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Adsorption mechanism and modelling of hydrocarbon contaminants onto rice straw activated carbons

Abstract

The adsorption of Diphenolic acid (DPA), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) were examined in aqueous solution using activated carbon rice straw. The rice straw was activated by using two reagents, zinc chloride and phosphoric acid and named as RSZ, RSP, respectively. The results showed that both carbons have a relatively high adsorption capacity. Concerning the adsorption kinetic, the second-order model has better fit than the first model to experimental data. The adsorption yield of both carbons increased in the order: DPA < 2,4-D < MCPA. The pore volume diffusion model satisfactorily fitted the experiment on both carbons. Furthermore, solution pH has a high influence on the adsorption capacity for both carbons. The adsorption mechanism of selected pollutants onto carbon samples has been controlled by dispersion interaction π-π electrons and electrostatic interaction, moreover, the contribution of pore volume diffusion is the controlling mechanism of the overall rate of adsorption.

Open access
Anticorrosion coatings based on novel acrylate binders containing MeO nanoparticles

Abstract

Water based paints are increasingly attracting interest mainly with a view to reducing air pollution with volatile organic compounds (VOC). However, the protective properties of water-based paints are inferior to those of solvent-based paints and so new ways to increase the resistance of water-based systems are sought. The present contribution describes the preparation and testing of environmentally friendly anti-corrosion paints based on novel water-based self-crosslinking acrylate latexes containing appropriate pigments and ZnO or MgO nanoparticles at a concentration of 1.5 % (with respect to the monomers) compared to the same systems free from the nanoparticles. Both the effect of the MeO nanoparticles and the effects of the pigment species and particle shapes on the paint film properties were examined. The MeO nanoparticles were found to improve all the properties tested. The latexes with MgO exhibited the highest resistance to flash corrosion while the latexes with ZnO exhibited the highest anticorrosion resistance. Furthermore, the systems with the calcium-aluminium polyphosphosilicate based pigment were superior to all the remaining systems in this respect. It is concluded that binders with nanoparticles can be used as a basis for anticorrosion coatings provided that a suitable pigment is selected.

Open access
Antimicrobial materials properties based on ion-exchange 4A zeolite derivatives

Abstract

Zeolites are nanoporous alumina silicates in a framework with cations, exhibiting ion-exchange properties with metal ions making them possible antimicrobial materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ion-exchanged zeolites and the toxic potential of these materials. Zeolite-Co2+ and Li+ exhibited the most effective inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus growth than in other microorganisms (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeroginosa) in low concentrations. Zeolite-Cu2+ presented higher zone of inhibition when tested against Candida albicans, while Zeolite-Zn2+ showed similar effectiveness among all the microorganisms. When ion-exchanged zeolites were used in effective concentrations to achieve antimicrobial activity, no alterations against bioindicators organisms as Artemia sp. and L. sativa were found and, in addition, they have non-significant result in terms of DNA cleavage activity. Zeolites have advantage of releasing slowly the metals loaded and this characteristic can to be considered promising as potential antimicrobial materials in concentrations safe for use.

Open access
Application of Taguchi method in the optimization of synthesis of cellulose-MgO bionanocomposite as antibacterial agent

Abstract

In this study, optimal conditions to form cellulose-MgO nanocomposite with antibacterial properties were evaluated. Applying the Taguchi method, 9 experiments were designed and the effects of different concentrations of biopolymers cellulose (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml), MgO nanoparticles (2, 4 and 8 mg/ml) and stirring times (30, 60 and 90 min) on antibacterial activity of synthesized nanocomposites were assessed. The characterizations of products were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results showed that the nano-composite produced in the conditions of experiment 9 (MgO 8 mg/ml, cellulose 2 mg/ml and stirring time of 60 min) has the strongest antibacterial activity. The outcomes of both methods of colony forming units (CFU) and disc diffusion indicated that the antibacterial activity of cellulose-MgO nanocomposite was significantly higher than its components (P <0.05). Thermal analysis indicated improvement in the thermal stability of the cellulose biopolymer after the formation of the nanocomposite. Due to the improvement of the antibacterial properties of cellulose-MgO nanocomposite compared to its components, we can use it as a new antibacterial agent in the fields of pharmaceutical, medicine and dentistry.

Open access
Behavior of metallic trace elements containing in stabilized and solidified oily petroleum sludge

Abstract

The present work examines the influence of the leaching conditions on the release of various chemical elements from a cementitious material obtained by solidification of an industrial waste rejection of Algeria. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis SEM-EDX analyses were employed to characterize the waste and the stabilized/solidified materials. Than several formulations were prepared with different percent of waste ranging from 0 % to 30 %. To evaluate the influence of leaching conditions on the release of chemical ions (Zn2+, Pb2+, Cl-, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+ and SO4 2−) contained in the stabilized and solidified materials, the Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC), the Pore Water (PW) and Monolith Leaching Tests (MLT) have been carried out. The leaching tests (ANC, PW and MLT) have shown a low metal leachability. However, the lowest released amount was observed for the MLT.

