Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 2,700 items for :

  • Political Economics, other x
Clear All
Open access

Justyna Brzezińska

Abstract

Visualization in research process plays a crucial role. There are several advanced plots for visualizing categorical data, such as mosaic, association, double-decker, sieve or fourfold plot that are based on the graphical presentation of residuals in a contingency table. In this paper we present new methods for visualizing categorical data such as rmb, fluctile and scpcp plot available in extracat package in R. This package provides a well-structured representation of categorical data and allows for a detailed presentation of the relationship between categories in terms of proportions. We describe rmb, fluctile and cpcp. Those plots are based on the concept of multiple bar charts, a fluctuation diagram from a multidimensional table and parallel coordinates respectively. Such plots are mostly used for a visualization of a contingency table or a data frame; they can also be used for exploratory analysis and allows for a graphical presentation even for a high number of variables [Pilhöfer, Unwin 2013]. All the calculations and plots are obtained using R software.

Open access

Justyna Brzezińska

Abstract

Economic poverty is one of the more common and complex problems in the modern world, as well as in Poland. This is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon, and therefore there is no single universally valid definition of poverty. This article presents a statistical analysis of economic poverty in Poland based on real data from the Central Statistical Office of Poland. An in-depth statistical analysis of the social situation of Poles will be presented, as well as an attempt to examine interdependencies in the occurrence of various forms of poverty and social exclusion in Poland. In the article, several multivariate statistical methods are presented together with the graphical presentation of results. We present a correspondence analysis with a perception map, as well as the advanced modern visualizing tool for categorical data. All the calculations were conducted using R software.

Open access

Michał Brzozowski and Joanna Siwińska-Gorzelak

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to shed light on the public and private sector interdependencies in the international financial market. Using annual data on sovereign and private sector external indebtedness for 95 emerging and developing countries in the 1970-2012 period it looks at the relationship between the level and structure of public external debt and the likelihood of private sector entry in international bond and loan markets. The private sector entry in the offshore loans and bonds markets is shown to be conditional on the amount of public sector external debt. The relationship is complex but in general the saturation of the financial market with external government liabilities renders the private sector entry into the bonds’ market more difficult.

Open access

Jan Baran

Abstract

This paper analyses changes in overeducation incidence in Poland in 2006‑2014. It finds that a rise in number of tertiary educated workers outpaced an increase in number of jobs requiring tertiary education, which resulted in a substantial growth of overeducation incidence. The overeducation increase was driven mainly by mild overeducation rather than severe overeducation. Overeducated workers are usually young with little job experience. Women are found at lower risk of severe overeducation compared to men, but relatively more at risk of mild overeducation. A low risk of overeducation is associated with having studied technical and health programmes.

Open access

Witold Rzymowski and Agnieszka Surowiec

Abstract

Selected econometric methods of modelling the world’s population size based on historical data are presented in the paper. Periodical variables were used in the models proposed in the paper. Moreover, a logistic-type function was used in modelling. The purpose of the paper was to obtain a model describing the world’s population with the lowest possible maximal relative error and possibly the longest period of durability. In this work, 13,244 models from three families models were analyzed. Only a small part of such a large number of models satisfies the conditions of stability. The method of modelling the world’s population size allows to obtain models with maximal relative errors not exceeding 0.5%. Selected models were used to prediction of the world’s population up to 2050. The obtained results were compared with data published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Open access

Natalia Nehrebecka

Abstract

The aim of the article is to compare models on a train and validation sample, which will be created using logistic regression and Support Vector Machine (SVM) and will be used to assess the credit risk of non-financial enterprises. When creating models, the variables will be subjected to the transformation of the Weight of Evidence (WoE), the number of potential predictions will be reduced based on the Information Value (IV) statistics. The quality of the models will be assessed according to the most popular criteria such as GINI statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) and Area Under Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUROC). Based on the results, it was found that there are significant differences between the logistic regression model of discriminatory character and the SVM for the model sample. In the case of a validation sample, logistic regression has the best prognostic capability. These analyses can be used to reduce the risk of negative effects on the financial sector.

Open access

Joseph J. Hyde and Walter E. Block

Abstract

What is the source of the antipathy of Catholic intellectuals toward free markets? That is the issue addressed in the present paper. We see the antecedents of this viewpoint of theirs in terms of secular humanism, Marxism and mistaken views of morality and economics. One of the explanations for this phenomenon are the teachings of St Augustine. He greatly distrusted the City of Man, seeing it as anarchic and chaotic. In contrast, his City of God is more orderly, but far removed from the hurly burly of free enterprise. Another source of the rejection of capitalism on the part of Catholic intellectuals is liberation theology, which is Marxism minus the atheism of that doctrine. Both economic and cultural Marxism have played a role in the alienation of such intellectuals from the tenets of laissez faire capitalism. Are there any counter currents? Yes, the School of Salamanca, which has been all but forgotten in this community.

Open access

Konrad Szocik and Bartłomiej Tkacz

Abstract

Yuri Gagarin has started the first time in human history the manned mission in space when his Vostok aircraft successfully achieved Earth orbit in 1961. Since his times, human space programs did not develop too much, and the biggest achievement still remain landing on the Moon. Despite this stagnation, there are serious plans to launch manned mission to Mars including human space settlement. In out paper, we are going to identify and discuss a couple of challenges that – in our opinion – will be a domain of every human deep-space program.

Open access

Sławomir Gawroński and Ilona Majkowska

Abstract

The Catholic Church – though in popular opinion it is sometimes treated as a stronghold of conservatism, traditionalism, suspicion of progress and novelty, it changed significantly in the second half of the 20th century and continues to change its attitudes, especially in terms of the use of social communication and attitude to the media mass. The Church’s growing openness to media relations and the use of a rich instrumentation of social communication has become one of the reasons for the growing popularity of market orientation among the clergy and active believers, which opens opportunities for the development of the concept of a specific sectoral marketing formula of church marketing. In this article the authors search for the causes of the progressive phenomenon of the marketization of religion, present examples of the activities of the Polish Catholic church, inscribed in the church marketing trend, as well as define the negative consequences resulting from its dissemination. The applied research method is based on the literature analysis and case studies analysis.

Open access

Dominika Machowska

Abstract

The paper investigates the optimal allocation between defensive and offensive advertising efforts in a dynamic, growing market in which two companies are competing for market share. The study described in this paper extends the existing literature on dynamic advertising competition by considering a market that is in the growth phase and by including the heterogeneous decay rate of market share. A modified Lanchester is employed to describe the dynamics of market share by model. The goal of companies operating in this domain is to maximize their profits over a finite decision horizon. Based on the differential game approach the Markovian Nash strategies for offensive and defensive advertising activities are determined. Additionally, an analysis of the extent to which this solution is sensitive to changes in potential market and the rate of customer churn is made.