Browse

1 - 10 of 550 items :

  • Entrepreneurship x
Clear All
Capitalism. Democracy. Rule of Law

Abstract

This paper examines differences in the hazard rates of young, established and mature firms during the financial crisis, using microdata from more than 300,000 Irish firms. The findings confirm that firm size at the time of the crisis had the largest impact on the probability of exit. The liability of smallness was pronounced in mature cohorts. Industry conditions had a considerable effect on the hazard rate of young cohorts, as opposed to mature counterparts. Interestingly, agglomeration raised the hazard rates of younger cohorts only. By contrast, attributes of the labour force of the region largely influenced the hazard rates of more established firms. Firms founded before the crisis were significantly less likely to exit in the aftermath of the crisis, in comparison with firms founded just before or during the crisis, whereas more mature firms seem to be more sensitive to the economic cycle.

Abstract

The Bystander Intervention Model (BIM) is applied to explore how bystanders to workplace bullying assess situations and choose responses based on the (female) target’s sexual orientation. We investigate how attitudes of homophobia and amnestic heterosexism (AH) affect these responses. Vignettes of workplace mistreatment against lesbian, female bisexuals, or female heterosexual targets were randomly presented to respondents, who were asked to assess the degree of “mistreatment” they perceive, their feelings of personal responsibility, and their anticipated responses. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. Regardless of levels of homophobia or AH, respondents report less active intervention when the target is lesbian compared to bisexual or heterosexual females. Respondents do not distinguish between conditions in clarity or severity of bullying. However, those higher in homophobia and AH feel less personal responsibility and are less likely to intervene when the target is lesbian.

Abstract

The role of energy for the developmental process of nations is a known fact due to being crucial input for any phase of production of goods and services. That’s the reason why countries that are rich in energy resources also have strategic power in terms of the international trade of these resources. On the other hand, it becomes important to provide energy security for countries that are resource-poor. Although green energy has become preferred one, fossil fuel energy keeps its place as one of the most used energy resources. That's why in this study it is aimed to determine major providers and users of coal as a type of fossil fuel energy resources. It is vital to investigate the structure of global coal trade structure to determine the weaknesses and strength of supply and use of coal. Network approach provides a holistic view to the system analyzed and presents more realistic (high-degree) indicators to analyze it. In this study, global trade network of coal is analyzed from 2000 to 2017 via network analysis. Changing structure and evolution of global coal trade has been revealed via some topological parameters which are specific to complex networks such as density, clustering, assortativity/disassortativity, centrality and degree distribution.

Abstract

The paper seeks to empirically explore the variations and changes in the degree of International Financial Integration (IFI) between the European Transition countries and Post-Transition countries between 2000 and 2016. The estimation of parameters was made using the Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) approach. The findings of the study reveal that European Post-Transition countries have relatively more developed financial systems compared to European Transition countries, where private credit market is still playing an overwhelmingly important role in a financial system while stock markets are in an early stage of development constituting a relatively small share of the financial system. Even though in Panel 3 there are significant control variables, our findings reveal that IFI in European transition countries are affected neither by stock market capitalization and private credit markets. Consequently, they can’t be used in this stage of financial development for explanation of variations and changes in the degree of IFI.

Abstract

Measurement of dispersion and variation have been studied and evaluated in many applications. Volatility in the field of finance is an important measure as it directly impacts allocation, risk management, and valuation. Pitman Closeness criterion is used to compare estimators of standard deviation from equity returns in a control charting application. Three estimators are evaluated over the 30 DJIA component stocks in an effort to determine if one method of estimation has better performance within an application of control charting for identifying outliers. The study uses three sample sizes to also determine if the better estimator is sample size dependent.

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of key financial obligation factors on total factor productivity (TFP) for 34 Indian industries for the period 2008 2018 using qualitative and quantitative techniques. Financial obligations are measured by short- and long-term loans, operating expenses and liabilities. The outcome of qualitative techniques does not appear to support the hypothesis that short term and long-term loans, liabilities and operating expenses influence TFP. On the contrary, the evidences arise from quantitative technique appear to suggest that short term loan and operating expenses promote TFP. The study also suggests that complimentaries exist between operating expenses and short-term loan and they together appear to boost productivity.

Abstract

The study examines the asymmetric impact of exchange rate on the trade balance in Nigeria relying of time series data that spans 1960-2016. The Non-linear ARDL bounds test and the Bayer and Hanck (2013) test established a cointegrating relationship among the variables after accounting for structural break in the series. The Block Exogeneity Wald Tests affirmed the bidirectional causality between the variables. Findings establish the asymmetric impact of exchange rate on the trade balance in Nigeria, but unable to confirm the existence of the J-curve Phenomenon. This reveals that the devaluation of the Naira may not be a viable decision if the intention is to curb the persistent deficit in the country’s trade balance. Policies that could help curtail these deficits and enhance sustainable growth were suggested.

Abstract

Individual innovative behavior can have important implications for organizations. This article studies the relationship between occupational stress and individual innovative behavior. Data from 139 subjects from the US was analyzed using structural equation modeling as the technique. Results from partial least squares show that there is a positive and significant relationship between both constructs. Moreover, both variables present a U form relationship. Based on this research, it could be concluded that occupational stress could influence positively innovative behavior at work. Practical implications suggest that innovative behavior could be boost by identifying conditions at work that could produce time pressure. Elements such as work overload, feedback and allowing employees to take risks could help in idea generation.

Abstract

The usage of psychological ownership as an HR practice has been of a relatively recent origin. It is fast being recognized as a useful tool in the area of human resource management. Employee Stock Option Plans are being used as a technique to propagate psychological ownership and gain many advantages including a competitive edge. This paper explores the available literature on psychological ownership in general and Employee Stock Option plans in particular over a thirty year period from 1988 till 2018. An attempt has been made to integrate all matter into a theoretical model indicating the effect of such plans on individuals and organizations. In the study, several empirical as well as theoretical papers have been studied and the impact of Employee Stock Option Plans on several parameters like organizational productivity, individual performance, absenteeism, employee turnover and organizational citizenship behaviour have been reported. Several job attitudes like job satisfaction and commitment of employees towards their organization have also been reported. The studies reporting conditions of these plans that make them successful have been covered comprehensively.