The passive side of a bank’s balance sheet is characterized by considerable variety. Additionally, the intention of the supervisors is that the bank losses are covered according to a specific order, which foresees that the owners are the first to be exposed, followed by the creditors (but some of the bank’s liabilities are essential for the continuation of the operations and it is not recommended that they are redeemed or converted into shares). The sequence of covering losses expected in the supervisory regulations is often inconsistent with the order resulting from the hierarchy of claims established in the bankruptcy law. In such a situation, implementing actions involving the write-down or conversion into shares of subsequent categories of debt may entail breaking the basic principles of bankruptcy and resolution law: the pari passu and no-creditor-worse-off rules. The purpose of the article is to identify situations in which the indicated rules are breached, as well as to review and evaluate national solutions that have been implemented to ensure compliance with the above mentioned rules. To this end, the relationship between the structure of the passive side of the bank balance sheet, supervisory regulations in the area of capital adequacy and the resolution principles were analyzed. As a result, four situations have been identified where there is a risk of breaking the already mentioned rules. The review of national solutions implemented to address the problem suggests that they lead mainly to its shift to the next category in the claims’ hierarchy, but does not eliminate it. A similar effect is also provided by the amendment of the BRR Directive, which aims mainly to harmonize solutions introduced at national level.
The main objective of the study is to examine the relationship between the implemented reserves policy and the value of accruals reported in the financial statements of public companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Both research fields are considered as the main areas of earnings management, which can be seen both as the pursuance of a true and fair view of the economic situation of a business entity and as the intentional manipulation of the results of an economic activity in order to mislead selected stakeholders of company. Empirical studies were conducted among public companies included in the WIG20, mWIG40 and sWIG80 stock indices, whose shares have been traded on the stock market for at least 10 years in the assumed horizon of 1997-2016.
Supply chain management (SCM) is a modern phenomenon in business practice and an important area of scientific discussions. In the literature it is not easy to find only one explanation of this subject because some scientists treat SCM as a separate concept, others as an expansion of the logistics function. The supply chain is a kind of modern business model that needs accurate management. To support the management process an the effective way, management accounting tools and methods may be applied. The aim of the article is to present the methods and tools of management accounting used for the measurement of costs and results in SCM. For this purpose, a survey was conducted among 40 selected enterprises in Poland. The findings indicate that on the one hand the studied organizations already use advanced management accounting tools and the methods providing information for SCM needs, on the other hand, they rarely apply them. This approach does not contribute to effective and holistic measurement of supply chain and its management.
The paper presents the features of the construction industry and the ways of organising investment processes, as well as the methods for the valuation of the services implemented within its scope. The individual valuation methods were assigned to the applicable provisions of Polish balance sheet law and the International Financial Reporting Standard No 15 “Revenues from contracts with customers” in force since 2018. On the basis of a practical example, there was illustrated the achieved financial result of a company providing installation services as a subcontractor in view of all the possible valuation methods. The author presented and evaluated the anticipated effects of the new standard’s entry into force, and in conclusion presented a selection of the valuation methods for the services performed in this industry, which is complicated and has a decisive impact on the amount of profits and losses of the financial results presented in the account.
The aim of the article is to analyse the change in the quotations of Polish listed companies, which change the stock exchange index as part of the periodic change in the composition of the WIG20, mWIG40 and sWIG80 stock market indices. The research methodology uses abnormal return (AR) based on daily logarithmic rates of return of Polish listed companies and daily logarithmic rates of return on the stock market indices (WIG20, mWIG40, sWIG80). In this way, they defined the relative strength of listed shares in relation to the stock indices revision a month before the composition of the stock index, when the drawn up list of companies is changing the composition of the index. In addition, the relative strength of quoted shares in relation to stock exchange indices after the revision of the composition of the stock exchange index in the short-term (one month) and medium-term perspective (six months) was examined. The research was based on quarterly changes in the composition of stock exchange indices in the years 2010-2015. The analyses carried out indicate the existence of positive surplus stock returns a month before the change in the stock index. The average number of quotes of these companies above the stock market index at the time amounted to +0.52 percentage points. In turn, the average increase in the prices of the debuting companies in the new stock exchange index within 6 months after their flotation it amounted to +0.97 percentage points over the benchmark (WIG20, mWIG40, sWIG80).
The aim of the paper is to examine whether their profession is a source of satisfaction for Polish accountants. The study used the results of a nationwide survey by the accountants association in Poland “2017 accountants’ portrait”. As it results from more than 2,500 responses by accountants, over three quarters of respondents assess their own job satisfaction highly. The image of an accountant satisfied with their job does not match the stereotypical perception of this profession. The respondents’ answers indicate that the level of satisfaction is related to the position held and the remuneration received. The perception of accountants as “generators of additional costs” or “business impediments” is also significant, which can lower satisfaction with working in accounting. The paper employs methods of a source analysis and a diagnostic survey. The data collected in the survey was analysed using simple statistical methods and was appropriately presented.
In the last 20 years many OECD countries have adopted some form of diagnosis-related group (DRG) prospective payment system to reimburse hospitals. In Poland, hospitals are also paid fixed prices, imposed by Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia (NFZ) according to DRG, for patients treated. The aim of this paper is to calculate, analyze and compare the costs of patient conditions within the same DRG (F72 – inguinal hernia), collate these costs and the reimbursement from NFZ with the purpose of determining the net profit and then check if it matches bigger research samples. In order to realize the aim of the paper, a comparative and a content analysis of medicals documents and financial data were adopted, and Student’s t-test was performed. The Shapiro-Wilk test was applied to confirm the correctness of the research sample. The results revealed that the reimbursement for costs related to inguinal hernia treatment covers the costs of 90% of patient conditions from the research sample.
Justyna Dobroszek, Ewelina Zarzycka, Alina Almasan and Cristina Circa
An important role in an organization is played by the management information system that enables managers to perform management tasks. The pillar of this system is financial and non-financial data provided by the management accounting system. The effect of the application of specific management accounting tools are various types of studies and analyses, defined in internal reports, which are the basis for management, and thus making decisions by managers. Internal reports, in order to fulfil their functions effectively, must have appropriate features as to its structure, content and other properties. In connection with this, the authors studied and presented an assessment of managers from Poland and Romania in the context of such properties of internal reports as quality, content, presentation and comments. The survey method was used as the research method, while the analysis of collected research material was based on cluster analysis and descriptive statistics. The sample consisted of 154 questionnaires. The findings are similar in both countries, although in the case of Romania, managers who assessed highly the quality and content of internal reports, and evaluated slightly lower the presentations and comments.
Environmental Life Cycle Costing (ELCC) combines life cycle analysis and cost systems applied by managers in order to assess the limitations of environmental production systems. It enables the evaluation of progress in implementing sustainable development by determining the social costs of resource consumption and environmental degradation. This study presents the results of empirical research covering production enterprises with foreign equity participation operating in Poland which have the basic ELCC model in place. The research is aimed to identify the benefits and inconveniences arising from the practical application of the model as a significant factor determining its functioning in entities. The research methodology was supplemented by numerous literature items, analysis of survey questionnaires, as well as deduction and induction methods.