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Water needs of Sambucus nigra L. grown in the reclaimed areas in Poland

Abstract

The goal of this study was to assess the water needs of elderberry. The investigation included elderberry plants that had been planted in land reclamation areas more than three years earlier. The water needs were evaluated for 5 agro-climatic regions of Poland. The calculations were based on the observation of meteorological conditions in the years 1981-2010 for the period from June 1 to July 31. To determine the water needs, the plant coefficient method was applied. The Blaney-Criddle formula, which was modified for Polish conditions by Żakowicz (2010), was used to calculate the reference evapotranspiration. The plant coefficients of elderberry, adapted to the reference evapotranspiration, were adjusted to Żakowicz’s method. The rainfall deficit with the probability of occurrence: N50%, N25% and N10%, was assessed in accordance with Ostromęcki’s method. The highest water needs of elderberry occurred in central-north-west (264 mm) and central-east (262 mm) Poland, while the lowest (244 mm) in the south-east region. In June, the highest total monthly water needs (119 mm) were noted for south-west Poland, whereas the lowest (107 mm) for the south-east region. In June and July, except for the central-north-west region, an upward time trend of water needs was noted throughout Poland. In June and July, the highest value (135 mm) of rainfall deficit N50% and N25% was estimated for the central-north-west region, while the highest rainfall deficit N10% (269 mm) for central-east Poland. The results of the presented research find application in the planning of irrigation treatments for elderberry in Poland.

Open access
The occurrence of the Tulip breaking virus in tulips in the northern part of Turkey

Abstract

The tulip (Tulipa sp.) is one of the most important ornamental bulbous plants, which has been cultivated as a cut-flower, potted, and garden plant, and used for landscaping in Turkey. This study investigated the occurrence of a viral disease in the tulip cultivars Strong Gold, Pretty Woman and Purple Prince that causes striping of the leaves, flames of different colours on the petals and mosaic patterns on the leaves, in Samsun province of Turkey. Surveys of virus-infected tulip plants were carried out in the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey in 2015-2016. A total of 212 samples were collected from four locations and checked by biological, serological and molecular methods for the presence of the Tulip breaking virus (TBV). TBV was detected in the leaves and flowers by double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA) in the tulip cultivars (15.5%) tested from Samsun province. TBV infection was found at the highest rate in the cultivar Strong Gold (19.7%), followed by Pretty Woman (14.1%) and Purple Prince (12.8%). The presence of TBV in samples was further confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. This is the first report on TBV naturally infecting tulips in Samsun province, Turkey.

Open access
Effect of Fermentation on Structural Characteristics and Bioactive Compounds of Bee-Pollen based Food

Abstract

Bee-pollen is a product of the hive which has had a growth in consumption in recent years due to the recognition of its nutritional and bioactive potential. However, several reports have shown that the external structure of the grain limits the absorption of nutrients in the human gastrointestinal tract. A structural modification could be achieved through fermentative processes, favoring the release of compounds found inside this food, in addition to obtaining a product with potential probiotic characteristics. The objective of this work was to evaluate how fermentation through the inclusion of yeasts of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bacteria of species Lactobacillus plantarum or a commercial culture Choozit® affeccted such parameters as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. The results found that the use of consortia between yeast and lactic acid bacteria significantly increased in such characteristics as total phenolics and antioxidant activity by 31% and 39% respectively. The analysis by DSC showed an increase in the heat flow of the fermented products compared to fresh bee-pollen, which could indicate structural modification caused by the activity of microorganisms, a fact made visible through micrographs obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

Open access
Nest Structure, Development and Natural Enemies of Ceratina Hieroglyphica Smith, A Stem Nesting Bee Colonizing Cashew Trees in Hilly Terrains

Abstract

Ceratina hieroglyphica nesting sites were located in dried tiny twigs of cashew trees, and the life stages were observed through periodical collection of nests. Nests were located in the pithy region up to a maximum of 20 cm deep, and individual cells of 3.5 - 4 mm were separated by partitions. In 2017, one hundred and two nests were collected, of which twenty-two had been abandoned. Older cells were at the bottom of nests, while young ones towards the entrance. Among the different stages, the most in the nests were adults (51.8%), followed by pupal stages. Periodical collection of nests and the observations on developmental stages of the bees indicated that the nesting period was found to occur between October and March. Each egg was laid on a pollen provision located in separate cells and the incubation period lasted for 3.1±0.29 days. The larval period and pupal period lasted for 8.4±0.63 days and 7.3±01.41 days, respectively. Adults survived up to fourteen days in lab conditions with 10% honey solution. Parasitoids, predators and pathogens recorded on this bee species are also presented here.

