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How Achievement Motivation Influences the Attitude of Schoolchildren and Students Towards Independent Sports Activities

Summary

Purpose: to determine the relationship between achievement motivation and the attitudes of schoolchildren of 11-17 years old and students of 18-21 years old to independent sports and passing control standards in the discipline \”Physical Education\”. Material: 1576 schoolchildren (boys n = 780 and girls n = 796) of comprehensive schools of Belgorod, Stary Oskol, Stroitel and Shebekino (Belgorod region, Russian Federation) and 246 students (men n = 127) were surveyed. and women n = 119) Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov (Belgorod, Russian Federation). The questionnaire consisted of three blocks of questions: the 1st block of questions - questions aimed at determining the age, sex, place of study of the respondent; 2nd block of questions - 8 questions, allowing to assess the attitude of the respondent to independent sports activities and the desire to take control standards of the discipline Y’Physical Education\”; 3rd block of questions is a test of 20 questions, developed by A.A. Rean, to assess the motivation to achieve success and avoid failures. Results: the motivation for avoiding failures was diagnosed in 5% male students and 10% female students. A direct correlation between achievement motivation and the attitude of schoolchildren and students towards independent sports activities and passing control standards has been revealed. Conclusions: there are no differences in the correlation between the relationship between achievement motivation and attitudes toward independent sports by gender. Schoolchildren and students with motivation to achieve regular self-exercise.

Schoolchildren and students with a pronounced motivation for avoiding failures prefer a passive way of life. They do not want to pass standards on the discipline \”Physical Education\” and do not go in for sports on their own.

Open access
Identification of Young Talents in Sport

Summary

The identification of talented athletes and their timely inclusion in the training process in the sport which most suits their abilities is one of the most demanding processes in modern sports science. Incorrect decisions are frequent and usually very painful. Elite sport is a field of human creativity which Slovenians value highly. In relation to the size of the population. Slovenia is one of the most successful “sports countries” in the world. Due to a decreased biological basis, a well-meaning and professional approach is necessary in the selection of individuals for a particular sport. The Faculty of Sport has developed certain expert systems and methods of evaluation and identification of talented children, whose purpose is to help parents and experts make the right decisions when it comes to introducing children to sport. These methods were based on the application of specific tests for determining individual motor skills. A battery of 13 morphological tests, 14 tests for special motor skills and 3 tests of the motor skill of running were used. It was determined that special tests of explosive strength and speed had the greatest predictive power for talented children. It should be pointed out that, despite the technology and state-of-the-art methodology used in the measuring procedure, it is impossible to predict talent with absolute certainly, let alone future sports achievements. The human body is an exceptionally complex system which is determined by numerous unpredictable factors. There is no doubt that the results of professional methods can be used as guidelines in the process of selection of an individual for a particular sport.

Open access
Leadership in Sport: Creative Challenges and Encouragement, Optimal Effectiveness in Integral Interactive Transformation and High Effectiveness in Final Applications

Summary

The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of a series of processes which a leader in sport has to design and realize. The necessity of leadership presence (guidance) in sport can be found in the dynamic polyvalent and multidisciplinary development of contemporary human society, with the added note that management is more closely related to efficiency, and leadership with effectiveness and change. Based on the partial models of the structural and organizational system of sport constructed and presented so far, and the current global analyses of sports management and marketing, quality management, information, communication, scientific and training technology, as well as the analysis of individual models and their mutual interactions, we can conclude that the transformation processes which are in sport defined by applying increasingly more modern technologies, and in the world at large take place in a continued, dynamic and intense manner in sports organizations, should lead to the most efficient, optimal and effective modeling of increasingly newer and more modern creations, conceptions, projections and strategies, so that they could as a consequence lead to the strengthening of the role of specific sports and business functions.

Open access
Resistance Training for Children and Adolescents: From a Physiological Basis to Practical Applications

Summary

Resistance training for children and adolescents, programmed according to individual needs and abilities and adequately implemented, is recommended by leading professional associations in the field of sports medicine, sport sciences and pediatrics. The most commonly used loads during training, with the aim of developing strength and power, are free weights and resistance exercise equipment that can be of standard sizes, but also specially designed for younger age groups, body weight exercises, and exercises with medicine balls and elastic bands. In addition to the positive influence on muscle strength and endurance, as well as a potential increase in the performance of certain motor tasks, regular resistance training can also result in improving body composition, increasing bone mineral density, improvement of cardio-respiratory endurance, as well as have a positive impact on the psycho-social status of children and adolescents. Due to the lack of clear evidence to suggest muscle hypertrophy in children, an increase in muscle strength is mainly attributed to neurological adaptations, including improved coordination, speed and the number of activated motor units. In designing a resistance training program for children and adolescents, one should respect the basic principles of training, pertaining to adults as well, but it must be borne in mind that neither children nor adolescents are “little adults”, and that one should not simply copy the training of adults or athletes.

Regular and clear instructions with constant supervision in resistance training for children and adolescents can have a positive impact on overall health, and can lead to the creation of positive habit acquisition to regularly perform training, and a healthy lifestyle. Current results and findings obtained from well-organized and monitored investigations, on a sample of children or adolescents, indicated a very low risk of injury when one meets all the training recommendations for a particular age group.

Open access
Science and Physical Culture – A Glimpse into the Future

Summary

The end of the 20th and the first decade of the 21st century are characterized by a technological development which could be described as having revolutionary speed. If we were to look back on the revolutionary events during the 17th and 18th century, in the domain of great scientific changes, changes in industry, agriculture, economy, the organization of social relations (democracy and socialism), we could say that we are witnesses to this sixth technological revolution.

