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Open access

Lubica Saktorová

Abstract

The idea of the World Court of Human Rights was first envisioned in 1947 along with other institutions designed to create a system capable of the worldwide protection of individual human rights. The focus of the present study is to determine key issues of the prospective establishment of the World Court by an examination of its theoretical position among the United Nations bodies, regional and another inter-governmental human rights organisation. Analysis of the function and mechanisms of the current international human rights protection system would lead to deliberation on the prospective substantial and procedural competences of the World Court, the enforcement mechanism, jurisdiction and related benefits. The objective of the final part is to discuss challenges regarding its political and legal feasibility. Without the visionaries of the past, there would be no substantial system of human rights today. The World Court of Human Rights is a vision for the future.

Open access

Mihaela Simionescu

Abstract

Considering the potential factors that might generate economic growth, a target for any economy, this paper identified some determinants of economic growth in the countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE countries) that are member states of the European Union. The foreign direct investment was the most important determinant of economic growth in most of the countries (Bulgaria, Slovenia, Estonia, Hungary, Romania, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania) in the period 2003-2016, according to Bayesian bridge regressions. The indicators related to the level and the quality of labour resources proved to be insignificant in explaining the economic growth in these countries. Moreover, in Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, the government expenditure on education had a negative effect on economic growth.

Open access

Nicolae Balteș, Florin Dumiter, Delia David and Ștefania Jimon

Abstract

The pension system, together with the social assistance services form the social security system is recognized worldwide throughout the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for the purpose of insured person compensation for damages regarding some inherent risks as: permanent or temporary inability of work, old age or unemployment. The main objectives of a pension system are decreasing poverty regarding the lower income persons throughout the conditions of limitation of the working capacity which are financially vulnerable. In this article we provide a qualitative and quantitative overview regarding the Romanian pension system structure and mechanism. The conclusions of this article highlight the need for a more comprehensive reform of this system in order to strengthen it for the new challenges still to come in the near future.

Open access

Gazmend Qorraj

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to reflect upon the dilemma or whether the EU will continue the integration process in the Western Balkans or backlash on regional cooperation instruments and initiatives within the framework of the Western Balkans. The Regional Economic Area (REA) is analyzed as the more recent policy of the European Union for the remaining Balkan countries. It is crucial to analyze the idea behind REA, starting from two main assumptions: first, the creation of REA stemmed from EU internal challenges; and second, REA came up as a creative EU approach in efforts to find a specific model for reforms in the Western Balkans in the frame of regional institutions. The paper also discusses regional trade and specifically the role of the Regional Cooperation Council (RCC) in coordinating these initiatives in the Western Balkans. Taking into consideration the EU current challenges as well as difficulties of the Western Balkan countries to overcome the political and economic problems, then regional cooperation could appear as an alternative to the EU integration process for the Western Balkans. The main conclusion of this paper is that the Western Balkans needs the EU’s direct support, in particular, since RCC and other regional instruments cannot enforce, support and monitor the initiatives and reforms in the region.

Open access

Andreja Nekrep, Sebastjan Strašek and Darja Boršič

Abstract

This paper focuses on investment in research and development as a factor of labour productivity and economic growth. Our analysis confirms the link between expenditure for research and development (expressed in % of GDP) and labour productivity (expressed in the number of hours worked) based on selected data for EU Member States in the period 1995-2013. A causal link between variables of the concave parabola was confirmed, and the value of expenditure for research and development (2.85% of EU GDP) maximising productivity (per hour of work) was determined based on the examined data. In accordance with these findings, EU’s target of reaching 3% of GDP spent on research and development to be achieved by 2020 seems in support of reaching maximum productivity in the EU.

Open access

Renáta Pitonáková

Abstract

The majority of household savings are in the form of bank deposits. It is therefore of interest for credit institutions to tailor their deposit policy for getting finances from non-banking entities and to provide the private sector with the loans that are necessary for investment activities and consumption. This paper deals with the determinants of the saving rate of the private sector of Slovakia. Economic, financial and demographic variables influence savings. Growth of income per capita, private disposable income, elderly dependency ratio, real interest rate and inflation have a positive impact on savings, while increases in public savings indicate a crowding out effect. The inflation rate implies precautionary savings, and dependency ratio savings for bequest. There are also implications for governing institutions deciding on the implementation of appropriate fiscal and monetary operations.

Open access

Miroslav Nedelchev

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to carry out a comparative study for nationality diversity in bank boards. The study covers practices of board diversity of nine commercial banks. The data are compared for subsidiary banks in Bulgaria and their parent banks from the home country. The study defines a high degree of nationality diversity in subsidiary banks. The Bulgarian banks have a higher number of foreign members on boards compared to their parent banks. The good practices on board diversity in Bulgarian banks are a consequence of their subordination in European financial conglomerates and are aimed to reduce agent conflicts.

Open access

Magnolia Tilca, Elisabeta Mare and Anca Apatean

Abstract

The economic crisis, demography, technology, globalization etc. are all factors which will influence the organizational structures and business strategies. A new business strategy will require, among others, that passive Human Resources Management (HRM) change into an active one with a decisive influence upon business. The vision of an active HRM requires that HR information (IT) dedicated systems assist human resources managers in their decision-making. The existing IT systems predominantly manage the salary calculations and, possibly, the employee's professional development, two of the tasks that a human resources manager has to pursue. However, tasks such as assisting, consulting and engaging the human resources in the organization are equally important. IT systems must also develop into these directions. The present paper proposes a solution to measure the performance of human resources by creating an employee performance indicator (EPI). The paper first describes the economic phenomenon involved in the HR performance process, then the mathematical model is formulated, the algorithm is implemented, the solution of the model is analysed from a technical and economic point of view, and finally the decision is made. We use the weighted arithmetic mean to compute the EPI indicator and the correlation formula to establish the degree of relevance between the EPI indicator and the variables involved in the model. An implementation in R is given.

Open access

Rudolf Macek

Abstract

The aim of the article is to provide a complex analysis of labour taxation impact on economic growth in OECD countries. As main approximators of taxation, implicit tax rates and the World Tax Index are used. Methods and tests of dynamic panel regression with the Arellano-Bond estimator are used from the methodological point of view. From the results of complex analysis, it is evident that there exists a non-linear relationship between tax revenues (implicit tax rates, world tax index) and tax burden (tax rates). There also exists a negative relationship between labour taxation and economic growth and the impact of labour taxation is the most harmful for economic growth. Therefore, in an effort to stimulate economic growth, labour taxation expressed by personal income taxes and social security contributions should be reduced.

Open access

Loučanová Erika, Nosálová Martina, Parobek Ján and Ana Dopico

Abstract

Intelligent innovation represents any autonomic change with positive impact to the customer. They increase the comfort of the customer and concurrently they represent more effective, more economical, healthier and safer solution. This term is not so usual in Slovakia, however intelligent innovation are present on the market. For that in the article intelligent innovation assessment, we focused on intelligent and active packaging, the occurrence of which we have mostly noticed on the Slovak market. The paper deals with the evaluation of the perception of packaging innovations by using the Kano model. According to research results, intelligent and active packaging influence customers and therefore constitutes a tool of competitiveness in Slovakia. However, considering the specification of their requirements, the degree of impact is very variable and specific to customers of different gender and age.