Open access
Timing of Invasion by Africanized Bees Coincides with Local Extinction of a Specialized Pollinator of a Rare Poppy in Utah, USA

Abstract

The introduction of exotic species can have profound impacts on mutualisms between native species in invaded areas. However, determining whether a new invader has impacted native species depends on accurately reconstructing the invasion timing. The arrival of Africanized honey bees (AHB) in southern Utah at some point between 1994 and 2011 has recently been implicated in the local extinction of Perdita meconis, a native specialist pollinator of an endangered poppy, Arctomecon humilis. Although AHBs were purportedly first detected in southern Utah in 2008, their presence in nearby Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico by 1998–2001 suggests that they may have been present in Utah much earlier. We refined the arrival date of AHBs in southern Utah by using a molecular marker to determine maternal ancestry of museum specimens collected between 2000 and 2008. We found that AHBs were present in southern Utah from 2000 onwards, advancing the arrival date of this invader by at least 8 years. This lends credence to the hypothesis that AHBs played a critical role in the local extinction of P. meconis in Utah. This work also highlights the importance of vouchering even common species such as honey bees in museum collections to serve future research needs.

Open access
Use of Ecological Niche Models of Plant Species to Optimize Placement of Apiaries

Abstract

Apiaries must be located in areas with abundant flora as they are the nutritional base for Apis mellifera. Asteraceae is one of the most diverse plant families in Mexico and several of its species are of interest for beekeepers. The objective of this study was to determine the best sites for the placement of apiaries with the use of ecological niche models (ENM) of some Asteraceae species important for bees in two basins of the state of Michoacán, Mexico. ENM for thirty species were obtained through records of their presence, twenty abiotic variables and one biotic variable, and a map of species richness was made to determine which sites would be environmentally appropriate for apiaries. The models were statistically evaluated using the AUC_Maxent, partial_ROC and the binomial tests and were verified in the field. The first two tests’ models had values of 0.70 to 1 and the binomial test’s models had values of 1. The map showed six suitable areas with the greatest richness of species. The corroboration in the field proved ENM effective by finding twenty-two of the thirty modeled species inside the predicted areas. Our results support that ENM are a good strategy to predict the ideal habitat for species important for beekeeping, and thus determine the best places to establish apiaries in the region.

Open access
Bio-chemical properties and susceptibility to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora Burrill) of scab-resistant apple cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh.)

Abstract

The focus of our research was to evaluate different apples cultivars in terms of their biological properties and bioactive compounds content, and determine the levels of their resistance (or susceptibility) to fire blight. The properties of 10 scab-resistant apple cultivars were examined on the Žiča monastery estate (West Serbia) during the period from 2011 to 2015. The biological and chemical properties such as firmness, maturity stage, total soluble solids, total acids, total and reducing sugars, ascorbic acid content and surface blush of apple fruits were monitored. Various phenolic compounds in the tested samples were tentatively identified by LC-MS analyses. A study of generative properties included: number of flower buds, fruit mass and width, crop load, yield efficiency and yield. During the period of blooming and intensive shoot growth, artificial inoculations were carried out. For each cultivar, a fire blight score was determined by dividing the average length of necrotic tissue by the average total shoot length. In the study period, the cultivars ‘GoldRush’ (41.1 t ha−1) and ‘Florina’ (35.9 t ha−1) produced the highest yields, and the cultivars ‘Discovery’ (19.0 t ha−1) and Selection 25/63 (15.1 t ha−1) the lowest. The cultivar ‘William’s Pride’ produced the largest fruits, with an average fruit mass of 206.8 g. The earliest harvest period was recorded for the cultivar ‘Discovery’ (end of July), and the latest for the cultivar ‘GoldRush’ (beginning of October). The cultivar ‘Enterprise’ had the highest value of total phenols (432.2 mg 100 g−1 FW), while the cultivar ‘Topaz’ had the highest value of total flavanols (145.2 mg 100 g−1 FW). The highest degree of susceptibility to fire blight was found in Selection 25/63, and the greatest resistance was manifested by the cultivar ‘GoldRush’. In the five-year study period, the cultivars ‘GoldRush’, ‘Rewena’ and ‘Enterprise’ exhibited better bio-chemical properties and higher levels of resistance to fire blight than the remaining cultivars.

