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Open access

Magdalena Kozińska

Abstract

The passive side of a bank’s balance sheet is characterized by considerable variety. Additionally, the intention of the supervisors is that the bank losses are covered according to a specific order, which foresees that the owners are the first to be exposed, followed by the creditors (but some of the bank’s liabilities are essential for the continuation of the operations and it is not recommended that they are redeemed or converted into shares). The sequence of covering losses expected in the supervisory regulations is often inconsistent with the order resulting from the hierarchy of claims established in the bankruptcy law. In such a situation, implementing actions involving the write-down or conversion into shares of subsequent categories of debt may entail breaking the basic principles of bankruptcy and resolution law: the pari passu and no-creditor-worse-off rules. The purpose of the article is to identify situations in which the indicated rules are breached, as well as to review and evaluate national solutions that have been implemented to ensure compliance with the above mentioned rules. To this end, the relationship between the structure of the passive side of the bank balance sheet, supervisory regulations in the area of capital adequacy and the resolution principles were analyzed. As a result, four situations have been identified where there is a risk of breaking the already mentioned rules. The review of national solutions implemented to address the problem suggests that they lead mainly to its shift to the next category in the claims’ hierarchy, but does not eliminate it. A similar effect is also provided by the amendment of the BRR Directive, which aims mainly to harmonize solutions introduced at national level.

Open access

Michał Comporek

Abstract

The main objective of the study is to examine the relationship between the implemented reserves policy and the value of accruals reported in the financial statements of public companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Both research fields are considered as the main areas of earnings management, which can be seen both as the pursuance of a true and fair view of the economic situation of a business entity and as the intentional manipulation of the results of an economic activity in order to mislead selected stakeholders of company. Empirical studies were conducted among public companies included in the WIG20, mWIG40 and sWIG80 stock indices, whose shares have been traded on the stock market for at least 10 years in the assumed horizon of 1997-2016.

Open access

Florin Lucian Isac and Eugen Florin Remes

Abstract

Culture is a concept with different meanings, which is in close contact with the business world as well. Its influence on managerial activities within current organizations cannot be questioned, especially in the existing political, economic and social context. Nowadays, one of the specific ways of formulating and implementing strategies at the level of companies is related to the change of organizational culture. This paper aims to highlight, from a managerial perspective, the way in which the existing strategies at the organizational level are influenced by different cultural contexts. Sometimes strategy can be considered as a variable determined and constrained by the culture in which it is defined. It is not limited to the reflection and expression of culture but rather influences and changes it.

Open access

Justyna Dobroszek

Abstract

Supply chain management (SCM) is a modern phenomenon in business practice and an important area of scientific discussions. In the literature it is not easy to find only one explanation of this subject because some scientists treat SCM as a separate concept, others as an expansion of the logistics function. The supply chain is a kind of modern business model that needs accurate management. To support the management process an the effective way, management accounting tools and methods may be applied. The aim of the article is to present the methods and tools of management accounting used for the measurement of costs and results in SCM. For this purpose, a survey was conducted among 40 selected enterprises in Poland. The findings indicate that on the one hand the studied organizations already use advanced management accounting tools and the methods providing information for SCM needs, on the other hand, they rarely apply them. This approach does not contribute to effective and holistic measurement of supply chain and its management.

Open access

Dan Stelian Deac and Klaus Bruno Schebesch

Abstract

Using efficient marketing strategies for understanding and improving the relation between vendors and clients rests upon analyzing and forecasting a wealth of data which appear at different time resolutions and at levels of aggregation. More often than not, market success does not have consistent explanations in terms of a few independent influence factors. Indeed, it may be difficult to explain why certain products or services tend to sell well while others do not. The rather limited success of finding general explanations from which to draw specific conclusions good enough in order to generate forecasting models results in our proposal to use data driven models with no strong prior hypothesis concerning the nature of dependencies between potentially relevant variables. If the relations between the data are not purely random, then a general or flexible enough data driven model will eventually identify them. However, this may come at a high cost concerning computational resources and with the risk of overtraining. It may also preclude any useful on-line or real time applications of such models. In order to remedy this, we propose a modeling cycle which provides information about the adequacy of a model complexity class and which also highlights some nonstandard measures of expected model performance.

