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Evaluation of enzymatic hydrolysis via alcoholic fermentation of corn flour

Abstract

The research was concerned with the enzymatic hydrolysis followed by alcoholic fermentation of corn flour. Commercial corn flour purchased from local market contained starch of 87.25%, moisture 11.86% and ash 0.70%. The kinetics of corn flour hydrolysis was performed at 50°C, 65°C and 80°C using commercial thermos table-∞-amylase and ∞-amyloglucosidase. During hydrolysis the residual starch content was decreased with increasing hydrolysis time. The line weaver-Burk plot for enzyme hydrolysis of corn starch for 2.5%, 5% and 10% flour solution showed a Km value of 2.46, 2.27 and 1.73 mg/ml and Vmax values 1.23, 1.21 and 0.96 U/ml for 50°C, 65°C and 80°C respectively. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to detect the presence of dextrose in the hydrolyzates. The Rf (Retention factors) values showed that the starch was mainly composed of dextrose and depended on carrier solvent use for dextrose assessment. When 100% ethyl alcohol used as carrier solvent the Rf value was 0.72 and ethyl alcohol: ethyl acetate= 1:1 the Rf value was 0.65. Both corn flour solution and its enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with commercial baker’s yeast. Both the cases starch content was decreased and alcohol content was increased during hydrolysis and alcohol production was 3 times more from hydrolysates. The results obtained here will be useful for further research in the production of other value added products like white vinegar from the produced alcohol from con flour.

Open access
Response of Maize Varieties to Sowing Dates in Inner Terai Region, Dang, Nepal

Abstract

Sowing dates and varieties affect the productivity of maize. A field experiment was conducted to find out the response of maize hybrids to sowing dates on growth and productivity of maize in spring season at Lamahi, Dang in 2019. The experiment was laid out in two factor factorial Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The treatment consisted of combination of three different sowing dates (February 1, February12 and February 23) and two maize varieties (Arun-2 i.e. OPV and hybrid Bioseed-9220).The result revealed that earlier planting on February 1 produced the highest yield (8265 Kg ha-1) which was significantly superior than latter planting of February 12(6099 kg ha-1)and February 23 (5934 kg ha-1).The higher yield in earlier planting was due to significantly higher no of kernel per ear, non-significant but higher number of cob per unit area, thousand grain weight. Similarly, Bioseed 9220 produced higher yield (7798 kg ha-1) compared to Arun-2 (5,734 kg ha-1). The higher yield of hybrid Bioseed 9220 was because of higher number of cob per unit area harvested and more number of kernel per cob. Therefore, earlier planting with hybrid maize is recommended in spring season of Dang and locations with similar climatic conditions for higher productivity of maize.

Open access
Significance of Nutritional Value of Fish for Human Health

Abstract

Nutrients are the substances which give nourishment to the body and promote growth. These nutrients are present in varieties of foods in various amounts. Fish is a source of aquatic food which can both be farmed and wild caught. Fish is rich in macronutrients: proteins, lipids and ash and micronutrients: vitamins and minerals. Proteins in the fish have immunoglobins that acts as defense mechanism against viral and bacterial infections and prevent protein calorie malnutrition. Lipids mainly LC n-3 PUFAs like EPA and DHA prevents cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases and maintains blood pressure and neuro-development in child. Selenium is important for the function of thyroid gland. Iron helps in synthesis of hemoglobin and prevents the occurrence of anemia. Calcium and vitamin D naturally present in fish prevents rickets, low bone-mineral density and osteomalacia. Vitamin A in fish helps in normal growth, formation of bones and teeth. Despite these importances’s, fish is still undervalued and less consumed compared to other animal protein sources due to lack of awareness. If the per capita consumption of the fish can be increased, then people can have many health benefits. People should be made known about the health benefits of fish. Many other researches should be conducted to make the nutritional value of fish known to the world.

Open access
Assessing hospital readiness for radio frequency identification device implementation in Iran: a conceptual model

Abstract

Background

To avoid possible failures and ineffective use of economic resources, necessary infrastructure must be provided before implementing new technologies in a developing country like Iran.

Objectives

To assess the degree of readiness for implementing a radio frequency identification device (RFID) system in hospitals in Iran.

