Design For Accessibility
Aleksandra Scientific editors: Polak-Sopinska, Jan Królikowski and Magdalena Technical editor: Wróbel-Lachowska
Małgorzata Pietrzak and Marek Angiel
The paper deals with the issues of the symbolic dimension of a city created from the urban and social subsystems. The city and its landscape are understood here as a system of signs functioning in two distinct orders of reality, yet still dependent on each other, i.e. the material order and the imaginary one. In the paper, we ask questions about the role of the symbol in the contemporary process of creating the specificity of a place. We also speak about the identity of a place, about endowing a place with features of familiarity, about the social need to recognise the symbol. The presence of a dragon, a creature born in the human imagination, in the urban space of Krakow was chosen as an example of the symbolic dimension of the city. Krakow is a historic city, the former capital of Poland, a city rich in diverse symbolic capitals. The dragon is a symbol of Krakow. It is present in the legend about the city’s origins, and is also commonly present in the material space of Krakow. It is part of the city’s identity.
Area-based interventions are one of the ways of addressing problems of disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods. In this paper we take the example of the German urban development support scheme (Städtebauförderung) with the purpose of determining the factors behind the spatial distribution of funds from this policy. The results show a positive association with unemployment rate, and a negative one with the dynamics of population and jobs. This suggests that the allocation of funds to a large extent resembled the distribution of structurally weak areas in Germany. Using geographically weighted regression, we found spatial differences in the goodness of fit of the model as well as in coefficients of explanatory variables. Finally, we also point out some differences between specific programmes forming part of the urban development support scheme.
Grzegorz Libor and Stefan Bouzarovski
Energy poverty can be understood as the inability to secure a socially- and materially-necessitated level of energy services in the home. This article presents the results of empirical research on energy poverty in Bytom. The study was carried out using a questionnaire delivered to 121 persons living in Bytom. The questionnaire consisted of 20 single and multiple-choice questions. The primary aim of the research was to achieve typological representativeness by identifying the differences between six age categories. Some of the results confirm what is already known about the relationships between the age of the head of household and energy poverty, while others are surprising. On their basis it is possible to formulate some recommendations for local anti-poverty energy policies.
Wiktor Głowacki, Janusz Komenda, Magdalena Zalasińska, Ilona Morawska and František Imrich
The paper addresses the role of local spatial planning in the implementation of the heritage related goals of Framework Convention on the Protection and Sustainable Development of the Carpathians. The paper analyses heritage related regulations in the spatial plans of three historic Carpathian towns as compared to the results of heritage inventories made for two pilot areas in the Czech and Ukrainian Carpathians. On the basis of the analyses we conclude that local planning regulations are to a great extent in line with the declared goals of the Convention and therefore can play a more significant role in their implementation whereas the concept of a separate Carpathian Heritage Inventory, in spite of its initial intentions, is of little use for these purposes. In the end we call for the use of local spatial plans as tools for the protection of the Carpathian heritage in future activities of the countries party to the Carpathian Convention.
Mixed use and diversity as a New Urbanism principle guiding the renewal of post-industrial districts
Case studies of the Paris Rive Gauche and the New Centre of Lodz
Monika Maria Cysek-Pawlak
The revival of post-industrial areas, understood as a factor determining contemporary urban development, is a key process in regeneration. Such areas attract strategic renewal projects, because despite their perfect location next to city centres, they have long been inaccessible to city residents. The backbone of the projects is provided by programmes laying out the future functions of such areas and their target users. In the past, mono-functional districts were popular but their numerous weaknesses have meant that mixed use and diversity are increasingly being introduced into urban areas today. Mixed use and diversity underlie the urban design movement known as the New Urbanism. This article assesses the role of mixed-use and diversity as the New Urbanism principle guiding the renewal of post-industrial areas. It is based on desk research and a comparative analysis of two case studies: the Paris Rive Gauche (France) and the New Centre of Lodz (Poland). The article concludes that regeneration based on the New Urbanism principle of functional and user diversity leads to an effective renewal of run-down urban areas. The applicability of other New Urbanism principles stressing the need to ensure harmony between an urban design strategy and the human scale in the revival of urban neighbourhoods is also worth considering in the long term.
