This paper presents an analysis of the Benchmark for Evaluation And Validation of Reactor Simulations (BEAVRS) performed using SCALE 6.1.2 and PARCS 3.2 computer codes. The benchmark specification contains a detailed design, operational data and measurements for a real 4-loop Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR). The lattice physics simulations were prepared using TRITON depletion sequence and NEWT neutron transport solver (SCALE package). The 238-neutron group library based on evaluated nuclear data file – ENDF/B-VII nuclear data libraries was applied. A set of branch and burnup calculations was prepared, and group constants in the form of PMAXS files were generated with GenPMAXS. The full-core models were prepared using the PARCS nodal-diffusion core simulator. The PMAXS libraries were used with PARCS to investigate the core operation. The hot zero power measurement data, including control rod worths and critical boron concentrations, were compared using simulations, and satisfactory results were achieved. The first fuel cycle was simulated, and acceptable agreement with boron letdown curve and measurements were obtained. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for future research were presented.
Błażej Baic, Beata Kozłowska, Robert Kwiatkowski and Marcin Dybek
Photon beams with wide energy ranges from 4 MV to 25 MV are commonly used in radiotherapy nowadays. In recent years, there has been a strong interest in a certain modification of a radiotherapeutic apparatus by the application of the so-called flattening filter-free (FFF) beam. Several advantages of FFF beams over standard flattening filter (FF) beams are noticed, and this technical solution has aroused great interest among radiotherapeutic facilities. The goal of the present study is to investigate the differences between the conventional FF and unflattened FFF 6-MV and 10-MV photon beams in some basic dosimetric parameters and their influence on the whole radiotherapeutic treatment. The data provided here include the detailed characteristics as follows: percent depth dose (PDD), beam profile, edge of a half-profile, total scatter correction factor (TSCF) and head scatter correction factor (HSCF) for FF and FFF 6-MV and 10-MV photon beams from the Elekta Versa HD accelerator in the Katowice Oncology Center in Poland.
In this study, the heavy metal and radioactive properties of Iznik Lake were investigated. Concentration values of the first (Ag, Bi, Mo, Sn, Se, Zn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Pt and Sb) and second (Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, S, Fe, Al and Mn) group of elements in borehole 1 (BH-1) drilling did not show much variation from the top to the bottom of the drilling. Concentration values of the first group of elements in borehole 2 (BH-2) drill samples decreased at higher levels of drilling. In addition, natural and anthropogenic radionuclides were measured by gamma spectrometry, and the results of environmental natural radioactivity of Iznik Lake and its surroundings were determined. In the measurement results, Ra-226 was found to be below the world average value at all locations. It is assumed that the determination of K-40 values above the average values was due to agricultural activities carried out intensively in the study area. Th-232 values were found to be below the world average value in drilling samples; Cs-137 values were below the background level in all samples. According to these results, the study area does not contain any unnatural radioactivity.
Depending on the neutron energy used, neutron radiography can be generally categorized as fast and thermal neutron radiography. Fast neutron radiography (FNR) with neutron energy more than 1 MeV opens up a new range of possibilities for a non-destructive examination when the inspected object is thick or dense. Other traditional techniques, such as X-ray, gamma ray and thermal neutron radiography, do not meet penetration capabilities of FNR in this area. Because of these distinctive features, this technique is used in different industrial applications such as security (cargo investigation for contraband such as narcotics, explosives and illicit drugs), gas/liquid flow and mixing and radiography and tomography of encapsulated heavy shielded low Z compound materials. The FNR images are produced directly during exposure as neutrons create recoil protons, which activate a scintillator screen, allowing images to be collected with a computer-controlled charge-coupled device camera. Finally, the picture can be saved on a computer for image processing. The aim of this research was to set up a portable FN R system and to test it for use in non-destructive testing of different composite materials. Experiments were carried out by using a fast portative neutron generator Thermo Scientific MP 320.
As radiation science and technology advances, nuclear medicine applications are increasing worldwide which necessitate the understanding of biological implications of such practices. Ionizing radiation has been shown to cause degraded matrix and reduced proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage, and the late consequences of which may include degenerative arthritis or arthropathy. Although degenerative effects of the ionizing radiation on cartilage tissue have been demonstrated, the effects on the mechanical properties of articular cartilage are largely unknown. The radiopharmaceuticals, technetium-99m and technetium-99m sestamibi, were utilized on bovine articular cartilage to investigate these effects. We used two different mechanical tests to determine the mechanical properties of articular cartilage. Dynamic and static mechanical tests were applied to calculate compressive modulus for articular cartilage. We observed clearly higher control modulus values than that of experimental groups which account for lesser stiffness in the exposed cartilage. In conclusion, compressive moduli of bovine articular cartilage were found to decrease after radiopharmaceutical exposure, after both instantaneous and equilibrium mechanical experiments.
