Ľubica Voľanská, Marcela Káčerová and Juraj Majo
Kris A. Bulcroft
In a study of dating in later life, conducted in the Midwest in the United States, in which a sample of people age 60+ were interviewed regarding their dating behaviors and perceived functions of dating at this stage in the life course, preliminary evidence suggests that middle-generation offspring took on the role of gatekeepers of sexual standards of conduct and cohabitation outside marriage. Concomitantly, the older generation displayed modified attitudes about sexuality outside marriage in keeping with the opportunity structures available to them as part of the dating experience. When this paper was published in 1986 there were few studies of later life intimacy and dating, and the focus was on the older daters rather than on extended family or social network implications of dating in later life. Since my study in the mid-1980’s, research has flourished on later life dating and intimacy, but the focus continues to be on the dyad rather than exploring intergenerational family relationships and changes that result from re-coupling in later life. This paper will explore the adult child-older parent relationship in which the older person is dating and posit research questions based on two conceptual areas and one theoretical perspective – stereotyping of older people, transmission of values across generations, and social exchange theory – on which to build future studies of intergenerational relationships. This review of the literature will assist in understanding the middle generation’s response to an older parent’s dating and courtship behavior as well as consider why conflicts about later life dating between adult children and older parents are more likely under certain family conditions. Exploration of the literature on later life dating that has resulted since our 1986 study, coupled with theoretical underpinnings, is intended to help scholars in this area of study conduct research that will be more generalizable and theory-based.
Simona Hortová and Adéla Souralová
This article focuses on intergenerational solidarity in three-generation households. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with seven members of the oldest generation cohabiting in a three-generation household, the article investigates the aspects, perceptions, and meanings of intergenerational solidarity. The article is based mainly on the theory of intergenerational solidarity presented by Alice S. Rossi and Peter H. Rossi (1990) and Robert E. L. Bengtson and Vern L. Roberts (1991). We are inspired by the classification of solidarity into seven dimensions – associational solidarity, affectual solidarity, consensual solidarity, functional solidarity, normative solidarity, and intergenerational family structure – and observe these dimensions in the context of three-generation co-living. Using a qualitative approach allows us to capture the emic perspective of the interviewees and their perceptions of intergenerational relations and their position within a three-generation household.
Sandra Kreisslová and Jana Nosková
The study deals with the transmission of family memory in three three-generation families of Germans forcibly displaced from Czechoslovakia, in which the oldest generation, the so-called generation of experience, actually experienced the migration movement after the end of World War II. In the study, the family is seen as a specific social framework in which the past is retrieved. Generations are characterized in a biological sequence, with only the oldest “generation of experience” defined by Karl Mannheim. The research of generational family memory focuses on the actor’s reception through an analysis and interpretation of narrative and oral-history interviews with representatives of generations while exploring the way family memory is mediated. Specifically, the authors inquire into the role the memory media play in their materialised form, i.e. artefacts that act as an impulse and source of remembrance narrative, in the process of generational transmission of memories in families. The focus here is on remembrance narratives related to the forced displacement, which thematise material artefacts, with the focus being not only on what artefacts there are in connection with the recollection of this historical process and what stories are related to them, but also the effort to uncover the meaning and the function of these artefacts during family remembrance.
Martin Soukup and Jan D. Bláha
An analysis of cultural change and generation gaps in the local community of the Nungon ethnic group in the state of Papua New Guinea will be the subject of the study. This ethnic group came into contact with Europeans for the first time in the mid-1930s. The pace of cultural changes within the community has been gradually increasing. For example, the local animistic cult has been replaced with Christianity, school attendance has been introduced in the villages of Nungon, travel opportunities have become more accessible, and as the mobile signal has recently been introduced, Nungon residents can now connect to the internet and access information about the globalised world. Those who remember the colonial period still live in the community and many of them are still illiterate, with only limited knowledge of Pidgin English, the lingua franca of Papua New Guinea. On the other hand, the youngest generation can study in cities or experiment with social media and share information there. The aim of the paper is not only to show intergenerational differences, but also to document the local history and its ties to particular generations and show the role the generational memory played in illiterate societies with unwritten history. The only existing written and photographic documents were created by colonial officers. The study will show the transformation of the Nungon community from the time of photographs kept in boxes to the youngest generation, which keeps photographs in mobile phones and shares them on social media.
Marcela Petrová Kafková
Environmentally oriented attitudes and values can be one of the sources of intergenerational tension or consent. Considering that climate change has become one of the major societal themes today, the issue of intergenerational tension or consent in approach to the environment is crucial. This issue could bring about a generational gap. Questions about intergenerational tensions bring us to age influence on environmental values. The influence of age on environmental values has been researched using the European Values Study (EVS) 1991 – 2017 in six countries. The cohort/age period effect is differentiated using cross-country comparison, comparison of age groups and cohorts. The results showed that the differences in environmental values are not affected by the cohort effect; age has only a weak influence. The period effect, the change in societies seems to be the major explaining factor. Great differences among European countries were found and this diversity is much higher than the effect of age.
Ursula Trummer, Radmila Švaříčková Slabáková, Zuzana Pešťanská and Kamila Adamkovičová
Marian Gajdoš and Stanislav Konečný
The authors present the formation and development of the Ukrainian national education system in Slovakia after the World War II, which was determined by its results and new political conditions. The founding of Russian schools in Eastern Slovakia did not correspond to the wishes of part of the Ruthenian population, and their preference was a source of permanent tension. The authors of this article analyse the personnel, material and technical problems related to the development of Ukrainian (Russian) schools as well as the activities of political and state authorities in their solution. The introduction of the Ukrainian language as the language of instruction disrupted the consolidation in this area and increased dissatisfaction in many municipalities. The efforts to persuade people or various administrative obstacles could not prevent the change of the language of instruction from Ukrainian to Slovak.
The paper presents data from interviews conducted in 2006–2007 with four representatives of the Prague street art and graffiti scene who worked in the Czech capital city at the beginning of the 2000s. Part of the article deals with creative activities in the Prague subway where most of the interviewed authors created their works. The author thus offers the perspective of the authors of the Prague street art and graffiti scenes and presents their view of the (il)legal works of art from around ten years ago in the context of the current discourse in social sciences. Over the last twenty years, this discourse has evolved to such an extent that it now enables to see the phenomenon of urban public works of art as a phenomenon full of paradoxes. Graffiti and street art therefore cannot be interpreted only from the point of view of legality or the art of resistance. Their definition must remain sufficiently open, since certain ambivalence, contradiction and ghostliness are characteristic of it equally as of life in a modern global city that is inherently tied to it.