Methods

We adopted a descriptive design and structural equation modeling (LISREL statistical software package) to analyze data collected from the hospitals affiliated with the Semnan University of Medical Sciences. All managers, physicians, residents, nurses, and staff members of the medical records and information technology sectors participated in this study. A questionnaire was designed by the investigators to collect ideas from the participants about organizational readiness, cultural readiness, and human resource readiness in implementing RFID.

Results

We found a significant positive correlation between the variables studied. Human resource readiness significantly predicted RFID implementation, with cultural readiness playing the role of a mediator variable. Cultural readiness itself was influenced by organizational readiness (P < 0.01). We found 0.346 (standard deviation: 0.374) changes in an arbitrary unit of the possibility of RFID implementation was attributed to human resources and cultural readiness.

Conclusions

Paying attention to cultural factors, which play an important role in implementing technological projects such as RFID in developing countries like Iran, can reduce the risk of failure. Hospitals should strengthen organizational factors and improve the support of top rank managers when implementing technological projects. By so doing, they will promote cultural readiness, prepare human resources, and win the cooperation of personnel for such projects.

Open access
Clinical outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome in a university hospital

Abstract

Background

Mortality rates of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are different, depending on severity, etiology, and management.

Objective

To determine 7-day and 28-day mortalities, hospital length of stay (LOS), duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) of ARDS patients, and factors associated with poor outcomes.

Methods

A retrospective study was conducted to review the database of ARDS patients admitted in medical intensive care units (ICUs) at a university hospital between 2010 and 2014. The cases were identified by using International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) code-J80 ARDS.

Results

Of 266 patients, 11.7%, 44.4%, and 44% fulfilled mild, moderate, and severe ARDS criteria, respectively. The main cause of ARDS was pneumonia. The 7-day and 28-day mortalities, median LOS, and median MV duration were 31.1%, 69.3%, 18, and 11 days, respectively. Pressure control was the most favorite mode, used with average tidal volume (TV) of 8.63 (2.16) mL/kg ideal body weight (IBW). Recruitment maneuver was most frequently used as adjunctive intervention, whereas prone position was applied to 3.75% of the patients. One-third of the patients received neuromuscular blockades. The median 7-day fluid balance was +6,600 mL. The mean PaO2/FiO2 ratio during the first 3 days, cumulative fluid balance on day 3, and average daily calories during the first week were independent predictors for adjusted 7-day mortality, whereas Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score, fluid balance on day 1, cumulative fluid balance, and average daily calories during the first week were independent predictors for adjusted 28-day mortality.

Conclusions

The 28-day mortality of ARDS was high. In addition, TV and fluid balance were greater than protective limits. These findings indicated the potential improvement of ARDS outcomes in our hospital.

Open access
Elevation of serum adiponectin in mildly decreased glomerular filtration rate

Abstract

Background

Adiponectin secreted by adipocytes plays a key role in insulin sensitivity, anti-inflammation, and antiatherosclerosis. It is involved in several conditions including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Glomerular filtration rate is monitored to indicate the kidney function and CKD progression.

Objective

To assess the serum adiponectin levels in individuals with normal and mildly decreased glomerular filtration rate, analyze the association of serum adiponectin with various physical and biological parameters, and test whether serum adiponectin is the risk factor of mildly decreased glomerular filtration rate.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 172 individuals with 35–60 years of age. Serum samples were collected and divided into two groups, based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): 90 with normal eGFR (G1, eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2) and 82 with mildly decreased eGFR (G2, eGFR = 60–89 mL/min/1.73 m2). Anthropometric data were recorded. Serum adiponectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results

Serum adiponectin levels were significantly increased in individuals with mildly decreased eGFR (G2), compared to G1 (8.23 ± 3.26 µg/mL and 6.57 ± 3.24 µg/mL, respectively; P = 0.001). Serum adiponectin was positively associated with age and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but negatively associated with weight, body mass index, triglyceride, and waist and hip circumferences. Univariate analysis showed that serum adiponectin was significantly correlated with mildly decreased eGFR; however, when adjusting for confounding factors, there were no correlations. Furthermore, multivariate regression analysis showed that individuals at the age of 46–55 years (4.0; 95% CI: 1.9–8.3) and > 55 years (11.4; 95% CI: 3.7–35.5) were significantly correlated with mildly decreased eGFR.

Conclusions

Serum adiponectin was significantly elevated in individuals with mildly decreased eGFR and may be a modulation factor, but was not an independent risk factor for mildly kidney damage. Further study is needed to clarify its potential benefits as monitoring biomarker for CKD progression.

