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Gheorghe Jigau, Leșanu Mihai, Bîrsan Ana, Blidari Anton, Borș Natalia, Plăcintă Nina and Cernolev Elena

Abstract

The chernozems evolution of the Carpatho-Danubian-Pontic space clearly shows two consecutive phases: climatogenic and anthropo-climatogenic. The latter is characterized by increasing agrogenic impact on soil climate. The soil cover of Carpathian-Danubian-Pontic space is the hierarchical functional system long-time product. Pedogenetic factors → pedogenetic regimes → pedogenetic processes → soil (soil cover). During Pleistocene, the chernozem pathogenesis in the region resumed 13 times, each time starting from the carbonic chernozem phase. Zonal climatic cyclicality has led to the differentiation of chernozem subtypes, determined by the zonal differentiation of pedogenic regimes and typogenetic elemental processes. The current stage of chernozem cleavage in the region began 10-12 thousand years ago. The evolution of soils in the soil was determined by the climate cyclicality and the increase of anthropogenic imputations and involves the succession over time of several phases: - Cryogenic with poorly developed soil by A (AO) - C Order; - Early dynamic halocene with developed zonal soil formation; - Late halocene with climatic evolution of the profile; - Natural-anthropogenic. During the last one, four eras were accelerated: natural-anthropo-turbian, naturalanthropic modification, natural-anthropic restructuring and natural-anthropic stagnation. Increasing the anthropogenic impulses led to the modification of the climatic → soil relations in the sense of increasing the degree of continentalisation of the soil climate materialized in the aridization of the soil cover, the change of the sense and intensity of the typogenic processes and the induction of some nontypical elementary processes of the chernozemic pedogenesis.

Open access

Aabid Mohmad and Farooq Aadil

Abstract

As a conceptual framework, Sustainable Development (SD) intends to improve current Well-Being, while preserving or maintaining the basis for future Well-Being (Solow, 1991). In order to measure Sustainable Development various indicators were chosen, among which health has been considered as an important indicator. As a result, we see a huge focus on health in Sustainable Development frameworks. But, the emphasis of frameworks has been only on the physical and epidemiological factors affecting the health. In contrary, in context of a highly political turmoil zone, it is the psychological well-being that is severely affected. This component of health i.e., psychological well-being is neglected to find a significant place in Sustainable Development frameworks. Since, these frameworks are crucial for national level policy making and it is likely that policies formulated on such frameworks may not replicate the same successful results in every context (such as in Armed Conflict). With such understanding in the background, this paper will show the need to focus on mental health in armed conflict situations in Sustainable Development frameworks. This paper will attempt to show how ignoring mental health in armed conflict situations impede development. The need to develop a holistic framework which focuses on mental health in Armed Conflict situations will be highlighted in context of Kashmir.

Open access

Gheorghe Duca, Maria Nedealcov and Ivanov Ivanov

Abstract

Although it is considered that the socio-economic impact over the last decades on surface water quality is significant, the role of changing regional climate that is manifested by the intensification of desertification process is crucial. In this context, it is important to know the current trends of change in total runoff of surface of surface waters in the context of increase of desertification degree of the regional climate attested in recent years

Open access

Dumitru Mihăilă and Petruț Ionel Bistricean

Abstract

This study addresses a current issue concerning spatial and temporal analysis of Moldova's climate resources and is intended for the use of people involved in various tourism and related activities. For researchers in the field, the study will be a source of information, allowing comparison of the results obtained for other locations, and for practitioners an indispensable working tool. The motivation for the present study resides in the sparseness and ambiguity of the analysis of climate resources for tourism included in the assessment of the natural tourism potential of Romania. We aim to improve this approach by constructing for Moldova a statistically relevant, quantitative analysis of what climate offers the tourists. To achieve the proposed objectives, we used TCI and a climate database sufficiently detailed to capture climate patterns up to ten-days time intervals. We showed that in Moldova the May-September interval is the most favorable for developing all forms of tourism. We then customized the analysis at the level of each tourism resort. Our study is among the first in this region to use such analysis and provides clear research results to those involved in tourism to improve their decision-making process. The results are very important in supporting tourism in Moldova and will contribute to raising the economic potential of the region.

