Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) capillary-discharge lasers (CDLs) are a suitable source for the efficient, clean ablation of ionic crystals, which are obviously difficult to ablate with conventional, long-wavelength lasers. In the present study, a single crystal of cesium iodide (CsI) was irradiated by multiple, focused 1.5-ns pulses of 46.9-nm radiation delivered from a compact XUV-CDL device operated at either 2-Hz or 3-Hz repetition rates. The ablation rates were determined from the depth of the craters produced by the accumulation of laser pulses. Langmuir probes were used to diagnose the plasma plume produced by the focused XUV-CDL beam. Both the electron density and electron temperature were sufficiently high to confirm that ablation was the key process in the observed CsI removal. Moreover, a CsI thin film on MgO substrate was prepared by XUV pulsed laser deposition; a fraction of the film was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
The aim of the present study is to compare dose distributions and their verification in target areas and organs at risk (OAR) in conformal and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques. Proper verification procedures allow the removal of the major sources of errors, such as incorrect application of a planning system, its insufficient or cursory commissioning, as well as an erroneous interpretation of the obtained results. Three target areas (head and neck, chest, and pelvic) were selected and the treatment was delivered based on plans made using collapsed cone convolution and Monte Carlo algorithms with 6-MV photon beams, adopting conformal and VMAT techniques, respectively. All the plans were prepared for the anthropomorphic phantom. Dose measurements were performed with TL detectors made of LiF phosphor doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg,Ti). This paper presents the results of TL measurements and calculated doses, as well as their deviations from the treatment planning system (TPS) in the three planned target areas. It was established that the algorithms subject to analysis differ, particularly in dose calculations for highly inhomogeneous regions (OAR). Aside from the need to achieve the dose intended for the tumour, the choice of irradiation technique in teleradiotherapy should be dictated by the degree of exposure to individual critical organs during irradiation. While nothing deviated beyond the bounds of what is acceptable by international regulatory bodies in plans from TPS, clinically one must be more cautious with the OAR areas.
The new vehicle scanning system Sowa has been developed in the National Centre for Nuclear Research. This innovative device is equipped with a 300 kV X-ray tube, U-shape imaging detector line, transport system, and fully shielded container. Sowa allows for a detailed inspection of the car and the detection of illegal transported items. This article presents the design, applied solutions, and achieved results of Sowa scanning system.
The aim of this experimental work was to examine whether semiconductor photodetectors may be applied for the efficient reading of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) signals. For this purpose, a series of experiments have been performed at the Department of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, in cooperation with the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (CLOR). Specifically, the measurement system proposed here has been designed to detect a signal from TLDs that use a semiconductor detector operating in conditions analogous to those met when using commercial devices equipped with a classic photomultiplier. For the experimental tests, the TLDs were irradiated with a beam of 137Cs radiation in the accredited Laboratory for Calibration of Dosimetric and Radon Instruments. Eventually, a comparison of the results obtained with a semiconductor detector (ID120) and a commercial TLD reader with a photomultiplier tube (RADOS) were made.
By considering energy-dependent form factors extracted from generalized Chou–Yang model, root mean square (rms) charge radii of deuteron and helium nuclei (alpha) are predicted at different values of center of mass energy which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and experimental results. The rms radius is inversely proportional to mass of nuclei. Besides, the relationship between radii and energy are also derived.
X-rays application for radiation processing was introduced to the industrial practice, and in some circumstances is found to be more economically competitive, and offer more flexibility than gamma sources. Recent progress in high-power accelerators development gives opportunity to construct and apply reliable high-power electron beam to X-rays converters for the industrial application. The efficiency of the conversion process depends mainly on electron energy and atomic number of the target material, as it was determined in theoretical predictions and confirmed experimentally. However, the lower price of low-energy direct accelerators and their higher electrical efficiency may also have certain influence on process economy. There are number of auxiliary parameters that can effectively change the economical results of the process. The most important ones are as follows: average beam power level, spare part cost, and optimal shape of electron beam and electron beam utilization efficiency. All these parameters and related expenses may affect the unit cost of radiation facility operation and have a significant influence on X-ray process economy. The optimization of X-rays converter construction is also important, but it does not depend on the type of accelerator. The article discusses the economy of radiation processing with high-intensity of X-rays stream emitted by conversion of electron beams accelerated in direct accelerator (electron energy 2.5 MeV) and resonant accelerators (electron energy 5 MeV and 7.5 MeV). The evaluation and comparison of the costs of alternative technical solutions were included to estimate the unit cost of X-rays facility operation for average beam power 100 kW.
The possibility of preparing fission chambers for the experimental determination of subcriticality without time-consuming corrections has been presented. The reactor detectors set consists of monoisotopic chambers. Each chamber is intended for a specific position in the system. Individual weights, rated a priori for all detectors in their positions, allow for quick calculation of whole system subcriticality. The inconveniences related to the spatial effect are minimized. This is achieved by computational simulation of the area method results, for each detector position and all possible fissionable and fissile nuclides. Next, one nuclide is selected, specific for the given position, presenting the smallest difference from the MCNP KCODE precisely estimated kkcode. The case study is made using the model of VENUS-F core.
This paper presents the results of long-term investigations of 137Cs and 134Cs activity concentrations in drinking water in the city of Zagreb for the period 1987–2018. The highest activity concentrations of both radio-nuclides were measured in 1987, decreasing exponentially ever since, while 134Cs in several subsequent years fell under the detection limit. After the Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011, the presence of 134Cs in drinking water was detected again. The environmental residence time for 137Cs was estimated to be 8.1 years in drinking water and 5.7 years in fallout. The correlation between 137Cs in fallout and in drinking water is very good, and this indicates that fallout is the main source of water contamination. The observed 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio in drinking water for the post-Chernobyl period was similar to the ratio found in other environmental samples. The estimation of annual effective doses received by the adult members of the Croatian population due to the intake of radiocaesium in drinking water showed quite small doses of 0.28 μSv in 1987 decreasing to 2.5 nSv in 2018, which indicated that drinking water was not a critical pathway for the transfer of radiocaesium to humans.