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Open access

Pakkapon Rattanachaisit, Paweena Susantitaphong, Kessarin Thanapirom, Roongruedee Chaiteerakij, Piyawat Komolmit, Pisit Tangkijvanich and Sombat Treeprasertsuk

Abstract

Background

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major causes of chronic liver disease. The primary treatment of NAFLD by statins has not been clearly elucidated.

Objectives

To evaluate the effectiveness of statin use in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis on the change in liver histology.

Methods

We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for clinical trials and observational studies investigating the effects of statins on histological change regardless of type or dosage from inception to December 2015. Random-effect model meta-analyses were used to compute changes in outcomes of interest. The study protocol was registered in advance with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO 2016 CRD42016033132).

Results

We identified 6 studies (111 patients), representing 5 cohort studies and 1 randomized controlled clinical trial. There was significant decrease in steatosis grading with a standardized mean difference of –2.580 (95% confidence interval [CI] –4.623 to –0.536; P = 0.013) and NAFLD activity score standardized mean difference of –1.488 (95% CI –2.506 to –0.471; P = 0.004). However, there was no significant change in fibrosis stage (0.156; 95% CI –0.553 to 0.865; P = 0.667).

Conclusions

Statin use can possibly reduce the extent of steatohepatitis but not the stage of fibrosis. Further randomized controlled studies to assess histological evidence with adequate sample size and duration are required in order to establish the role of statin as a primary treatment of NAFLD.

Open access

Songkran Nakbun, Pramote Thongkrajai and Choosak Nithikathkul

Abstract

Background

Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a serious health issue in the Mekong basin region, resulting in a high prevalence of cholangiocarcinoma. Nakhon Phanom province had the highest prevalence of O. viverrini infection in Thailand at 60% of the surveyed population in 2009, despite the attempted control of opisthorchiasis for >50 years. Knowing risk factors for O. viverrini infection in Nakhon Phanom may lead to improved control and prevention of opisthorchiasis.

Objectives

To determine risk factors for O. viverrini infection in Nakhon Phanom.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Nakhon Phanom province from February to March 2014. The community was selected using a stratified random sampling method, and then, participants were selected by systematic random sampling. Individuals ≥15 years old were included. Knowledge of O. viverrini infection, and attitudes and practice to avoid it were assessed using a questionnaire. O. viverrini infection was determined by stool examination with a formalin–ether concentration method. Factors associated with the infection were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results

Of the 134 participants, 75 (56%) were infected with O. viverrini. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, 3 independent factors were associated with O. viverrini infection: age ≥ 55 years, odds ratio (OR) adjusted 6.36 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28–31.66); consumption of chopped raw-fish salad (koi pla), OR adjusted 28.74 (95% CI 3.59–230.24); and perceived susceptibility, OR adjusted 0.15 (95% CI 0.03–0.74).

Conclusions

Age ≥ 55 years, consuming koi pla, and perceived susceptibility were independently associated with O. viverrini infection in Nakhon Phanom.

Open access

Thinley Dorji, Pempa Lhamo, Tshering Tshering, Lungten Zangmo, Kencho Choden, Deki Choden and Kesang Namgyal

Abstract

Background

The burden of diabetes has increased rapidly with an increasing cost of treatment.

Objectives

To describe the glycemic control, injection practices, and treatment adherence among diabetic patients treated with insulin.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenience sampling method at the 3 tertiary referral hospitals in Bhutan. Sociodemographic, injection practices, and clinical details were collected. Good glycemic control was defined as glycated hemoglobin A (HbA1c) <7% if available or fasting blood sugar 70–130 mg/dL and 2 h postprandial blood sugar <180 mg/dL if HbA1c values were unavailable. Medication adherence was assessed using the Morisky, Green and Levine (MGL) scale. The injection technique was assessed using a 10-item checklist.

Results

We studied 207 patients. Good glycemic control was achieved by only 58 (28.0%) of patients. Using the MGL scale score, the objective adherence with insulin therapy was mostly low to medium and a gross discordance was with self-declared adherence (P < 0.001). The injection technique was fair to poor in half of the participants. Those with good injection techniques also had good adherence to medication (P = 0.025, adjusted odds ratio = 4.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2–16.4). The majority (154, 74.4%) had self-injected insulin, while the remaining were dependent on their home caregivers. Forty percent of the participants used storage practices that were not recommended. The disposal of the used insulin needles was generally unsafe.

Conclusions

Glycemic control and adherence to insulin administration recommendations were poor. The injection technique needs to be improved and standardized, and methods of safe disposal of sharps need to be developed.

Open access

Jintamai Suwanprateeb, Waraporn Suvannapruk, Watchara Chokevivat, Siripong Kiertkrittikhoon, Nara Jaruwangsanti and Prakit Tienboon

Abstract

Background

Hydroxyapatite is widely used as a coating on metallic implants to promote bioactivity. The coating is typically produced using a high temperature, resulting in phase heterogeneity and coating delamination, which may lead to failure of the coating clinically. Development of a simple and low-temperature hydroxyapatite coating technique may improve the bone bonding ability of implants.

Objectives

To investigate responses to hydroxyapatite-coated titanium produced by a newly developed sol–gel by osteoblasts in vitro and bone in vivo.

Methods

Osteoblast proliferation was characterized using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and cell calcification with an Alizarin red S assay, and the results were compared with those of uncoated titanium. Uncoated and coated screws were inserted into the trabecular bone of New Zealand white rabbit legs. These implants were evaluated mechanically and histologically after 7, 12, and 24 weeks.

