Viktoria Volodina, Natalia Karygina, Olga Popova, Elmira Popova, Mariia Grushko and Nadezhda Fedorova
The toxicological study conducted revealed high concentrations of hydrocarbons and highly toxic heavy metals in the liver and subcutaneous fat of the Caspian seal. The increased toxicant level in the fat, as compared to the liver, pointed to the disorder of organism purification processes, leading to chronic polytoxicosis and disorders of the histological structure of the internals. The studies of the morphofunctional state of the stomach of the Caspian pinnipeds revealed the following disorders: hemorrhages, edemata and necrosis of the mucous membrane, and replacement of glandular tissue with the connective tissue. The study of the small intestine of the seals identified the symptoms of catarrhal desquamatory enteritis. Epithelium dystrophy and desquamation were noted, in particular at the tops of the villi. Different types of colitis (acute, ulcerative, chronic) were found in the large intestine of the seals. Dystrophic and necrotic changes of hepatocytes were identified in the liver tissue, which pointed to the liver cell failure. The nature and extent of pathological changes in the internals and tissues of the studied animals point to the functional depression of the digestive system.
Linda Abi-Ayad, Sidi-Mohammed Bahae-Ddine Ghezlaoui, Nassereddine Belkhouche and José Morillo Aguado
This work brings an evaluation of the quality of littoral zone of Algerian in two neighbouring port coasts, namely, Honaine and Beni Saf, chosen as significant discharge sites. This was followed by a comparison of the state of these coasts with those of the Mediterranean coastal areas. The study was conducted in all seasons in the year 2011−2012 by measuring the hydrological physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, turbidity and salinity) and using sea lettuce Ulva lactuca as significant ‘biomarker of the quantity of metal contaminants (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn)’. Harvesting of Ulva and the seawater samples were performed in each season in three stations, characterised by discharges of waste and industrial water and saline discharges from the recent installation of desalination in Honaine. The metal concentrations in seawater showed significant variations between stations and the harvest season, resulting in the appearance of pollution of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn. Also this result was manifested in Ulva in the station S1 (Beni Saf) and S2 (Honaine-beach) with the exception of copper. These results have exceeded tolerable international standards.
Svetlana Volodarets, Aleksandr Glukhov and Irina Zaitseva
The study of phytoncide activity of biogenic volatile organic compounds of woody plants is one of the most important areas of research in plant ecology in urban lands. The aim of this work is to investigate the dependence of the phytoncide activity of some woody plant species from meteorological factors in the urban environment in the steppe zone of Ukraine. The objectives of the investigation were 28 species of trees and shrubs. The air temperature is indicated to be a major factor for drought-resistant and some medium drought-resistant species (Populus simonii Carrière, Armeniaca vulgaris L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Malus niedzwetzkyana Dieck). The phytoncide activity of low and medium drought-resistant species (Viburnum opulus L., Acer sacharinnum L.) depends on air humidity and total monthly precipitation. The obtained results make it possible to predict changes in the phytoncide activity of woody plants, when selecting the assortment of species for phyto-optimization of technogenic environment.
Benamar Belgherbi, Kheloufi Benabdeli and Kamel Mostefai
The methods applied in Algeria for the prevention and fight against the fires remain fairly traditional and have proved to be ineffective in reducing the disastrous impact of this phenomenon. However, the aim of this work is to analyse a forest ecosystem that is fairly representative of the whole of the forests in Algeria, on plan risk and vulnerability of the environment for a better control of risk. Using modern geomatics techniques to map the degree of risk of fires and analysis the space: like satellite imagery spatial data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).The Guetarnia forest in western Algeria has been retained; seven thematic maps have been developed and have helped to develop a sensitivity map to depict the fire risk.
The primary aim of the article is to obtain an overview of benefits from the actual use of inland water ecosystem services (ESSs) in Slovakia. The evaluation, which includes both surface water and groundwater, is primarily focused on demand side. Methods for assessing the benefits of the most prevalent ESSs, designated by Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES classification) v. 4.3, are described and discussed. The evaluation is performed at the level of 10 sub-basins to which available data are allocated. In the absence of necessary data or the impossibility of allocating them to sub-basins, the benefit from the use of some ESSs is estimated at the level of whole Slovak territory. The use of ESSs valuation in practice, especially with regard to water protection of surface water and groundwater, is discussed. The evaluation of benefits from ESSs of inland waters in Slovakia so far does not allow direct use of obtained results for proposal of measures within river basin management plans as suggested by several authors. Main reason is the input data availability and quality. At the present time, the significance of the ESSs evaluation may rather lie in the awareness of the value that human society gains from the use of inland waters. It becomes more evident that increase in environmental awareness alone is not sufficient in terms of the protection of ecosystems and their services. To achieve unambiguous and lasting improvement in this area, it is necessary to address the deeper causes, closely related to human thinking and behaviour.