Majid Muneer, Muhammad Saeed, Ijaz Ahmad Bhatti, Atta-ul Haq, Muhammad Kaleem Khosa, Muhammad Asghar Jamal and Saddaqat Ali
Synthetic dyes are persistent pollutants with poor biodegradability. The present study is about the degradation of direct Congo red dye in aqueous media using the Co-60 gamma radiation source. The experimental conditions such as gamma-ray absorbed doses, amount of oxidant (H2O2) and pH conditions were evaluated. The λmax of dye solution was noted as 498 nm, and then, decrease in absorbance and reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) were examined. The complete colour removal of dye was observed at 5 kGy, while a significant COD removal was observed at 15 kGy gamma-ray absorbed dose in conjunction with oxidant for 50 mg/L concentration. It was found that pH has no influence on degradation efficiency. A possible degradation pathway was proposed. The radiolytic end products were monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to explore the degradation mechanism. It was imperative to study the oxidative degradation pathway to provide directions for potential applicability of advanced oxidation process (AOP) in industrial wastewater treatment.
Sergio X. Lima, Karolina P. S. Costa, Zelmo R. Lima, Fagner C. Rother, Olga M. O. Araujo, Helio C. Vital, Tercio Brum, Wilson F. R. S. Junior, Jose Carlos C. Amorim, Matthew J. F. Healy and Edson R. Andrade
The detonation of an (hypothetical) improvised nuclear device (IND) can generate atmospheric release of radioactive material in the form of particles and dust that ultimately contaminate the soil. In this study, the detonation of an IND in an urban area was simulated, and its effects on humans were determined. The risk of solid cancer development due to radiation was calculated by taking into account prompt radiation and whole-body exposure of individuals near the detonation site up to 10 km. The excess relative risk (ERR) of developing solid cancer was evaluated by using the mathematical relationships from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) studies and those from the HotSpot code. The methodology consists of using output data obtained from simulations performed with the HotSpot health physics code plugging in such numbers into a specific given equation used by RERF to evaluate the resulting impact. Such a preliminary procedure is expected to facilitate the decision-making process significantly.
The isotope activity concentration of rocks and bottom sediments was evaluated based on the samples collected from sedimentation ponds and gangue repositories. Radium 226Ra, thorium 228Th and potassium 40K activities were measured by gamma spectrometry using high-purity germanium detector – HPGe 4020. The radiation effect resulting from the presence of natural radionuclides was estimated by radiological hazard indices such as f1 and f2 coefficients, radium equivalent, internal and external hazard indices and absorbed dose rate. Performed measurements and calculations have shown that the bottom sediments are most contaminated. They may pose a serious radiological hazard for present and future generations.
Large quantity of sewage sludge originating from wastewater treatment plants is becoming a growing problem from environmental and human health points of view. One of the ways to use sewage sludge is agricultural purpose due to its nutrients and organic matter content, but the condition is that it should be deprived of pathogenic bacteria and parasite egg contamination. Application of ionizing radiation to hygienize sewage sludge can make it appropriate for agricultural use. The process does not require addition of chemicals to sludge; it is environmentally friendly and effective in removal of biological threats. In the past, successful attempts of sewage sludge treatment using ionizing radiation were made. Pilot plants and commercial ones proved that pathogens can be easily removed from sewage sludge by ionizing radiation. The concept of ‘zero energy’ biogas plant is based on the construction of a complex system consisting of biogas plant and electron accelerator in the biofertilizer manufacturing line. Digestate originating from the methane fermentation of sewage sludge is irradiated to remove all pathogens using electron beam from an accelerator powered by electric energy obtained from burning biogas in a cogenerator. The product is a high-quality, biologically safe fertilizer.
Multiphase flow meters are used to measure the water-liquid ratio (WLR) and void fraction in a multiphase fluid stream pipeline. In the present study, a system of multiphase flow measurement has been designed by application of three thallium-doped sodium iodide scintillators and a radioactive source of 133Ba simulated by Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) transport code. In order to capture radiations passing across the pipe, two direct detectors have been installed on opposite sides of the radioactive source. Another detector has been placed perpendicular to the transmission beam emitted from the 133Ba source to receive radiations scattered from the fluid flow. Simulation was done by the MCNP code for different volumetric fractions of water, oil, and gas phases for two types of flow regimes, namely, homogeneous and annular; training and validation data have been provided for the artificial neural network (ANN) to develop a computation model for pattern recognition. Depending on applications of the neural system, several structures of ANNs are used in the current paper to model the flow measurement relations, while the detector outputs are considered as the input parameters of the neural networks. The first, second, and third structures benefit from two, three, and five multilayer perceptron neural networks, respectively. Increasing the number of ANNs makes the system more complicated and decreases the available data; however, it increases the accuracy of estimation of WLR and gas void fraction. According to the results, the maximum relative difference was observed in the scattering detector. It was clear that transmission detectors would demonstrate the difference between the flow regimes as well. It is necessary to note that the error calculated by the MCNP simulator is <0.5% for the direct detectors (TR1 and TR2). Due to the difference between the data of the two flow regimes and the errors of data in the simulation codes of the MCNP, it was possible to separate these flow regimes. The effect of changing WLR on the efficiency for a constant void fraction confirms a considerable variance in the results of annular and homogeneous flows occurring in the scattering detector. There is a similar trend for the void fraction; hence, one can easily distinguish changes in efficiency due to the WLR. Analysis of the simulation results revealed that in the proposed structure of the multiphase flow meter and the computation model used for simulation, the two flow regimes are simply distinguishable.