Marcin Szczepanik, Piotr Wilkołek, Anna Śmiech and Iwona Taszkun
Diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis was diagnosed in a 6-year-old, indoor, neutered female domestic European shorthair cat. Marked pruritus located mainly on the head and neck was noticed in the cat and in this area the animal had developed alopecia, crusts, and plaques. Histologically, monomorphic mast cells were found in the superficial dermis and around the hair follicles. Mast cells were well differentiated, with central nuclei and granular cytoplasm, with metachromatic granules which stained positively with Toluidine blue stain. The animal was successfully treated with oclacitinib at a dose of 1 mg/kg, twice a day per os.
Tina Bobić, Pero Mijić, Vesna Gantner, Gjoko Bunevski and Maja Gregić
Since there is not enough data about milkability of the Jersey cows, the aim of this paper is to show basic milkability traits of this cattle breed depending on the parity and milk flow curve types. Cows had average daily production (DMY) of 22.23 kg, milk yield per milking (MYM) of 9.72 kg, and average and maximum milk flow about 1.66 and 2.49 kg/min, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that DMY and MYM of the cows in 4th parity was significantly (p---lt---0.05) higher comparing to cows in 1st and 3th parity. The duration of entirely milking is similar regarding the paritiesand only the cows in 3th and 4th differ significantly (p---lt---0.05). Regarding the effect of milk flow curve, the significant (p---lt---0.05) difference between unspecified and rectangular milk flow curve has been found for the average milk flow (AMF) and descending phase of the milk flow curve (TD). Cows with unspecified milk flow curve, have significantly (p---lt---0.05) lower AMF and longer TD compared to cows with rectangular curve. Cows with bimodal milk flow curve have significantly (p---lt---0.05) longer duration of the ascending phase compering to: unspecified, descending and rectangular. The results of this study have shown that Jersey cows have lower production and milk flow compared to other dairy cattle breeds. Nonetheless, they have uniform milkability traits, and a large representation of desirable milk flow curves which are associated with a beneficial effect on the udder health.
Aleksandar Janevsкi, Iskra Cvetkovikj, Sanja Kiprijanovska, Aleksandar Dimovski, Katarina Davalieva, Ljupco Angelovski, Miroslav Kjosevski and Dine Mitrov
Subclinical mastitis is an asymptomatic udder infection distributed worldwide with enormous losses in the dairy industry. The study’s objective was to determine the presence of this pathological condition in small dairy farms in the R. of N. Macedonia and to identify the most common associated bacteria. Milk samples were obtained from 96 dairy cows (378 udder quarters) in seven dairy farms, in 3 consecutive samplings 24-72 hours apart. The samples were cultured on routine bacteriological growth media and incubated for 24-48 hours. The isolates were identified by AximaiD Plus MALDITOF MS Platform. Subclinical mastitis was found in 49 animals (51%) and 104 infected quarters (27%). The most frequent isolated bacteria on cow level were Streptococcus uberis (19.4%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (13.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (7.4%) and Staphylococcu ssimulans (7.4%). On quarter level, the most isolated pathogen was Streptococcus uberis (35.6%) followed by Staphylococcu shaemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus (10.3% and 9.2% respectively). Subclinical mastitis was found to be highly present in the selected small dairy farms. The most prevalent bacteria identified in the dairy farms (Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase–negative staphylococci) indicate that poor management and udder health practices, inadequate milking procedures and lack of mastitis control strategies greatly contribute to occurrence and persistence of subclinical mastitis.
David Farray, Francisco Rodriguez, Yaiza Muñoz-Aznar, Antonio G. Ravelo-García and José Raduan Jaber
This paper evaluates possible relations between the clinical activity and the histopathological findings of the entire intestine in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To perform this study, hospital records of 64 dogs of different sex and breed diagnosed with IBD were evaluated. The results of this study did not show a statistically significant correlation between clinical activity and the histopathological assessment of dogs with IBD. Certain connections were found between diarrhea and lacteal dilation in duodenum, and hematochezia and villous epithelial injury in colon but no other associations were found between the rest of the lesions and symptoms.
