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Year 1948: Emancipation of Women and Slovak Theatre.

Contribution to the History of Gender Relations in Slovakia

Nadežda Lindovská

Abstract

From the cultural and art point of view, the year 1948 in Czechoslovakia was not just the so-called “Victorious February” of the working people. The remarkable phenomenon of this era, which was related to the post-war political and social movement, was the phenomenon of female emancipation and feminization of the stage production. During the two consecutive theatre seasons 1947/1948 and 1948/1949, at The New Scene Theatre of the National Theatre in Bratislava, several women, led by the director Magda Husaková-Lokvencová created several productions. For the first time, a sovereign feminine alliance had emerged in our performance art, proving that conceptual and thoughtful theatrical production may not be just the domain of men. These women contributed to deconstructing the beliefs of typically male and typically female professions as well as transforming traditional views of the role and position of both sexes in society and the arts. The attention of theatre historiography in the recapitalization of the impacts of the breakthrough events of the Czechoslovak post-war politics of the forty years on cultural events so far focused mainly on the issues of dramaturgy and poetics, the process of ideological transformation and the sovietisation of art in the spirit of socialist realism. The subject of socialist emancipation and theatre was at the edge of the interest of our theatrology. Ten years ago, a collective monograph, dedicated to the first lady of the Slovak theatre directors, Magda Husaková-Lokvencová, managing to free her forgotten personality and work and return her to the context of Slovak theatre history in the second half of the 20th century. There is still room for further research, complementing the knowledge and reflection of the advent of women in the sphere of theatre directory, dramaturgy and scenography artwork, as part of the history of gender relations in Slovakia. Increased interest in the history of women provokes a new reflection on the issue of emancipation and theatre.

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Kinga Bajorek and Sławomir Gawroński

Abstract

The use of mass communication in the field of foreign language teaching is not a new phenomenon, because traditional media have been in use in this area for a few decades. Nowadays, however, several tendencies confirming the scale of this phenomenon can be observed. Mass media, and new media in particular, are used both in the process of self-education and as an important tool used by foreign language teachers. Technological progress, the communication revolution, the spread of the Internet, and the development of new media and mobile technologies offer modern and more effective methods of language education. This article reviews the conditions relating to the relationship between mass media and language learning, taking into account the possibility of using one of the key functions of mass communication, namely its educational function. The authors, using literature analysis, defined and analyzed the causes of specific symbiosis between media tools and technologies as well as the methodology used in the field of foreign language teaching.

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Lucia Mihálová

Abstract

The study deals with forms of the Slovak Republic (1939 – 1945) in Slovak theatre after the year 2000. We currently observe a strong dramaturgical tendency to bring to the stages the reflection of historical events from various historical periods, one of the most depicted being the period of World War II. Its thematics are found in the productions of the original theatrical plays as well as in the dramatisations of literary works. The first part of the study is devoted to delineation of the Slovak Republic (1939 – 1945) in the productions after 2000 (Tiso [Tiso], Stalo sa prvého septembra [It Happened on 1st September], Rabínka [The Female Rabbi], Holokaust [Holocaust], Povstanie [Uprising], Obchod na korze [The Shop on the Parade], Polnočná omša [Midnight Mass], Tichý bič [The Silent Whip], Kým kohút nezaspieva [Until the Cock Sings]). The second part is focused on the analysis of the selected thematic elements offered by the productions falling within this circle and which appear in the new optics of the so-called second generation.

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Zuzana Spodniaková

Abstract

The author focuses on selected productions of this year’s special program category of the Russian Theatre Festival Golden Mask 2018 – Russian Case in Moscow. The comparison of the latest productions of different genres and artistic aesthetics reveals the common interest of their creators in urgent socio-cultural and historical-political themes. The Russian Case category introduced Russian theatre this year as an increasingly active tool for social engagement, which is concerned with the present or the past of the nation or individual. With the vision of a better future, creators confront themselves with collective and individual memories and seek ways to cope with them in an artistic and human way.