Open access
Osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in Thai silk fibroin/collagen hydrogel: a pilot study in vitro

Abstract

Background

Silk fibroin (SF) can be processed into a hydrogel. SF/collagen hydrogel may be a suitable biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.

Objectives

To investigate in vitro biocompatibility and osteogenic potential of encapsulated rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rat MSCs) in an injectable Thai SF/collagen hydrogel induced by oleic acid–poloxamer 188 surfactant mixture in an in vitro pilot study.

Methods

Rat MSCs were encapsulated in 3 groups of hydrogel scaffolds (SF, SF with 0.05% collagen [SF/0.05C], and SF with 0.1% collagen [SF/0.1C]) and cultured in a growth medium and an osteogenic induction medium. DNA, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and calcium were assayed at periodically for up to 5 weeks. After 6 weeks of culture the cells were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy.

Results

Although SF hydrogel with collagen seems to have less efficiency to encapsulate rat MSCs, their plateau phase growth in all hydrogels was comparable. Inability to maintain cell viability as cell populations declined over 1–5 days was observed. Cell numbers then plateaued and were maintained until day 14 of culture. ALP activity and calcium content of rat MSCs in SF/collagen hydrogels were highest at day 21. An enhancing effect of collagen combined with the hydrogel was observed for proliferation and matrix formation; however, benefits of the combination on osteogenic differentiation and biomineralization are as yet unclear.

Conclusion

Rat MSCs in SF and SF/collagen hydrogels showed osteogenic differentiation. Accordingly, these hydrogels may serve as promising scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

Open access
Proportion of vulvar premalignant and malignant lesions in overall vulvar specimens in Thailand

Abstract

Background

Vulvar lesion is one of the common gynecologic problems.

Objective

To assess the proportion of vulvar premalignant and malignant lesions in overall vulvar specimens and to evaluate the clinicopathologic features of each vulvar lesion in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KCMH).

Methods

Pathological microscopic slides and medical records of the patients who underwent vulvar-related operations between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2015 were reviewed. Patients’ clinical characteristics and pathologic features were evaluated and analyzed.

Results

A total number of 700 patients were included. The proportion of malignant and premalignant lesions in overall vulvar specimens were 16.3% and 8.4%, respectively. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common malignant vulvar lesion (48.2%), whereas vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (VIN1) (33.9%) was the most common lesion in the premalignant group. On multivariate analysis, four clinical factors were significantly associated with malignancy risk: increased parity (odds ratio [OR] 1.19, P = 0.010), large tumor size (OR 2.00, P < 0.001), lesion at clitoris (OR 16.67, P = 0.002), and erythematous lesion (OR 2.41, P = 0.026).

Conclusions

The proportion of malignant and premalignant lesions in overall vulvar specimens was 24.7% in KCMH. Increased parity, large tumor size, clitoris-located lesion, and erythematous lesion were associated with increasing malignancy risk.

Open access
Dragon Fruit in Nepal

Abstract

Dragon fruit is a cactus species which is indigenous to Americas belongs to Genus Hylocereus. Dragon fruit is commonly known as Noble woman, Pitahaya, strawberry pear, Super fruit etc. It has antioxidant properties which prevents oxidation of cholesterol. Similarly, dragon fruit contains phytonutrient, minerals and vitamins which are beneficial to blood, tissue, bone and overall health. On research it was found out that Lycopene which is responsible for red colour in dragon fruit has been linked with a lower prostate cancer risk. Nowadays it is widely used in restaurant as fruit salad, refreshing drinks, Jams, Ice creams, Jelly, fruit juice, wine etc. In Nepal, Mr. Jagannath Rai brought dragon fruit from USA in 2057 B.S. and later Gorkha Millenium multipurpose cooperatives ltd formally started cultivation of dragon fruit in commercial level from 2070 B.S (2013 A.D). In Nepal there is a wide scope for cultivation as it can cultivate in region of less rainfall at altitude of 1500 from MASL. Availability of Fallow and marginal lands of Terai, Bhitri madhes, valleys and lower range of mountain are suitable for cultivation. Moreover, there are great possibilities of production of organic dragon fruits. Inspite of various benefits and possibilities, farmers’ condition and investment are major challenges for exploration of dragon fruit in Nepal.

Open access