The discovery of an adaptive immune system especially in archae and bacteria, CRISPR/Cas has revolutionized the field of agriculture and served as a potential gene editing tool, producing great excitement to the molecular scientists for the improved genetic manipulations. CRISPR/Cas9 is a RNA guided endonuclease which is popular among its predecessors ZFN and TALEN’s. The utilities of CRISPR from its predecessors is the use of short RNA fragments to locate target and breaking the double strands which avoids the need of protein engineering, thus allowing time efficiency measure for gene editing. It is a simple, flexible and highly efficient programmable DNA cleavage system that can be modified for widespread applications like knocking out the genes, controlling transcription, modifying epigenomes, controlling genome-wide screens, modifying genes for disease and stress tolerance and imaging chromosomes. However, gene cargo delivery system, off target cutting and issues on the safety of living organisms imposes major challenge to this system. Several attempts have been done to rectify these challenges; using sgRNA design software, cas9 nickases and other mutants. Thus, further addressing these challenges may open the avenue for CRISPR/cas9 for addressing the agriculture related problems.
Sunil Das Patel, Rupak Karn, Sagar Bhusal, Sujita Balami, Prabin Adhikari and Raju Kharel
The research was conducted from January 2019 to June 2019 to study the fish production and marketing system in fish zone, Rupandehi. Altogether 95 respondents including 27 small farmers, 35 medium farmers and 33 large farmers were selected for household survey using simple random sampling for the study. Statistical tools, Ms- excel and SPSS of version 23 were used for data analysis. From the study, it was evident that, six species of carps of fingerlings size were stocked with high average number of common carps (3885.5/ha.) followed by silver carp (3880.5/ha). The average production of fish species was 6.06ton/ha which is slightly higher than the national average. The observed data revealed that, marketing of major quantity of fish was from on farm sale i.e. 55.78% followed by local market sale (18.94%), live fish sale in retailers (5.26%). Similarly, percentage of farmers selling fish to wholesaler, consumers, retailers and neighbours were 63.3%, 30.5%, 26.5% and 26.3% respectively. Cost and returns analysis showed average B/C ratio of 2.13. Problem ranking using 5 point scale value showed high cost of feed as the most serious problem with index value of 0.94 in the study area.
Objective. Olanzapine (OLA), amisulpride (AMI), aripiprazole (ARI), and quetiapine (QUE) belong to antipsychotics, which administration represents still most reliable way for the treatment of schizophrenic and bipolar disorders. The intention of the present study was to explore whether the acute administration of a particular antipsychotic, indicated by the presence of c-Fos, will: a) stimulate neurons already activated by a long lasting homogeneous or heterogeneous stress preconditioning, indicated by the FosB/ΔFosB (ΔFosB) expression, or b) have a stimulatory effect only on a not activated, so called silent neurons. The pattern of ΔFosB and c-Fos spatial relationship was investigated in three forebrain structures, including the septal ventrolateral nucleus (seVL), the striatal dorsolateral area (stDL), and the shell of the nucleus accumbens (shell).
Methods. The rats were divided into 10 groups and exposed to two types of stressors. Half of them was exposed to a sequence of homogeneous stressor – handling (HDL) and the other half to a heterogeneous stressor (CMS) daily for 20 days. CMS consisted of five types of stressors: crowding, air-puff, wet bedding, predator stress, and forced swimming applied in an unexpected order. On the 21st day of the experiment, the rats were free of the stress exposure and on the 22nd day, both groups of animals receive a single intraperitoneal injection of vehicle (4% DMSO in saline, 0.1 ml/100 g) or OLA (5 mg/kg), AMI (20 mg/kg), ARI (10 mg/kg), and QUE (15 mg/kg). 90 min after the drugs administration the animals were transcardially perfused, brains removed, cut into 30 µm thick coronal sections, and double stained: first with ΔFosB antibody linked with Alexa488 fluorescent dye and second with c-Fos antibody linked to Alexa596 one. Quantitative evaluation of ΔFosB and c-Fos colocalizations was performed on fluorescence photomicrographs transformed into a final picture containing only yellow, green, and red colored circles.
Results. The data of this investigation demonstrate that ΔFosB and c-Fos colocalizations occurred in each of the three areas investigated, i.e. seVL, stDL, and shell ones, in both HDL as well as CMS preconditioned rats. The levels of ΔFosB and c-Fos colocalizations varied in the individual forebrain areas studied. From the total 22 areas measured, level of c-Fos colocalization prevailed over ΔFosB in 18 ones. However, neither c-Fos nor ΔFosB reached 100% level of colocalization in any of the forebrain areas investigated.
Conclusion. The present findings indicate that ΔFosB and c-Fos colocalizations occurred in each of the three areas investigated, i.e. seVL, stDL, and shell, in both HDL and CMS preconditioned rats, whereas the parallel occurrence of free c-Fos as well as c-Fos colocalized with ΔFosB might speak out for a possible involvement of the c-Fos activated by antipsychotics applied in dual, i.e. short- and long-lasting, functions.
