banks and retailers 77.1% and households 21.0%. The cost of using checks is equivalent to 0.04% of GDP. Overall, replacing paper-cash and checks by other (electronic) means of payment would imply a transaction cost reduction for the private sector of the equivalent of up to 0.65% of GDP.