Open access

Cristina-Alina Ficuț, Vlad Măcicășan, Cristian-Valeriu Maloș, Octavian-Liviu Muntean, Gheorghe Roşian and Tibor Hartel

Abstract

The management of pastures is very important to reduce soil erosion. A special attention is generally needed for the wood pastures which combine livestock grazing with trees and shrubs. In this paper, we investigated the differencess between the wood pastures and tree-less pastures and their role to prevent or mitigate the soil erosion. The soil erosion assessment has been performed by using of RUSLE and GIS. The model has been applied in two study-polygons with wood pasture and tree-less pasture located in the northern part of Hartibaciului Tableland (Romania). Our outcomes showed and highlighted by comparison that wood pastures have a lower predicted annual soil loss than pastures with accidental presence of trees. This fact suggests that wood pastures are more resilient to soil erosion than tree-less pasture. The metholology tried to calibrate a preliminary model of soil erosion assessment for wood pastures into the southern part of Transylvania.

Open access

Petrică Nițoaia and Gabriel Camară

Abstract

This paper was realised because a lack of a comprehensible classification of the actors (and their roles) in the sustainable development in literature and legislation and to create a classification which includes all the possible players involved the sustainable development (public, private and voluntary sectors). We used qualitative methods: analysing scientific literature concerning the subject; defining the terminology used; determining the importance of each type of player; analysing the relations between each type of actors; establishing a classification based on literature

Open access

Ilie Covrig and Mădălina Florina Presecan

Abstract

The research we have undertaken seeks to clarify some aspects concerning the specific characteristics of aforest microclimate. Spot measurements were carried out for 12 hours/day, on certain days that are typical for the period of vegetation and, respectively, for the period of vegetative rest. Measurements regarding the intensity of light were conducted across surfaces where progressive felling had been applied. The research findings about the light regime are presented below: 1. Surfaces subjected to the progressive felling treatment I - seeding fellings that create cut block sites in the mature stand canopy u. a. 74 B, UP III, Nirajul Mic, the Sovata Forestry. In these regeneration areas appear noticeable changes of the light regime, caused by the intensity of the fellings, the size of the cut block sites and the position of each cut block site sector. Thus, in clear cut block sites, having an elliptical shape of 0.5 H3 X 0.75 H*, in which seedlings have not yet been planted, the amount of light that reaches the soil surface, in relation to the open field solar radiation, is approx. ¼ - 1/3 in the eastern and southern sectors, 2/3 in the central sector and, respectively, 2/5 - ½ in the western and northern sectors. In the case of elliptical cut block sites, with diagonals of 1.0 H X 1.5 H, we have found some variations, in the sense that the eastern and the southern sectors receive, at ground surface, approx. 1/5 - 2/5 of the light from an unforested area, the central sector receives a little over 2/3, while the western and the northern sectors receive 4/5 -1/1 of the light from an unforested area, which is also the area with relatively maximum light availability. 2. Surfaces subjected to the progressive felling treatment II - fellings for expandingcut block sites UP VI, Valea Soveții, u.a 127,the Sovata Forestry. Thus, in an elliptical cut block site (1.0 H X 1.5 H) from UP VI, u.a. 127, at1 p.m.,when the sky was overcast, 50% of full light reached the eastern sector, 40% reached the southern sector, approx. 80-90% reached the center of the cut block site, and 75-85% of the amount of light from an unforested area reached the western and the northern sectors at soil surface level. Forest ecosystems are characterized by a great capacity of solar radiation absorption. As a result of selective processes of absorption, reflection and transmission, carried out at the level of the “active surface”, the light regime inside the forest presents a series of distinct features. Light intensity decreases from the top of the canopy to the ground. The decrease is accentuated in the canopy and much slower in the space underneath the canopy, all the way to the ground. Thus, while an average of 66-67% is recorded at the level of the canopy (2/3 of full light), underneath the canopy it reaches 9% (under 1/10 of full light) and only 6-7% of the light from an unforested area is recorded at ground level. Differences are found from one measurement point to another, within the same level, as a result of the foliage structure and the different thickness of the foliage mass located above the measurement point.

