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Katarzyna Cymbranowicz

Abstract

The article discusses the problem of people who are working, but struggle with poverty. The phenomenon of ‘working poor’ is subjected to a taxonomic analysis, in which the subjective scope is limited to selected European states and the time span to the last twelve years. The aim of the article is to show the relation between work and poverty on European labour markets, including clarifying the level and structure of ‘working poor’. In order to achieve such a research goal, the results of The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions were used, and thanks to the information obtained from the Eurostat database, it was possible to carry out comparable statistical analyses. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that the working poor phenomenon exists in Europe and in future may get stronger and pose a serious challenge for European labour markets.

Open access

René Matlovič, Radoslav Klamár, Ján Kozoň, Monika Ivanová and Miloslav Michalko

Abstract

The paper focuses on the evaluation of some aspects of the spatial organization of economic development of regions in the V4 countries after their accession to the EU. It focuses on the confirmation or confutation of the application of two principles of spatial organization based on the context of polarization theories, namely the polarity between western and eastern regions (i.e. the West–East gradient) and the polarity between the capital and other regions of the country (i.e. the national metropolitan gradient) at national and supranational levels. In the evaluation of the spatial polarity, the remoteness of various regions of the V4 countries from the economic core area (the Blue Banana, respectively the capital of the country) acts as the independent variable, whereby two economic indicators, i.e. the average monthly wage and the unemployment rate were chosen as the dependent variables. The analysis showed that on the supranational scale of the research in the monitored period, the increase of spatial polarisation was recorded. The increasing role of the West–East gradient and declining role of the national metropolitan gradient in the dynamics of spatial polarity has also been confirmed. The analysis has not confirmed the scale shift of polarity according to the West–East gradient to the national level, but at the same time it has pointed out the significant influence of the national metropolitan gradient in Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary at this assessment level.

Open access

István Hajnal

Abstract

One of the most prominent tourist attractions in Budapest is the ruin pub district. Here, in ruined, rundown buildings, clubs that are mainly aimed at young foreigners, participants in party tourism, have sprung up like mushrooms. In Inner Erzsébetváros, the housing prices have significantly risen, since investors see the short- or long-term renting of the apartments as a good opportunity. Those who live in the district, however, find the noise of parties to be too loud, while the crowd and the dirt reduces their quality of life. The apartments located near these pubs are so-called “stigmatized properties”, since their value is shaped by the - positive or negative - opinion of the community. Using the method of hedonic analysis, this article examines the question of whether ruin pubs are a blessing or a curse to surrounding apartments, whether their effect increases or, on the contrary, decreases the apartments’ values.

Open access

Szymon Wiśniewski

Abstract

The article presents the results of research devoted to comparing accessibility in terms of theoretical and real travel times by car at inter-regional, intra-regional and intra-urban scales. The research strives to achieve three types of aim. The methodological aim is to assess the suitability of the data for research into transport geography, in particular with regard to accessibility. This objective also focuses on developing a method for acquiring and processing source data from suppliers. The cognitive goal is to analyse the spatial differentiation of theoretical and real travel times at different spatial scales. In terms of application, the focus is on the use of real travel time data for transport planning. Data on theoretical travel times includes the author’s own calculations based on analyses whose key assumption is that cars move on a road network at the maximum speeds allowed by the law with all other variables being excluded. The other source of data (on real travel times) is the Distance Matrix Response provided by Google Maps APIs. Due to methods such as isochrones and cumulative accessibility it was concluded that data obtained from Google servers is highly useful for research into transport geography, including time accessibility analyses. The patterns presented here however cannot be treated uncritically or used for unrestricted analysis. With regard to the cognitive goal, it should be emphasized that spatial variations in travel differences, resulting from theoretical and real variants for journeys between regional cities in Poland, between settlement units within one region, or within one of its large cities, are heterogeneous depending on the nature and length of the journey. Therefore, depending on the spatial extent of analysis, divergences in travel times should be expected.

Open access

Bilkisu Adamu Aliyu, Habibu Sani, Hamza Usman and Hassan Muhammad

Abstract

This paper is aimed at contributing to the scarce empirical literature on mortgage valuation by ranking the factors that influences mortgage valuation inaccuracy in the Kaduna Residential property market. A quantitative research approach using a survey design was adopted and structured closedended questionnaires were designed and administered to 57 registered Estate Surveying and Valuation (ESV) firms in Kaduna metropolis; 51 out of the 57 administered questionnaires were returned and used for analysis. A simple random sampling technique was employed and the 5-point Likert scale used as the scale of measurement, while causative factors were ranked using the Relative Importance Index (RII). The study analyzed the data using percentages. Findings indicated that data inadequacy, imperfection in the property market and clients’ pressure are the most trending in the absence of a unified valuation approach. The regulatory framework and valuation methodology are least contributory to valuation inaccuracy in the study area. The research will be of interest to practitioners and academic researchers interested in mortgage valuation as a guide for conducting mortgage valuation in the study area.

