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Analysis of the investments intervention effect from operational programmes upon the R&D infrastructure of the Czech public universities

Abstract

An analysis of the investments intervention effect from operational programmes in the programming period 2007–2013 upon the R&D infrastructure of the Czech public universities is presented. The analysis was based upon publicly available data, universities´ annual economic reports, and evaluations and analyses. A few indicators have been selected to quantify the effect of significant extension and upgrade of the universities´ R&D infrastructure where investments from structural funds amounted to 36 % of the universities´ total R&D expenditure. The effect of the financial intervention upon the performance in basic research was evaluated firstly by making use of the increase of publications number in impacted journals in the time windows 2009–2011 and 2015–2017, i.e. before the effective launch of the interventions, and after their termination. The share of foreign public funds (structural funds excluded) in the total R&D expenditure was the second indicator used. The effect upon the applied research performance was evaluated by comparing the difference of the number of patents and by the change in the share of private sources in the R&D expenditure. The analyses show an increase of the number of publications whereas the change in the share of the foreign public funds in the total R&D expenditure did not induce any positive trend. In parallel with the number of publications, the number of patents increased, too. The change in the share of the private sources in the R&D expenditure was unequivocally associated with a positive trend, especially in the out-of-Prague technical universities. For a more robust evaluation of the effect of the interventions financed by the structural funds an analogous analysis should be carried out after a longer time than the mere three years after the termination of the interventions.

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in ERGO
Contemporary Education Towards Selected Phenomena. Case Study as an Educational Method – A Suicidal Aspect

Abstract

The article deals with issues related to contemporary education towards selected phenomena using the case study method. In recent years, the proposed topic is important. Very often, the presentation of aspects related to the case study in a much better perspective illustrates difficulties and problematic issues concerning social, medical or psychological phenomena. Analysis of a single case, using a detailed description, which is usually a real case, allowing to draw conclusions about the causes and results of its course and technical, cultural, social conditions, etc. The phenomenon of suicide is a very complicated process. To understand this issue thoroughly, modern teaching methods are used, thanks to which the adoption and understanding of even difficult material is used. The work is therefore of a theoretical and practical nature, as examples of case studies from conducted scientific research carried out on a group of people after suicide attempt from 2014 will be presented.

Open access
The Directions of the Development of the Russian System of Education in the 21st Century

Abstract

The article entitled The Directions of the Development of the Russian System of Education in the 21st century came into existence as a result of the continuation of research on the Russian education initiated with publishing of the series of articles in the 1990s as well as the book Democratic Transformation of Education in Russia, Krakow 2003. The first section of this article is devoted to the current structure of Russian education emphasizing its differences while comparing it to Polish education. The second section is a critical analysis of the state of Russian education at its all levels during the first two decades of the 21st cent., taking into account the changes the system has undergone since the period of Perestroika (1985-1989). The analysis is conducted from the perspective of the social situation of Russia undergoing disadvantageous demographic transformations, with the education influenced to a great extent by ineffective economy as well as Russia`s accession to the Bologna Accords. The final section presents the tendencies of the development of the Russian system of education taking into consideration its unfavorable socio-economic conditions and the lack of stabilization in the country. These are the main directions of the development of global and specific character, resulting from multicultural needs of citizens of this multinational state.

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Formation of research and development consortia in the Competence Centres programme

Abstract

This paper aims to find out how the research consortia supported in the Competence Centres programme were created, what motives and factors decide on the involvement of various actors in these consortia. It is based on a combination of a questionnaire survey, structured interviews and analysis of quantitative data from the Research, Development and Innovation Information System. The most frequent motives of consortium members for involvement in competence centres were the development of their own research activities and access to knowledge / facilities shared by partners. The main beneficiary, or a narrow group of beneficiaries forming the core of the consortium, played a decisive role in shaping the consortium. The main factor for the involvement of individual members was the combination of previous experiences with partners and their competences. Furthermore, participating enterprises have developed and extensive research and development activities, do not compete, and their activities are complementary or linked. The differences in motives and factors for each type of partner can indicate the hierarchical arrangement of consortium members.

Open access
in ERGO
Media Education of Seniors as a form of Action Against the Digital Marginalization of People over 65 Years of Age

Abstract

We live in an ageing society that is technologically characterized at the same time In order to function well in it, one must have appropriate competences. Those can be acquired through media education. This is vital for older people who are exposed to digital marginalization. The exclusion occurs when some individuals or groups are not free to participate fully in the network society. The aim of this article is not only to prove that media education in practice affects the reduction of the digital divide but also that seniors can use media spaces to the same extent as younger generations. It is also intended to sensitize the society to the presence of seniors in the virtual space.