Open access

Anna Kasperowicz

Abstract

The paper presents the features of the construction industry and the ways of organising investment processes, as well as the methods for the valuation of the services implemented within its scope. The individual valuation methods were assigned to the applicable provisions of Polish balance sheet law and the International Financial Reporting Standard No 15 “Revenues from contracts with customers” in force since 2018. On the basis of a practical example, there was illustrated the achieved financial result of a company providing installation services as a subcontractor in view of all the possible valuation methods. The author presented and evaluated the anticipated effects of the new standard’s entry into force, and in conclusion presented a selection of the valuation methods for the services performed in this industry, which is complicated and has a decisive impact on the amount of profits and losses of the financial results presented in the account.

Open access

Krzysztof Wańczyk

Abstract

The aim of the article is to analyse the change in the quotations of Polish listed companies, which change the stock exchange index as part of the periodic change in the composition of the WIG20, mWIG40 and sWIG80 stock market indices. The research methodology uses abnormal return (AR) based on daily logarithmic rates of return of Polish listed companies and daily logarithmic rates of return on the stock market indices (WIG20, mWIG40, sWIG80). In this way, they defined the relative strength of listed shares in relation to the stock indices revision a month before the composition of the stock index, when the drawn up list of companies is changing the composition of the index. In addition, the relative strength of quoted shares in relation to stock exchange indices after the revision of the composition of the stock exchange index in the short-term (one month) and medium-term perspective (six months) was examined. The research was based on quarterly changes in the composition of stock exchange indices in the years 2010-2015. The analyses carried out indicate the existence of positive surplus stock returns a month before the change in the stock index. The average number of quotes of these companies above the stock market index at the time amounted to +0.52 percentage points. In turn, the average increase in the prices of the debuting companies in the new stock exchange index within 6 months after their flotation it amounted to +0.97 percentage points over the benchmark (WIG20, mWIG40, sWIG80).

Open access

Olimpia Neagu and Mircea Constantin Teodoru

Abstract

The paper explores the association between economic competitiveness and inclusive development in 101 economies based on data provided by the 2018 World Economic Forum reports. Coefficients of ranks correlation and cluster analysis are used in this view. The values of Competitiveness Index and of Inclusive Development Index delivered by the 2018 World Economic Forum reports are considered. Economic competitiveness and inclusive development are positively associated in our sample of 101 economies and the correlation is stronger in the emerging countries as in the group of advanced economies. Among the advanced economies the mean scores of GCI and IDI are higher than in the group of emerging countries showing a better coordination of economic and institutional factors driving competitivity as well as inclusiveness. Countries belonging to a geographical region/continent/economic group are not grouped in the same cluster, emphasizing disparities among countries at regional/continental/economic group level. In the group of emerging economies, the disparities regarding competitivity and inclusiveness are lower than those among the advanced economies, the clusters are closer to one another and they are more homogeneous. Greater competitivity and economic performance can generate socioeconomic inequity that should be corrected through appropriate economic and social policy measures aimed to lead to wider distrbution of income and social inclusiveness.

Open access

Stanisław Hońko

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to examine whether their profession is a source of satisfaction for Polish accountants. The study used the results of a nationwide survey by the accountants association in Poland “2017 accountants’ portrait”. As it results from more than 2,500 responses by accountants, over three quarters of respondents assess their own job satisfaction highly. The image of an accountant satisfied with their job does not match the stereotypical perception of this profession. The respondents’ answers indicate that the level of satisfaction is related to the position held and the remuneration received. The perception of accountants as “generators of additional costs” or “business impediments” is also significant, which can lower satisfaction with working in accounting. The paper employs methods of a source analysis and a diagnostic survey. The data collected in the survey was analysed using simple statistical methods and was appropriately presented.

Open access

Małgorzata Macuda

Abstract

In the last 20 years many OECD countries have adopted some form of diagnosis-related group (DRG) prospective payment system to reimburse hospitals. In Poland, hospitals are also paid fixed prices, imposed by Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia (NFZ) according to DRG, for patients treated. The aim of this paper is to calculate, analyze and compare the costs of patient conditions within the same DRG (F72 – inguinal hernia), collate these costs and the reimbursement from NFZ with the purpose of determining the net profit and then check if it matches bigger research samples. In order to realize the aim of the paper, a comparative and a content analysis of medicals documents and financial data were adopted, and Student’s t-test was performed. The Shapiro-Wilk test was applied to confirm the correctness of the research sample. The results revealed that the reimbursement for costs related to inguinal hernia treatment covers the costs of 90% of patient conditions from the research sample.