Open access

Antonia Odagiu, Ilie Covrig, Camelia Oroian and Mădălina Florina Presecan

Abstract

A particularly important determining factor for the installation and development of seedlings during the early years is their ability to withstand deviations from the normal regime of the climatic elements. Beech seedlings have poor resistance to extreme climate changes. The development of seedlings during the first years can be strongly affected by extreme temperatures. During the research, it was noticed that the frosts which may occur during the second half of April and in early May, before foliation, can cause significant injuries to the plantlets. A large part of the beech seedlings appear in early spring, approximately 7 - 10 days before the foliation of beech trees. The effects of these frosts have also been felt in the nurseries located in the area of the Sovata Forestry, in the case of crops sown in the autumn of the previous year in the Isuica Nursery, situated at an altitude of 520 - 530 m, in the vicinity of Săcădat Creek, and in the case of Solar II Nursery, situated in the village Câmpul Cetaţii, at an altitude of 610 m. The latter nursery is neighbored by the trout farm from Câmpul Cetăţii to the south, by the secondary school to the west, by private residences and estates to the east and by the village road of Câmpul Cetăţii to the north. In both nurseries the emergence percentage of the crops at the end of April was over 90%. Based on the average number of seedlings emerged per area unit, the losses recorded as a result of the frosts from 3-4 May were, in the case of the Isuica Nursery, 89% on 10 May, reaching 97% towards the end of the month. Unlike in the Isuica Nursery, in the Solar II Nursery the losses due to the frost of 3 May were not uniform. The area that was least affected by frost was situated in the immediate proximity of the larch curtain and the secondary school building, where the percentage of losses did not exceed 2%. Moving away from the larch curtain, the percentage increased progressively, reaching, at about 24 m (on the diagonal of the plot), as high as 87%. This percentage was close to that of the (uniform) losses registered in the Isuica Nursery. Thus, the maximum protective effect was recorded up to a distance of about 9 km (0.75 H), where H represents the height of the larch curtain). From this distance, the protective effect exerted by the larch curtain (and the secondary school building with a height of 8 m) started to decrease. While at a distance of about 1 H, the percentage of losses was 17 %, at 1.5 H it reached 61 %, and at approx. 2 H it neared 90 %.

Open access

Ion Isaia

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to prove that, anywhere on Earth’s surface, it is possible to find cycles of air’s temperature and of other meteorological elements with duration of 18 years and 11 days (the Saros cycle). Such cycles exist on all continents, mainly in areas with temperate climate (both in the Northern and Southern hemisphere) where the (planetary) Rossby waves exhibit more clearly. The role played by the atmospheric tides in the occurrence of the meteorological Saros cycle is fundamental, the same fact being valid for other meteorological cycles.

Open access

Laila Mesrar, Ahmed Banamar, Mariam Akdim and Raouf Jabrane

Abstract

Given the increasing exploitation of clay in Morocco for ceramic industry and for the purpose of the benefit reuse of this resource, a study is conducted in order to carry out the identification and characterization of Miocene clay after doping with pozzolan. The objective of this work is to improve the physicalchemical characteristics of Miocene clay of Fez region, by doping it pozzolan at different contents: 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Physical and chemical characterization of this clay was carried out before and after doping with pozzolan following various analytical technics, such as the X- ray fluorescence and geotechnical investigation. The result of geochemical analysis showed a higher rate of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), iron oxide (Fe2O3) and titanium oxide (TiO2). Further characterization of Atterberg limits have shown that the plasticity of doped materials increases. Similarly the mechanical behaviour of marls doped with pozzolan have significantly improved, providing a mechanical strength of obtained materials up to 670N when firing at 1000 °C, compared to the raw marls.