Open access
Mobbing in the Workplace-Causes and Consequences

Abstract

Mobbing is one of the most important threats to the functioning of the organization. It refers to the use of unethical activities whose purpose is to harm a colleague. The aim of this study is to present the most important issues related to the issue of mobbing and to describe its causes and consequences that it causes in the individual and social sphere. It turns out that it causes many negative consequences in the functioning of the employee and generates significant financial losses of the organization. An important aspect is the consequent elimination of it, which may contribute to improving the functioning of the organization and its employees.

Open access
A New Model of Education and Upbringing in Polish School

Abstract

Is it necessary and worth reflecting on the choice of a model of education and upbringing in contemporary Polish system of education? What ought to be done to make school not only the transmission of knowledge but also the introduction to the world of values?

The current model can be characterised with the decomposition of a teacher’s role by the introduction of excessive pseudo-subjectivity of a student, and as a consequence getting rid of the “missionary” character of teaching profession, fulfilling the task of raising a conscious citizen and patriot, able to acquire knowledge necessary for finding one`s place in the constantly changing world.

The alternative for the current Polish model of education ought to be sought in the upbringing of an individual in personalised spirit, at the same time expressing the need for shaping its character within the culture of Latin civilisation. Thus, it will enable a young individual to overtake the control over his own process of development. Such an activity ought to become the foundation of the new model of upbringing in Polish schools.

Open access
Research and development in the field of Artificial Intelligence in EU framework programmes

Abstract

The aim of this contribution is to evaluate the cooperation of the European countries in projects related to the AI in the 7th Framework Programme (FP7) and in the current Horizon 2020 Programme. The analysis is based on the information obtained from European Commission database eCORDA (External COmmon Research DAtawarehouse). Dynamic scientometric maps were constructed to describe in more detail the collaboration of European subjects in the EC funded AI research. Within the FP7, 1223 projects in the AI field received roughly 2,8 billion €. In the current H2020 programme the EC has already provided 2,1 billion € for 1081 projects in AI. In the FP7, higher education institutions dominated in both the number of awarded project and the received financial support. In the H2020 programme, a profound shift favouring business enterprise sector occurred. Approximately one third of AI projects in the FP7 was in the thematic area Information and Communication Technologies. In the H2020 programme the EC extended the support further to other thematic areas including global societal challenges especially in the field of transport and security. The extent of the involvement of the member countries varies extensively. The countries above average participating in the AI projects are Germany, Italy, Austria, Spain, Portugal, and Slovenia. The Czech Republic falls in the group of less participating countries. The Czech Republic also exhibits a smaller increase of the participation between RP7 and H2020. Universities involved in approximately two thirds of AI project have dominated in the Czech participation in the FP7. In the H2020 program their share in the AI project decreased by approximately 10 percent points. On the other side, their share of financial support was conserved. The most participating universities were the Czech Technical University Prague (24 projects, and 30% share of the EC contribution for the Czech AI projects) and the Brno University of Technology (14 projects, and 12,4% financial share). In the business enterprise sector Honeywell International s. r. o. attained the highest participation. The Czech subjects collaborate most frequently with German, British, Italian and French research teams.

Open access
in ERGO
Restoring a Man

Abstract

We lost a man - a person always rational, always free and gifted with the soul. We lost a man mainly in the space of language. Instead of a human is “individual” - a measure. This process has already accelerated in the second half of the 19th century. There is no human being anymore, there are individuals with a definable quality, and to segregate and destroy those who do not correspond to the desired image. Also in globally meant social aid. There is a need to go back to seeing the face of each human. Restore everyone.

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Selected Problems of Education in Europe at the Turn of XX and XXI Century in the Case Law of European Tribunals

Abstract

The aim of this article is to analyze which issues, and why, influenced the systems of education at the turn of XX and XXI century to the extent that led to the need of resolving them at the level of international tribunals in Europe - the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). Within the case law of the CJEU, the analysis was based on the cases concerning the right to education of migrant children and the right of the holder of a secondary education diploma awarded in a Member State to access the higher education institution in another Member State. As far as the case law of the ECtHR is concerned, the author considers the cases dealing with the issue of wearing headscarves and displaying crucifixes in educational institutions in the context of the freedom of religion, the case with a problem of an alternative for religious education in public school and the cases on the discrimination in education. The conclusion is that the systems of education are vulnerable to challenges faced by the entire society and reflect the changes undergoing within it.

Open access