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Mykola Rashkevych

Abstract

In the article the methodological and applied criteria of symbolist publicism as an independent form of analytical journalism are defined. The subject of the research is the argumentative basis and semantic resources of public statements of philosophers and writers, i.e. the representatives of Russian symbolism. The relevance of the topic is due to the crisis of modern publicism, which becomes similar to a product and leads to mental and moral enslavement. The general purpose of the study is the legitimization of the term «symbolist publicism». Genre-stylistic peculiarities of symbolist text-making, as well the outlook landmarks of symbolic representatives of the Silver Age, were studied by E. Kassierer, M. Voskresenskaya, A. Mazurchuk, O. Matyushkin, O. Ponomarev, L. Kravets, and others.

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Marcin Balon

Abstract

The purpose of this article is find out about the role that was played by Twitter during the first week of Ferguson Unrests that started on the 9th of August 2014. As a source base for this work the author analyzes the newspapers, magazine journalism and articles upon the death of Michael Brown to show how local journalists and activists used Twitter to communicate and comment on his death. Through the examination of hashtag usage, the author demonstrates how Twitter has become a powerful tool to start nationwide discussion, as well as how hashtag activism can trigger creation of a new social movement.

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Grzegorz Rachwał

Abstract

The aim of this article is to characterize the German minority press market in Poland in the period of 1989-2017. The article constitutes a discussion regarding terms that are key for the undertaken subject, i.e., “national minority”, “ethnic minority” and “the press of national and ethnic minorities”; furthermore, a typology of the functions of these media is presented. The analysis covered the socio-political framework of the functioning of minority media, as well as legal regulations at the level of publishing activities of national and ethnic minorities and the support of the Polish state towards publishing initiatives of minorities from 1989 to the present day. The article also constitutes an overview of German minority press issued in 1989 - 2017 in the Polish state. Characteristics of the periodicals contain information about their creation, presentation of graphic layout and publishing formula, as well as the thematic profile of the published contents. Approximating the German minority in Poland, the author attempts to answer the question of what role the German press once played in the Polish German society, and what is its role today, as well as who are the recipients of the German press in Poland today, what is its current condition and what are the prognoses for its development in the short and longer term. The conducted research applied technical analysis and analysis of press content. The study uses a number of sources. These include state documents published in journals of law, in various types of bulletins, reviews and in the on-line version.

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Vít Pokorný

Abstract

The study represents the life and artistic career of today’s almost forgotten theatre director Milan Svoboda (1883 – 1948). It is based on the extensive Svoboda estate, located in the Theatre Department of the National Museum. It follows the artist from his amateur beginnings in Roudnice nad Labem, through his career as a pedagogue at the Prague Conservatory, theatre director at the Slovak National Theatre, guest director at the National Theatre in Prague, to his post-war effort to create high-quality stage art in the border villages abandoned by the Germans. Thanks to the substantial and rich material found in his estate, the study demonstrates the conflict of creative ideals and the desire to seek an aesthetic beauty in a world within a regimented state, grand political scheming, critics and “progressive” theatrical colleagues.

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Agnieszka Czech-Rogoyska and Magdalena Krawiec

Abstract

The paper endeavours to semantically scrutinize anglicisms in Der Spiegel in the specialist field of IT. It was attempted to establish if, and to what extent, the anglicisms alter their meaning in the borrowing process. The article focuses on randomly selected anglicisms in IT-related texts in Der Spiegel, for both the newspaper and the domain are deemed to have been the most prolific in terms of English borrowings. The objective of this comparative study is to arrive at certain general tendencies governing the semantic treatment of English words in German. The paper constitutes merely an excerpt from the research on IT-related anglicisms, and may well serve as a basis for further research, on the grounds that alongside the development of ICT, languages need new names for concepts. Therefore, it is by all means prudent and instructive to delve into the tendencies governing the way anglicisms permeate into the German language.

Open access

Dawid Adamski

Abstract

Hikikomori social withdrawal syndrome was first diagnosed in Japan and means a person who has been isolated from society to an extreme degree. She/he does not attend school or go to work. They do not attend university, they constantly remain at home and most often keep contact with the outside world using new technologies. Hikikomori syndrome is most often recognized as a characteristic problem occurring among Asian societies. Meanwhile, the growing dependence on new technologies among Western societies, and in particular, on the Internet, has caused social withdrawal to become a global problem. Human relationships began to move from the real world to the virtual world, which nowadays is full of communication facilities and allows people to establish relationships with other people without leaving their homes with the help of social media, which are currently packed with advanced solutions connecting people of similar interests or views. All this means that nowadays it is easy to withdraw from physical social life without losing virtual contact with others.