Results

Hydroxyapatite-coated titanium showed a significantly greater cell proliferation and mineralization than uncoated titanium. Extraction torques for the coated screws increased with time of implantation and were significantly greater than those of uncoated screws. We observed bone fragments attached to the surface of all coated screws after removal, but none on uncoated screws. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained bone showed no active inflammatory responses to implantation at any time examined. Bone surrounding either uncoated or coated screws followed typical remodeling stages, but maturation of bone healing was faster with coated screws.

Conclusions

The sol–gel-derived hydroxyapatite coating showed bioactivity, indicating its potential application as an alternative coating technique to improve the bone bonding ability of implants.

Open access

Akhiyan Hadi Susanto, Widodo, Mohammad Saifur Rohman, Didik Huswo Utomo and Mifetika Lukitasari

Abstract

Background

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) G–152A (rs11568020) in the promoter of the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) may modulate its transcription. Translation of mRNA to angiotensinogen induces hypertension during hypoxia. The G allele at position –152 is located within the hypoxia-response element (HRE) transcription factor-binding site for the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) heterodimer. However, the function of the –152 site in HIF-1 binding is not fully elucidated.

Objectives

To determine the frequency of SNP G–152A in Indonesian patients with hypertension and the function of this SNP.

Methods

We determined the frequency of the SNP in 100 patients by direct sequencing, and the influence of SNP G–152A on predicted binding of HIF-1 to the HRE using a docking approach in silico.

Results

The AGT promoter in our patients had genetic variants –152G and –152A (19:1). Predicted binding indicated that HIF-1 directly contacts the major groove of the G allele, but not the A allele. Scoring according to weighted sum High Ambiguity Driven biomolecular DOCKing showed that the score for the A allele–HIF-1 complex (–47.1 ± 6.9 kcal/mol) was higher than that for the G allele–HIF-1 complex (–94.6 ± 14.1 kcal/mol), indicating more favorable binding of HIF-1 to the G allele.

Conclusions

SNP G–152A reduces the favorability of binding of HIF-1 to the HRE. The occurrence of this SNP in the AGT promoter of Indonesian patients with essential hypertension suggests that the G allele is a genetic susceptibility factor in hypertension regulated by HIF-1.

Open access

Ramin Tavakoli, Hamid Yaghooti, Robab Daghagheleh, Rohollah Yousofi and Parisa Rahimifar

Abstract

Background

Depression is a neuroprogressive disorder that is characterized by neurotransmitter derangement and decreased neurogenesis and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

Objectives

To determine the lipid profiles and BDNF levels in university students at an institution in Iran and association of these factors with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores.

Methods

We conducted an observational study of a cross-section of male students at the Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in Iran. For each of the 100 participants, a BDI score was obtained and serum levels of BDNF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of serum lipids, including cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), were measured using a biochemical analyzer. Castelli’s risk index type I (CRI-I), Castelli’s risk index type II (CRI-II), CRI-I = TG/HDL-C and CRI-II = LDL-cholesterol/ HDL-cholesterol, and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), AIP = log (triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol), were calculated.

Results

Based on BDI scores, lower levels of BDNF, triglycerides, cholesterol, and HDL, but higher levels of LDL were found in participants with higher BDI scores. CRI-I was also increased in participants with depression.

Conclusion

The levels of BDNF and lipid factors are associated with the severity of depression in Iranian male university students. Deranged levels of BDNF and lipids may predispose depressed students to cardiovascular diseases.

Open access

Prangmalee Leurcharusmee, Guy Kositratna, De Q. Tran and Thomas Schricker

Abstract

Surgical patients commonly develop hyperglycemia secondary to the neuroendocrine stress response. Insulin treatment of hyperglycemia is required to overcome the perioperative catabolic state and acute insulin resistance. Besides its metabolic actions on glucose metabolism, insulin also displays nonmetabolic physiological effects. Preoperative glycemic assessment, maintenance of normoglycemia, and avoidance of glucose variability are paramount to optimize surgical outcomes. This review discusses the basic physiology and effects of insulin as well as practical issues pertaining to its management during the perioperative period.

Open access

Ratikorn Methavigul and Komsing Methavigul

Abstract

Background

Coronary angiography (CAG) or stress imaging has been performed in almost all Thai patients with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. If CAG results reveal insignificant coronary stenosis, such patients are diagnosed with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM); however, CAG is considered to provide no benefit and may even harm these patients because it is invasive.

Objectives

To identify predictors associated with significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (stenosis) in Thai patients with LV systolic dysfunction without angina and without LV regional wall motion abnormality and create a prediction score.

Method

Retrospective data from patients at a single tertiary-care center with LV systolic dysfunction (LV ejection fraction <50%) diagnosed between August 2000 and October 2014 were separated into a group with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and a group with NICM according to CAG. Predictors associated with CAD found in normal populations were determined. Multivariate analysis was used to identify predictors associated with significant coronary stenosis in patients with LV systolic dysfunction to develop a model to create a prediction score.

Results

We included data registered from 240 Thai patients with LV systolic dysfunction. Predictors associated with ICM were age (>60 years), sex (male), and a history of diabetes mellitus (DM). Predictors associated with NICM were body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2 and the presence of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on electrocardiography. A simplified equation to predict significant CAD in patients with LV systolic dysfunction is: 3(male sex) + 3(age >60 y) – 5(BMI >25 kg/m2) - 5(LBBB) + 5(DM) - 5. The sensitivity and specificity of this score are 60.5% and 85.1%, respectively.

Conclusion

Our prediction score has modest sensitivity, but high specificity for predicting significant CAD and can be used to determine who should not undergo CAG.