This study investigates the hypothesis that cross-reactions may occur between human cardiac proteins and influenza antigens, thus possibly representing the molecular mechanism underlying influenzaassociated sudden unexpected death (SUD). Using titin protein as a research model, data were obtained on (1) the occurrence of the titin octapeptide AELLVLLE or its mimic AELLVALE in influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) sequences; (2) the immunological potential of AELLVLLE and its mimic AELLVALE; (3) the possible role of the flanking amino acid aa) context of the two octapeptide determinants in eliciting cross-reactivity between the human cardiac titin protein and HA antigens.
Jiangeng Han, Xin Wang, Weiyi Chai, Kunbin Liu and Chen Wang
The purpose of this study was to study the association of deep fungal infection with glucose levels in critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Fasting blood glucose level was measured for 108 critically ill ICU patients in the morning. After analyzed according to the Spearman method found deep fungal infections in patients with the rise in blood glucose levels and the ratio increases, a positive correlation between the two. Deep infection in critically ill ICU patients and their blood glucose levels was closely related, and therefore, there should a focus on controlling blood sugar levels in patients.
Autoantibodies (AAbs) against von Willebrand factor (vWF)-cleaving protease ADAMTS13 causally relate to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). How anti-ADAMTS13 AAbs are generated is unknown. Starting from reports according to which influenza infection can trigger TTP by the production of ADAMTS13 AAbs, this study explores influenza viruses and ADAMTS13 protein for common peptide sequences that might underlie anti-influenza immune responses able to cross-react with ADAMTS13. Results document that numerous peptides are shared between influenza A and B viruses and ADAMTS13, thus supporting the hypothesis of cross-reactivity as a mechanism driving the generation of anti-ADAMTS13 AAbs.
External abdominal hernia is a common clinical disease. The application of hernia patch is a breakthrough in the treatment of external abdominal hernia. However, complications such as patch infection need to be solved urgently. Patch infection markedly prolongs the hospitalization time and increases the medical expenses of patients. At present, a standard method for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of patch infection remains to be developed. This paper summarizes the literature in recent years to explore the research progress in the prevention and treatment of patch infection.
Jiangeng Han, Xin Wang, Zheng Chen, Ning Gao and Chen Wang
Patients with diabetes are prone to concurrent infection. The mechanism of concurrent infection is related to factors such as hyperglycemia and weakened defense function. The infections of patients with diabetes include general and special infections. General infection includes infections in the respiratory system, urinary system, hepatobiliary system, and skin mucosa. Meanwhile, special infection includes invasive otitis externa, nasal mucormycosis, necrotizing fasciitis, and emphysema infection. Patients with special infections also have a higher mortality rate than those with general ones. Complicated infection with diabetes is difficult to treat and has poor prognosis. Therefore, a patient requires active treatment once infected with this infection.
Immune tolerance is a specific lack or negative response of T and B lymphocytes to antigen. According to different formation periods, immune tolerance can be divided into central and peripheral tolerances. The immune tolerance of the body to hepatitis B virus (HBV) after infection is the main cause of chronic HBV infection. In this paper, the functional defects of hepatitis B virus e antigen and dendritic cells, hyporesponsiveness of cytotoxic T lymphocyte, variation of helper T lymphocytes and cytokines, HBV genotype and genome, and the role of host gene polymorphism in the formation of immune tolerance in chronic HBV infection and its related research progress are introduced briefly.
Human microecology has been extensively investigated. Similar to an important physiologically functioning organ of the human body, the microecological system is one of the leading systems for environmental survival, health, genetics, disease, and aging. It is also an essential carrier for drug metabolism and microbial resistance. The occurrence, development, and deterioration of many infectious diseases are closely related to human microecological systems. This study mainly focuses on the changes in microbial groups associated with various infectious diseases to explore the relevant role of human microecology in the development of infectious diseases and its breakthrough implications in future accurate treatments of infectious diseases.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is an important pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia in children. As a type of self-limited disease, most MP infections cause mild clinical symptoms, but they can also lead to severe pneumonia or extrapulmonary complications. The resistance rate of MP has increased in recent years. Early and rapid diagnosis of MP infection is important for the treatment and prognosis of the disease. Current methods for diagnosing MP infection include isolation culture, serological diagnosis, and molecular biological diagnosis. This review summarizes the recent research progress in the internal and external laboratory diagnoses of MP infection both at home and abroad and the advantages and disadvantages of various diagnostic methods.
Liver transplant is considered the best choice for treating various end-stage liver diseases either at home or abroad. Among patients of liver transplant complicated with tuberculosis (TB), the incidence and mortality of postoperative active TB are bound to increase remarkably. Diagnosing and treating TB in patients with end-stage liver diseases who received immunosuppressants after liver transplant are difficult because of the absence of specific clinical manifestations while being complicated with TB, reduced sensitivity to cellular immunoassay, and interaction between anti-TB drugs and immunosuppressants. Therefore, the screening of high-risk groups, improvement in diagnostic accuracy, preoperative treatment, and reduced interaction between anti-TB drugs and immunosuppressants can help optimize diagnosis and treatment regimes and thus further improve the prognosis of patients.
Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute progressive respiratory failure caused by severe infection, trauma, shock, poisoning, inhaled harmful gas, acute pancreatitis, and pathological obstetrics. ALI and ARDS demonstrate similar pathophysiological changes. The severe stage of ALI is defined as ARDS. At present, a significant progress has been achieved in the study of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS. Whether or not ALI/ARDS patients can recover depends on the degree of lung injury, extra-pulmonary organ damage, original primary disease of a patient, and adequacy in supportive care. Conservative infusion strategies and protective lung ventilation reduce ARDS disability and mortality. In this study, the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS, lung injury, molecular mechanisms of lung repair, and conservative infusion strategies and pulmonary protective ventilation are reviewed comprehensively.