Samuel Gbadebo Olukole, Eunice Olufunke Ola-Davies, Damilare Olaniyi Lanipekun and Bankole Olusiji Oke
Objectives. Bisphenol A (BPA) has been reported that among other male reproductive dys-functions, it can cause marked estrogenic effects including alteration in serum hormones as well as testicular lesions in exposed animals. This work sought to study the role of gallic acid (GA), a known antioxidant, on the BPA-induced testicular oxidative stress in adult male Wistar rats using serum hormone analysis, histopathology, and biochemical assays.
Methods. Adult male rats were divided into four groups (n=10) including control (0.2 ml of corn oil), GA (20 mg/kg/day), BPA (10 mg/kg/day), BPA+GA (BPA, 10 mg/kg/day + GA, 20 mg/kg/day). All medications were given by oral gavage for 45 consecutive days. The body and testicular weights were measured. Blood and organ samples were collected for the serum hormonal assay: testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin (PRL), and tissue biochemistry analysis: superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), respectively.
Results. The BPA-treated rats showed significant reduction in the gonadosomatic index. BPA also caused significant decrease in the levels of the serum testosterone and prolactin. Furthermore, BPA induced testicular oxidative stress by decreasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and increasing reactive oxygen species. However, co-treatment with GA protected against these alterations.
Conclusion. Findings from the present study confirmed the previously reported data and show that the ability of GA, as a potent antioxidant, may protect against BPA-induced alterations in the male reproductive function. Hence, GA protects against testicular oxidative stress in adult male Wistar rats following chronic exposure to BPA.
Study aim: It is important for therapists to incorporate new practical methods into therapy programs when they have demonstrable efficacy in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Investigating the acute effects of myofascial release techniques (MFR) and passive stretching (PS) on hind foot loading and the severity of spasticity in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) was the aim of the study.
Material and methods: Following the initial evaluation, 10 participants with MS (n = 20 feet) were given MFR for the plantar flexor muscle group. After the day following the first visit, participants were asked to come again and PS was applied to the plantar flexor muscle groups after the evaluation. The severity of spasticity was assessed with the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS). Dynamic loading parameters of the hind foot – medial and lateral maximum pressure (N/cm2), active contact areas (cm2), contact percentiles (%) – were evaluated with dynamic pedobarography. Participants of the study were evaluated four times: (1) at the initial evaluation, (2) after MFR application, (3) 24 hours after the initial evaluation (pre-PS), (4) after PS.
Results: There were no differences in MAS (p > 0.05) according to time-dependent analyses (p > 0.05). After MFR, the maximum pressure of the medial heel and active contact area were increased (p < 0.05) and there was a carryover effect on the maximum pressure of the right foot.
Conclusions: This study showed that MFR was an effective method for management of plantar flexor spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis in the short term and there was a carryover effect in favor of MFR. There was no additional effect of PS.
I. Ethem Hindistan, Emel Cetin Ozdogan, Gürkan Bilgin, Omer Halil Colak and Y. Gul Ozkaya
Study aim: Several sprint interval training applications with different slope angles in the literature mostly focused on sprint running time and kinematic and dynamic properties of running. There is a lack of comparative studies investigating aerobic and anaerobic power. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of sprint interval training on sloping surfaces on anaerobic and aerobic power.
Material and methods: A total of 34 male recreationally active men aged 20.26 ± 1.68 years and having a BMI of 21.77 ± 1.74 were assigned to one of the five groups as control (CON), uphill training (EXP1), downhill training (EXP2), uphill + downhill training (EXP3) and horizontal running training (EXP4) groups. Gradually increased sprint interval training was performed on horizontal and sloping surfaces with an angle of 4°. The training period continued for three days a week for eight weeks. The initial and the final aerobic power was measured by an oxygen analyser and anaerobic power was calculated from the results of the Margaria-Kalamen staircase test.
Results: Following the training programme, an increase in aerobic power was found in all training groups (EXP1 = 20.79%, EXP2 = 14.95%, EXP3 = 26.85%, p < 0.01) and EXP4 = 20.46%) (p < 0.05) in comparison with the CON group (0.12%), but there were no differences among the training groups. However, significant increases in anaerobic power were found in uphill training (4.91%) and uphill + downhill training (8.35%) groups (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: This study showed that all sprint interval studies on horizontal and sloping surfaces have a positive effect on aerobic power, and uphill and combined training are the most effective methods for the improvement of anaerobic power.