In recent decades, the number of craft breweries in the United States has increased dramatically, increasing from around a thousand in 1996 to over six thousand today. In order to minimize start-up and initial operating costs, many craft breweries have located in older buildings in economically distressed neighborhoods. Craft breweries are particularly adept at engaging in adaptive reuse, with the result that they occupy buildings that were previously once churches, cinemas, fire stations, etc. This investment by craft breweries, in conjunction with investment by other businesses (as well as the public sector), has resulted in the revitalization of many of these neighborhoods. Neighborhoods that were once full of abandoned buildings and suffered from social problems such as high crime rates have become destinations for residents and tourists alike. At the same time, however, there is a dark side to this neighborhood revitalization as rising real estate values has forced many established, often low-income, residents to leave these neighborhoods. In this paper, I examine the growth of the craft brewing in the United States and the preference of many craft breweries for inexpensive building space in economically distressed neighborhoods.
Mohamed Zobiri, Mohamed Mazour and Boutkhil Morsli
Water erosion remains a major concern on the marly slopes. Where erosive processes continue to increase and continue to pose serious problems and where knowledge is still insufficient on erodibility and its evolution and on solutions to soil erosion problems. The aim of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the functioning of soils on marl substrate in relation to erosion and to evaluate the effectiveness of the anti-erosion measures used in this type of environment. The Isser watershed, where several anti-erosion techniques were used, is the subject of this study. The analysis of the anti-erosion installations shows that most of the developments have been made according to standards and have worked well. But their effectiveness is different from one technique to another. The earthen thresholds seem to be the most suitable and the most effective. The effectiveness of earthen structures is summed up in stability, durability, cost-effectiveness, sediment storage, flood plating and water storage for a significant length of time, and had a positive impact on reducing erosion and the silting rate of the dam. The gabion thresholds also have a better stability and a good seating, but they are very sensitive and can undergo damage that reduces their effectiveness with regard to erosion. Dry stone thresholds are the least desirable and are often inadequate and inefficient in this type of terrain. A purely mechanical and/or biological vision in this type of environment is however insufficient, the mechanical arrangements associated with the biological developments are more effective.
Marzieh Mokarram, Mehran Shaygan and Dinesh Sathyamoorthy
The study of groundwater resources in relation to topography is important. Clearly, in different topography, depth of the water level is different. Therefore, the aim of this study is the determination of the relationship between landform classes with compound topographic index (CTI) and depth of the water for the Maharlou-Bakhtegan watershed, Fars Province, Iran. In order to evaluate the depth of the water for the study area, CTI and geomorphology (landforms) were derived from a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM). The results of landform classes extracted using topographic position index (TPI) showed that the largest landform is open slope, while the smallest are plains. It was found that CTI and depth of the water values are high in plain classes, while they are low in local ridges. High depth of the water were found to be mostly confined to the pit regions in the plain landform, because groundwater recharge occurs in the zones where standing water remains for sufficient long period of time and has favourable condition for recharge.
Mexoese Nyatuame and Sampson K. Agodzo
The forecast of rainfall and temperature is a difficult task due to their variability in time and space and also the inability to access all the parameters influencing rainfall of a region or locality. Their forecast is of relevance to agriculture and watershed management, which significantly contribute to the economy. Rainfall prediction requires mathematical modelling and simulation because of its extremely irregular and complex nature. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to analyse annual rainfall and maximum temperature over Tordzie watershed and the forecast. Autocorrelation function (ACF) and partial autocorrelation function (PACF) were used to identify the models by aid of visual inspection. Stationarity tests were conducted using the augmented Dickey–Fuller (ADF), Mann–Kendall (MK) and Kwiatkowski–Phillips–Schmidt–Shin (KPSS) tests respectively. The chosen models were evaluated and validated using the Akaike information criterion corrected (AICC) and also Schwartz Bayesian criteria (SBC). The diagnostic analysis of the models comprised of the independence, normality, homoscedascity, P–P and Q–Q plots of the residuals respectively. The best ARIMA model for rainfall for Kpetoe and Tordzinu were (3, 0, 3) and (3, 1, 3) with AICC values of 190.07 and 178.23. That of maximum temperature for Kpetoe and Tordzinu were (3, 1, 3) and (3, 1, 3) and the corresponding AICC values of 23.81 and 36.10. The models efficiency was checked using sum of square error (SSE), mean square error (MSE), mean absolute percent error (MAPE) and root mean square error (RMSE) respectively. The results of the various analysis indicated that the models were adequate and can aid future water planning projections.