Open access

Anna Trembecka and Anita Kwartnik-Pruc

Abstract

This research paper discusses the issue of the influence of claims for restitution of expropriated real properties on the process of managing public property. Owners of expropriated properties in Poland are protected in the real estate management process. It consists in the legislator imposing an obligation on the public legal entity to notify the entitled persons about the possibility to seek restitution of their properties if the intended purpose of expropriation has not been implemented and if the property is planned to be used for other purposes by the executive body. The thesis of this research paper is the statement that current legal regulations, in particular as regards the obligation to notify former owners, bring about problems in the process of the managing real estate owned by the State Treasury and local government units. The objective of this research paper is to identify problems in the process of public property management with respect to the rights of former owners to seek restitution of expropriated properties. Amendments to the regulations on real estate restitution were proposed in order to streamline the processes of rational real estate management, while respecting the principle of protecting property rights.

Open access

Marek Ogryzek, Radoslaw Wisniewski and Tom Kauko

Abstract

The article takes a fresh look at the concept of the "optimal" use of urban land. It discusses the procedure for choosing the "optimal" use of land within the context of rational spatial management practices and sets out a model solution for determining "optimal" land use types for given spatial and functional situations. A necessary set of geoinformation for informed decisions on choosing the "optimal" land use type is proposed. The study adds to the available knowledge concerning spatial analyses and simulations of "optimal" zoning processes; in doing so it applies the characteristic matrix method for inducing the optimal use of an area to diagnose the value of urban space and, in this way, to determine the "optimal" use under given circumstances. The article concludes by stating that the algorithm for selecting the "optimal” land use of an area significantly improves the decision-making process when carrying out the transformation of land use - the most important instrument for planning optimisation and organisation.

Open access

Faith Lawrence and Christian M. Rogerson

Abstract

Local economic development agencies (LEDAs) are increasingly important actors in place-based local economic development particularly in the global South. In South Africa there has been an expanded role for LEDAs in terms of the policy significance of local economic development. Although considerable research has been undertaken concerning the merits, challenges and contributions of LED in South Africa only limited material is available concerning the institutional and organisational arrangements to support the implementation of LED. Using policy documents, close engagement with the key national policy-making government departments and a national survey of the activities, operational challenges, and institutional constraints facing LEDAs, the findings from this investigation provide new insight into their role in place-based development. From the unfolding South African experience the strategic establishment of LEDAs potentially can contribute to maximizing the efficiency of place-based strategies. Arguably, key findings confirm the important contribution that LEDAs can make to locality development in the global South albeit that contribution is influenced by context realities.

Open access

Justyna Brzezińska

Abstract

Latent class analysis has been widely used in the measurement models. Models based on latent variables have a wide range of applications in the presence of repeated ob-servations, longitudinal data, and multilevel data. In this paper we present and apply log-linear analysis as a method for the analysis of multi-way tables. We also present a latent variable model based on a variable that is not directly observed. The basic model postulates an underlying categorical latent variable; within any category of the latent variable the manifest or observed categorical variables are assumed independent of one another (axiom of conditional independence). In this paper we present the results of a survey research based on categorical data and the author`s questionnaire. We present the results of the latent class analysis in the classification of respondents into clusters characterized by similar attitudes and features in economic research. We also conduct a prior log-linear analysis for a multi-way contingency table. All the calculations are conducted in R.

Open access

Maria M. Grzelak, Iwona Laskowska and Elżbieta Roszko-Wójtowicz

Abstract

In contemporary research and economic discussions, a great deal of attention is paid to issues concerning the relationship between competitiveness and research and development (R&D) activity. The measurement and assessment of the impact of R&D activity are extremely difficult but at the same time very important, in particular for authorities determining the level of expenditure on R&D and the method of spending public funds as well as for enterprises assessing the expected profits derived from R&D. The main aim of the article is an attempt to quantify the impact of R&D expenditure on three selected characteristics defining the competitiveness of manufacturing enterprises (gross value added, sold production and labour productivity). The analysis was carried out using panel models. The study makes use of statistical data published by the Central Statistical Office for individual divisions of manufacturing (Section C of the Polish Classification of Activities - PKD) in the years 2009-2016. The conducted analyses indicate that R&D expenditure constitutes a significant determinant of the competitiveness of the analysed divisions of manufacturing.