Open access
Assessment of cortisol and DHEA concentrations in Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) feathers to evaluate its allostatic load

Abstract

The use of a non-invasive approach to collect biological samples from natural populations represents a great means of gathering information while avoiding handling animals. Even if corticosterone is the main glucocorticoid investigated in birds, it has been observed a proportional direct link between corticosterone and cortisol concentrations. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be produced by the adrenal cortex and should have prominent antiglucocorticoid properties also in birds. The aim of this study was to verify if there is any difference in the cortisol and DHEA feather concentrations between clinically normal and physiologically compromised Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) through the non-invasive approach of collecting moulted feathers without having to pluck them from the bird. The study was carried out using 8 physiologically compromised (PC) Griffons and 9 clinically normal Griffons considered as the control (CTRL) group that were necropsied or from the wildlife rehabilitation centre. Primary and secondary covert feathers were either collected directly from the birds’ cage floors, or, in the case of dead Griffons, they were plucked off the animals. The results, obtained by RIA, revealed that both cortisol (P<0.01) and DHEA (P<0.05) feather concentrations were higher in the PC than in the CTRL group. No difference was observed by comparing the cortisol/DHEA ratio between the two evaluated groups (P=0.15). Pearson’s correlation coefficients showed no correlation between feather hormone concentrations in the PC group (r=0.01, P=0.96) while a positive correlation in the CTRL group (r=0.65, P=0.006) was observed. In conclusion, our study reveals that moulted feathers can be a non-invasive and an interesting tool to evaluate the allostatic load of wild birds and they allowed to better understand the relationship between hormones of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and the physiological status of the birds.

Open access
Assessment of gut microbiota and selected blood parameters in weaned piglets following supplementation with a probiotic and vitamin C

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the gut microbiota and selected haematological and biochemical blood parameters of weaned piglets following dietary supplementation with a probiotic and vitamin C. The piglets were divided into a control group (group C) and an experimental group (group E), with 30 piglets in each group. All animals received the same feed ad libitum. The animals in the control group (group C) received feed with no added probiotic and vitamin C. The piglets in the experimental group (group E) were given a supplement containing a probiotic (Bacillus cereus 1×109 CFU/kg) in the amount of 1.5 g/piglet/day and vitamin C in the amount of 300 mg/piglet/day. The supplement was administered for 28 days. The total numbers of bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae and of the genus Lactobacillus were determined in faeces. The erythrocyte count, haemoglobin level, haematocrit, leukocyte count, and percentages of neutrophils and lymphocytes were determined in the blood. The biochemical analysis concerned the concentration of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and LDL and HDL cholesterol. In group E a significant decrease (p<0.01) in the total number of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria was observed in the faeces of the piglets, accompanied by an increase in the number of lactobacilli relative to group C. E. coli was found to predominate over other microorganisms. Salmonella Choleraesuis bacteria were present in the faeces of both groups before administration of the supplement, but were not found after its use. The supplement with probiotic and vitamin C caused a significant increase in the erythrocyte, haemoglobin and haematocrit levels in the blood of the piglets and a significant decrease in the concentration of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.

Open access
The effect of addition of probiotic bacteria (Bacillus subtilis or Enterococcus faecium) or phytobiotic containing cinnamon oil to drinking water on the heath and performance of broiler chickens

Abstract

The aim of the study was to test whether the use of probiotic bacteria Bacillus subtilis or Enterococcus faecium or a phytobiotic containing cinnamon oil can improve the metabolic parameters, immune status, gut microbiota and histology, and growth performance of broiler chickens. The experiment was carried out on 560 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens raised until the age of 42 days. The broiler chickens were assigned to 4 experimental groups of 140 birds each (7 replications of 20 individuals each). The control group (Control) didn't receive additives. A probiotic preparation containing live bacterial cultures of Enterococcus faecium (EF, in the amount of 0.25 g/l) or Bacillus subtilis (BS, 0.25 g/l) or a phytobiotic preparation containing cinnamon oil (OC, 0.25 ml/l) was administered to the broiler chickens with their drinking water throughout the rearing period. The most important results indicate that the use of BS and OC resulted in: a significant (p≤0,05) increase in the level of ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), high-density cholesterol (HDL) and glutathione (GSH +GSSH) and a significant (p≤0,05) decrease in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), a ratio of heterophils: leukocytes (H:L) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), acidic phosphatase (AC) and creatinine kinase (CK), relative to the C group. In the blood of broiler chickens from the OC treatment, asparagine aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase activity and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) significant (p≤0,05) decreased in relation to the C group, and in broiler chickens' from EF and BS treatments there was an increase (p≤0,05) haemoglobin (Hb) content. Compared with group C, in the broiler chickens' nutritional content from EF, BS and OC treatments, the total number of coliforms and number of fungi significant (p≤0,05) dropped and the number of aerobic bacteria increased (p≤0,05) and in the length of the villus and the depth of the crypt. It has been found that through bacterial Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium and phytobiotic containing cinnamon oil can improve the microbiological and histological image of broiler chickens' intestinal. The addition of probiotic bacteria Bacillus subtilis or phytobiotic containing cinnamon oil to drinking water is more preferably than Enterococcus faecium regarding stimulation the immune system, blood redox status parameters, parameters of metabolic changes and the gut microbiome and morphometry.

Open access