Browse

1 - 10 of 2,284 items :

Clear All
Hungarian Adaptation of the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2 and Test of an Expanded Model with Psychological Variables

Abstract

The aims of this study were to adapt the Hungarian version of the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2 and test an expanded Sport Commitment Model (SCM) with psychological variables.

Participants were 526 adolescent athletes (aged 14-18 years, 52.3% males). Applied scales were the following: Hungarian version of the Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2, Consideration of the Future Consequences Scale and Health Attitudes Scale. Exploratory, confirmatory, and path analysis were used for statistical analysis.

Our result showed adequate construct validity of the Hungarian version of Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2. We found several positive predictors of Enthusiastic Commitment and three positive predictors of Constrained Commitment. We found that Health Attitudes had positive relationship with Constrained Commitment and it was associated with future goals and plans; whereas Enthusiastic Commitment had a positive relationship, and Constrained Commitment had a negative relationship with Future Orientation.

Information about sport commitment provided by Sport Commitment Questionnaire may be useful as a tool to prevent dropout among young athletes.

Open access
Using Esports Efficiently to Enhance and Extend Brand Perceptions – A Literature Review

Abstract

While discussion and media coverage of esports (i.e., organized competitive video gaming) has dramatically increased since 2016, the use of esports by established consumer brands has not been emphasized in the sport marketing and sponsorship literature. Though appearing in limited sport management research, esports is a non-traditional sport form that generated just under $1.2 billion in revenue as an industry in 2019. However, many non-endemic traditional consumer brands have resisted capitalizing on esports brand-building opportunities. This paper provides a literature review of the past and current esports and sport marketing literature, resulting in the creation of a figure depicting the esports endemic and non-endemic company evolution of esports brand utilization. The evolution of the competitive video game market details how endemic companies are more apt to establish themselves in the esports space before non-endemic companies because of the way that the industry moves and has acceptance by gamers and non-gamers. Marketers and brand managers that have historically employed traditional sports may glean ideas on how to best enhance and extend their brand through the burgeoning esports industry. Moreover, ideas regarding when companies should enter the esports ecosystem is provided.

Open access
Analysis of Goal Scoring Patterns in the 2018 FIFA World Cup

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyse the goal scoring patterns during the 2018 FIFA World Cup. All goals scored during the tournament were analysed using the InStat video analysis system. The results showed that 169 goals (open play: 60.9%; set play: 39.1%) were scored during the competition. While 85 goals (82.5%) were scored from elaborate attacks, 18 goals (17.5%) came from counter attacks. A chi-square test indicated that there was a significant difference in the type of possession (χ2 (1, n = 103) = 43.58, p = 0.00). The highest number of goals was yielded from the final third (35%) as compared to the first (33%) and middle (32%) thirds. The results also indicated that most goals accounted from short passes (69.9%), while 13.6% of goals came from long passes and 16.5% from mixed passes (χ2 (2, n = 103) = 62.12, p = 0.00). Soccer coaches should incorporate set pieces in their training sessions in view to improve goal-scoring opportunities.

Open access
The Basketball Pass: A Systematic Review

Abstract

The aim of this study was to review and organise current literature about the basketball pass and find the main factors that influence its learning skills and performance. Thirty-seven studies were included after the screening process. The documents were classified into main research topics. This review identified the following conclusions: (i) the assessment of passing performance should be made under uncertain and variable conditions to obtain information on players’ responses to competitive scenarios, (ii) it is advisable to incorporate new and random activities to facilitate the transference of learning to the competition, (iii) it is recommended to include overwhelming factors during the practice to minimise the effect of pressure and choking, (iv) optimal physical conditioning is essential to maintain passing performance during a basketball game, (v) small sided games and changing environments stand as the best training situations to improve passing skills. Furthermore, limited information is available about biomechanical aspects and physical conditioning training programs to improve passing skills in basketball. Likewise, there is sparse data on passing skills development in children.

Open access
Cerebellar Haemorrhage Leading to Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Abstract

Introduction

Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a known, but a rare cause of out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). It results in the development of non-shockable rhythms such as asystole or pulseless electrical activity (PEA).

Case Report

A 77- years old male had an OHCA without any prodrome. An emergency medical services (EMS) team responded to an emergency call and intubated the patient at the site before transporting him to the Acute Care Hospital, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA. On admission, a non-contrast computed tomography scan of the head revealed a large cerebellar haemorrhage. Non-traumatic ICH is a rare cause of OHCA. Although subarachnoid haemorrhage causing cardiac arrest has been described in the literature, cerebellar haemorrhage leading to cardiac arrest is rare. The mechanism by which ICH patients develop cardiac arrest is likely explained by a massive catecholamine surge leading to cardiac stunning.

Conclusion

A non-shockable rhythm in the seting of a sudden cardiac arrest should raise alarms for a primary non-cardiac ethology, especially a primary cerebrovascular event. The absence of brainstem reflexes increases the likelihood of an intracranial process.

