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Ivan Todorov, Kalina Durova and Aleksandar Aleksandrov

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Ivan Todorov, Kalina Durova and Aleksandar Aleksandrov

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Ivan Todorov, Kalina Durova and Aleksandar Aleksandrov

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Ivan Todorov, Kalina Durova and Aleksandar Aleksandrov

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Ivan Todorov, Kalina Durova and Aleksandar Aleksandrov

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Ivan Todorov, Kalina Durova and Aleksandar Aleksandrov

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Ivan Todorov, Kalina Durova and Aleksandar Aleksandrov

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Ivan Todorov, Kalina Durova and Aleksandar Aleksandrov

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Jiří Novosák, Jana Novosáková, Oldřich Hájek and Jiří Koleňák

Abstract

The purpose of the present paper is to find whether the spatial distribution of enterprise support policy funds meet the spatial objectives stated in Czech strategic documents related to enterprise support policy. Are more funds allocated in lagging regions, and does enterprise support policy contribute more to the convergence objective, or are more funds allocated in core regions, and does enterprise support policy contribute more to the competitiveness objective? These questions are answered by evaluating the Structural (and Cohesion) Fund (SF) expenditures that were allocated on operations categorised as part of enterprise support policy (2007-2013). The dependent variable relates to 206 regions, and SF expenditures are calculated for every inhabitant of a region. Moreover, two types of SF operation are distinguished: (a) innovationoriented operations; and (b) other enterprise support operations. Three explanatory variables are defined using Principal Components Analysis (PCA), and these components are understood as: (1) the social disadvantage of regions; (2) the innovation environment of regions; and (3) the quality of regional entrepreneurial environments. The associations between the dependent and explanatory variables are subsequently evaluated by methods of correlation and regression analysis. The findings provide some evidence for both the convergence and competitiveness objectives. Nevertheless, this evidence is rather limited due to a low spatial concentration of SF allocation, and the compensatory effect between the two thematic types of SF operations. Hence, while the quality of their innovation environment has a positive influence on regional SF allocation regardless of the thematic focus of SF operations, socially disadvantaged regions received more funds for SF operations which are not innovation-oriented. The capacity of potential beneficiaries to prepare and submit many project proposals for SF co-financing is the main reason for high or low SF allocation.

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Eva Daniela Cvik, Radka MacGregor Pelikánová and Michal Malý

Abstract

The Regulation (EU) 2016/679 on the protection of personal data (GDPR) was enacted in 2016 and applies from 25thMay 2018 in the entire EU. The GDPR is a product of an ambitious reform and represents a direct penetration of the EU law into the legal systems of the EU member states. The EU works on the enhancement of awareness about the GDPR and points out its bright side. However, the GDPR has its dark side as well, which will inevitably have a negative impact. Hence, the goal of this paper is twofold - (i) to scientifically identify, forecast, and analyze selected problematic aspects of the GDPR and its implementation, in particular for Czech municipalities, and (ii) to propose recommendations about how to reduce, or even avoid, their negative impacts. These theoretic analyses are projected to a Czech case study focusing on municipalities, which offers fresh primary data and allows a further refining of the proposed recommendations. An integral part of the performed analyses is also a theoretic forecast of expenses linked to the GDPR, which municipalities will have to include in their mandatory expenses and mid-term prognostic expectations regarding the impact on the budgets of these municipalities from Central Bohemia. The GDPR, like Charon, is at the crossing, the capacity and knowledge regarding its application is critical for operating in the EU in 2018. It is time both to admit that the GDPR has its dark side and to present real and practical recommendations about how to mitigate it.