Open access
The catalytic oxidation of toluene at low temperature over palladium nanoparticles supported on Alumina sphere catalysts: effects of Palladium precursors and preparation method

Abstract

In this study, 1 wt.% Pd/Al2O3 sphere catalysts were prepared using the wet-impregnation (WI) and deposition-precipitation (DP) method using palladium chloride and tetraamminepalladium (II) nitrate as salt precursors. All catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The catalytic activity in toluene oxidation under gas-phase conditions was measured. The obtained results showed that metal dispersion and catalytic activity were strongly dependent on the salt precursor and method of catalyst preparation. The use of tetraamminepalladium (II) nitrate as the precursor presented smaller particle size, an enhanced dispersion and higher specific surface area. Moreover, the catalyst prepared with this precursor also showed higher catalytic activity than that prepared with palladium chloride. At 1 wt.% Pd loading, complete oxidation of toluene was achieved at 250°C. However, there was only approximately 80–90% efficient at the same temperature when the catalyst was prepared with palladium chloride as the precursor.

Open access
Characterization of selected properties of WC–WB–Co and WC–FeCrAl coatings applied by HVOF technology

Abstract

The paper presents results of the research focused on the characterization of two types of coatings – WC–FeCrAl and WC–WB–Co. The properties of the WC–FeCrAl coating (Co and Ni free) were compared against the WC–WB–Co coating to see if it could be used as an environmentally more suitable substitute for conventional Co and Ni containing powders. The coatings were applied by HVOF technology. The influence of thermal cyclic stress on the hardness, adhesion of coatings and their corrosion resistance was determined. A change in the phase composition of coatings after thermal cyclic loading was also determined.

Open access
Comparative studies on the adsorption of Pb(II) ions by fly ash and slag obtained from CFBC technology

Abstract

Fly ash and slag were examined for the removal processes of Pb(II) ions from water in batch experiments under different conditions of adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, pH and contact time. The materials are industrial waste generated from the high temperature treatment of sewage sludge by the circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) technology. Physical and chemical properties, as well as adsorption efficiency and calculated maximum adsorption capacity of Pb(II) ions were determined using a variety of methods. The kinetic analysis revealed that the adsorption process is better described by the pseudo-second order equation and it is well fitted to the Freundlich model.

Open access
Corrosion resistance of the biodegradable ZE41 magnesium alloy treated by unconventional fluoride conversion coating

Abstract

Magnesium based alloys are very promising material to be used mainly for biodegradable implants in medical applications. However, due to their very low corrosion resistance in the environment of in vivo is their use limited. Increase of the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys in vivo can be achieved, for example, by a suitable choice of surface treatment while the biocompatibility must be ensured. Fluoride conversion coatings meet these requirements. Unconventional fluoride conversion coating was prepared on ZE41 magnesium alloy by dipping the magnesium alloy into the Na[BF4] salt melt at 450 °C for 0.5; 2 and 8 h. The morphology and thickness of the prepared fluoride conversion coatings were investigated as well as the corrosion resistance of the treated and untreated ZE41 magnesium alloy specimens. The corrosion resistance of the untreated and treated ZE41 magnesium alloy was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the environment of the simulated body fluids at 37 ± 2 °C. The obtained results showed a positive influence of the fluoride conversion coating on the corrosion resistance of the ZE41 magnesium alloy.

Open access
Deleterious amino acid substitutions with a series of putative damaging effects on egg components are revealed in the ovalbumin gene family; an in silico approach

Abstract

This study was conducted to identify the most deleterious nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in the ovalbumin gene family, including OVALX, OVALY, and OVAL genes, which are involved in the synthesis of the most important components in the chickens’ eggs using a comprehensive in silico approach. Ten different computational servers were utilized to prioritize the possible deleterious effects of the retrieved nsSNPs in terms of structure, function, and stability. Results indicated entirely damaging effects of H365P in OVALX, I167T in OVALY, and V209G, L231P, F307C, and S317P in OVAL proteins. Further prediction tools showed that all of these deleterious nsSNPs were positioned in variable locations within several α-helix motifs in all studied ovalbumin proteins. Furthermore, all witnessed nsSNPs were predicted to be resided in the receptors binding sites, signifying remarkable involvement of such nsSNPs in damaging of the altered proteins. In conclusion, the present study provides the first inclusive data with regard to the most deleterious nsSNPs in OVALX, OVALY and OVAL genes in chickens. The present bioinformatics data may be useful for breeders who intend to raise chickens for egg production, in such a way the presence of any of these deleterious nsSNPs in any selected breed may possess several damaging effects on the egg components, which may impair egg production. Therefore, it can be stated that breeders have to confirm the absence of any of these deleterious nsSNPs before being proceeded further for large-scale egg-production purposes.

Open access