Olena Blinkova and Tetyana Shupova
Assessment of correlations and comparisons of diversity indices between birds communities and vegetation composition of the forest ecosystem is an important subject of synecological research to identify the intensity of human impact on the flora and fauna in megalopolis. Urban recreation is one of the major causes of violation of the structural and functional integrity of the forest ecosystem. Studies on avian complex and phytocoenosis have focused on the impact of urban recreation on the soil surface, compositions of trees, shrub and herbaceous layers and species, trophic and ecological compositions of nesting-birds and feeding-birds communities. This article compares the measurement of the diversity of bird communities and forestry vegetation (diversity indices, dominance indices, evenness indices) in the natural and semi-natural forests of the Kyiv city on a gradient of recreational transformation. The stands formed consist of Quercus robur L., Carpinus betulus L., Acer platanoides L., Tilia cordata L., Ulmus glabra Huds., Fraxinus excelsior L. and Prunus avium L. The floristic list comprised 65 grass species. A total of 49 species of avifauna were found, including 44 species that were protected by the Bern, Bonn and Washington Conventions. There were significant correlations between vertical and horizontal heterogeneities of tree distribution and abundance, species richness and nesting density of birds. The interrelationship between species diversity of birds and floristic richness was also confirmed.
Faith Iguodala Akinnibosun and Abigail Ashegbare
This study was aimed at isolating and characterizing hydrocarbon-degrading fungi from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in Ogbe-Ijoh oil creek in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria. Isolation and characterization were carried out using standard methods. Biodegradation assay was carried out over 25 days and monitored using the following parameters; pH, total organic carbon, and total hydrocarbon content. The fungi isolated were: Penicillium sp., Aspergillus niger and Fusarium sp., and these were used for the biodegradation study. Physico-chemical analysis of the crude oil contaminated soil during degradation showed that there was significant decrease in pH during degradation from day 10 - 25 (p ≥ 0.05). This showed the ability of the fungal isolates to utilize crude oil as carbon source, producing acid during its metabolism. The highest pH value during degradation by the fungal isolates was recorded in Fusarium sp. and the lowest was recorded in Aspergillus sp. The fungal isolates were able to reduce the total carbon and hydrocarbon content during degradation. This was probably due to the utilization of the nutrients in the soil sample as energy source. The results from this study indicate the potential of the isolated fungi for hydrocarbon bioremediation activity.
Faith Iguodala Akinnibosun and Adedayo Michael Oyetayo
In this study, cashew apple residue (CAR) was subjected to various treatments (boiling, soaking and fermentation), thereafter, proximate composition and anti-nutrient content were determined. Fermentation significantly (p < 0.05) increased the protein content of the CAR by 56.07% and reduced the carbohydrate content to 42.49%. Moreover, soaking and fermentation significantly reduced phytate content of the CAR from 0.4123% to 0.2504% and 0.1106% respectively; all the treatments significantly reduced the oxalate content while boiling and soaking had a significant reducing effect on the tannin content of the CAR. These suggest that pre-treated cashew apple residue may be used for animal feed formulation.
Shashidhar N. Adarakatti, Veeresh S. Pattar, Prashant K. Korishettar, Bhagyashri V. Grampurohit, Ravindra G. Kharabe, Akshay B. Kulkarni, Shridhar N. Mathad, Chidanandayya S. Hiremath and Rangappa B. Pujar
Li-Ni ferrite has gained great scientific elicit owing to of its unparalleled properties and applications. The copper doped Li-Ni ferrite has been synthesized by sucrose method. The structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, which has confirmed the formation of single-phase spinel structure. X-ray diffraction and FTIR data reveals the formation of cubic structure phase. Unit cell parameters vary with copper content; overall variation of the unit cell parameters obeys Vegard’s law. The main absorption bands of spinel ferrite have appeared through IR absorption spectra recorded in the range of 300–700 cm−1. The copper concentration dependence of lattice parameters obeys Vegard’s law. DC electrical resistivity of the prepared samples decreases with increasing in the temperature which shows the semiconducting behaviour of all nano ferrites. The most prominent influence copper doping on the electrical properties of Li-Ni ferrites has been reported.