All these civilizational leaps forward have conditioned, quite expectedly, big changes in our profession. This has been reflected in the goals which have been imposed by social changes initiated by numerous revolutionary changes. Even though man and his need for physical exercise, as the nourishing food necessary for his being, have remained the same, the circumstances which have imposed different living conditions have required changes in our profession. Naturally, this was reflected in our science as well (which we refer to by different names today).

The time we live in, caught up in this new sixth technological revolution, requires a different approach to man and his personality. Now, the question is not only how to “drag” him out of a sedentary culture, but also how to fight the increasingly present physical and intellectual inactivity. Through perfectly guided marketing activities which have been made possible by the implementation of new technological aids, man has been drawn into the hedonistic waters of his own inactivity. And unfortunately, he cannot free himself from this skillfully set trap. That is why physical culture and science must be included in finding a means of helping man find his way out of this hedonistic labyrinth and return to his roots.

Open access
Sport - A Call to Freedom or Agreement to Slavery?

Summary

Contemporary sport offers man the eclectics of industrial neopaganism, hidden behind the splendor of Olympism. Man through sport, as in many other ways, can find a way out of himself in order to encompass and gather the world around him. A good, Christocentric movement allows us to transform the world for the better, proving ourselves both in soul and body to be blessed helpers of the Lord on the journey of our salvation. Even though it is just an auxiliary means, sport is never agnostic, considering that in it, in the beginning, the gifts bestowed to the soul and body are brought closer together and guided towards salvation from sin, decay and death. In such a sense, sport cannot be equated with industrial sport in which the very concept of sport is only a mask for sin (profit).

Open access
Stabilometrical Studies of Children’s Functional Movement Status for their Selection for Table Tennis in the Modern Context

Summary

Modern sport is characterized by rapid growth of records and achievements, and related significant intensification of training and competitive loads requires a scientifically grounded search for talented young people, who can cope with heavy sports loads, high rates of sports development and sports achievements. At the same time, search and selection of talented children for sports to begin their sports development should be based on scientific achievements in the field of pedagogy, psychology, physiology, sports training and other special subjects which give an appropriate idea about specifics of the status and development of the organism, its functional and movement capabilities. Exploring the problems of today’s youth, and the origins of table tennis, we can state that at the present stage table tennis can be an effective means of physical education of the younger generation of the Republic of Moldova, not only for sports development but also for the education of the socially and morally healthy young people. Sports practice of athlete’s development requires knowledge and records of indicators of their present and prospective physical, functional and psychomotor status, which dynamics and forecast allow planning athletic performance. The material for publication provides research findings on stabilometrical studies of functional movement status of children participating in sports selection for table tennis. At the same time, stabilometric criteria of children selection for table tennis serve an effective assessment of their physical condition, based on their previous movement experiences.

Applied stabilometrical tests for studying and assessing the functional movement skills are quite adequate to the due age development of the explored children and they allow to perform efficient sports selection at a high level. Applying these tests in the process of sports selection of children for table tennis will allow us to identify often outwardly hidden visual, hearing, proprioceptive, and vestibular distortions and necessary psychomotor status allowing to control their own motor actions.

Open access
Axiological Aspects of Human Body, Spirit and Soul Composition

Abstract

The theme presented is aimed at attempting to perceive the fundamental qualities of the man’s personality (body, soul and spirit) from the philosophical, anthropological and theological point of view and, at the same time, to establish the value reflections towards its (current and universal) existential orientations. Namely, today's experience shows us that tendencies with notable prevailing of corporality over the other constitutive properties of the human being are constantly getting stronger. The body cult is vigorously stressed: body building and fitness clubs, as well as special gyms and wellness facilities (saunas, hydro massage baths, tepidariums are advertised, which should satisfy the increased corporal‐hedonistic and corporal‐aesthetic motives. This disturbing of the essential and human structure established by God demands the return to the original settings of Christian trichotomy (not serving the body but serving of the body), whereby a balanced and harmonious relationship between the body, the soul, and the spirit is developed by equally bearing in mind all three areas on which all three "gymnastics" are tuned and effectively performed, which leads to overall development and fulfilment of a human being.

Open access
Evaluation and Review of Sport in the Context of Current Social Trends

Abstract

General level of culture does not mean that everyone is expected to become, for example, a writer, an artist, a poet, an actor or a painter but it assumes enabling people to enjoy culture and arts, and expand the range of possible enjoyments in life and the world. Likewise, introduction of children, boys and girls into the world of body culture should enrich them in this regard. Ethical and moral changes will significantly change the form of physical culture and education, and the sports life in general. Aggressiveness, false prestige, self‐centredness, foul motive of achievement will be found under review. There may come a time when the sports victory will be considered and respected primarily as a result of successful mastering the strengths of one's own nature and their reasonable use. Any violence against one's own body will be considered as educational and sports misfortune or accident, as something that belongs to the ethical despise and not to the established and existing ethical norms.

Open access
Historical Experience of Usin Preventive Medicine in Physical Education of Different Population Groups

Abstract

The main attention in this article is devoted to the question of the influence of generally recognized measures of preventive medicine on the process of physical education of different categories of the population in the historical aspect. In this case, such conditions ensure the effectiveness of work on physical training, mainly young people as a character and level of their physical activity, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the diet, the presence of bad habits, and so on. The necessity of formation of the appropriate infrastructure, which will allow specialists working in the field of physical culture and sports, is substantiated, to focus on the priority directions of organization of physical activity for children and adolescents with the purpose of positive influence on their health.

Open access