Open access
Comparison of Morphological Profiles and Performance Variables Between Female Volleyball Players of the First and Second Division In Portugal

Abstract

Knowledge of players’ anthropometric profiles may contribute to a better understanding of the differences between their performance levels. For example, vertical jump height, which is a major indicator of a volleyball player’s performance, is influenced by favorable anthropometric variables. This study’s aim was to describe anthropometric profiles of elite female volleyball players competing in the 1st and 2nd divisions in Portugal and to link these profiles with performance skills such as jump height obtained during blocking and spiking actions. Fifty-nine volleyball players were analyzed according to their competitive level, forming three independent groups: GA (n = 20, A1 division, ranked first), GB (n = 21, A1 division, ranked last) and GC (n = 18, A2 division). Anthropometric data collected included body mass and height, arm span, seven skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular, suprailiac, abdominal, thigh and calf), four body perimeters (relaxed brachial, contracted brachial, thigh and calf), and two body diameters (humeral and femoral). Performance data included the height obtained during block and spike actions. Significant differences were found between groups (GA/GB from A1 and GC from A2). Players in the GA had the highest body mass (68.05 ± 6.62 kg, p < 0.05), body height (176.35 ± 6.21 cm, p < 0.05), arm span (177.59 ± 6.09 cm, p < 0.05), lean mass (53.51 ± 4.94 kg, p < 0.05) and vertical jump heights (block: 0.36 ± 0.06 m and spike: 0.43 ± 0.05 m, p < 0.05). As expected, the fat mass percentage of GA players was the lowest (21.30 ± 2.61%). The results suggest that anthropometric profiles of volleyball players may vary according to the competitive level. The higher body mass, body height, arm span, and lean mass presented by GA players in comparison with GC players suggest these variables are important for top-level performance, since these athletes also exhibited higher jump heights. Variables such as height and arm span have a considerable genetic influence and could be important for early talent identification in volleyball. Other variables such as body mass, lean mass and vertical jump performance are more complex, since they also reflect the effects of environmental and training conditions.

Open access
Development and Validation of a Checklist to Assess Proficient Performance of Basketball Straight Speed Dribbling Skill

Abstract

The aim of this study was to develop and validate a checklist to assess proficient performance of basketball straight speed dribbling skill. The sample was composed of 100 children and adolescents between 7 and 15 years of age with and without structured practice in basketball. The validation process tested the validity domain, decision, tendencies, reliability, responsiveness, and objectivity. The results show that the checklist contains criteria that represent the speed dribbling skill and is sensible to distinguish between different proficiency levels of performance. The results also expressed high reliability and objectivity (intra and inter-rater). In light of the findings, we concluded that the checklist can be used to reliably analyze performance and evaluate the process of learning and development of the straight speed dribbling skill.

Open access
Development of the Compulsive Exercising Scale for Extreme Sports Participants

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure extreme sports participants’ levels of compulsive exercising. There are a number of compulsive exercising scales; however, none of them is targeted for extreme sports participants, whose emotional responses differ from those of non-extreme sports participants. Five hundred extreme sports participants were involved in this study, which included literature analysis, expert review, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Firstly, 95 items were selected from previous studies related to extreme sports and compulsive exercising. Secondly, nine experts scrutinized the content validity of the 95 items, and 82 items were found to be valid. Thirdly, the 82-item survey was initially administered to 253 participants for the purposes of exploratory factor analysis. Lastly, the 20-item survey that came out as a result of the 82 items being put through the exploratory factor analysis was distributed to the other 247 participants in the confirmatory factor analysis. In the final results, 16 items regarding the four factors of the “withdrawal symptom”, “attachment”, “struggle”, and “obsession” were confirmed. The factors used to measure extreme sports participants’ compulsiveness in this study reflect somewhat different dimensions from those developed in previous studies for non-extreme sports participants or exercisers. Only factors in the affective and behavioral dimensions are included in the present study’s scale, while factors in the cognitive or the combined cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions were investigated in previous studies. This explains the need for the present study.

Open access
The Dynamical Assessment of Inflammatory Biomarkers in Predicting the Outcome of Septic Patients and the Response to Antimicrobial Therapy

Abstract

Aims

To evaluate the kinetics of inflammatory biomarkers in septic patients in order to identify the most reliable predictor of unfavorable outcome.

Methods

A prospective analysis of septic patients was performed. Median levels of neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were dynamically assessed and comparatively analyzed.

Results

Seventy-seven patients were included. Descendent kinetic patterns were registered for all biomarkers, except C-reactive protein. At 24 hours, neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio significantly decreased in 42.85% of cases, procalcitonin in 37.33%, C-reactive protein in 16.12% and fibrinogen in 1.58% of cases. At 72 hours, procalcitonin decreased to one-half in 70% of cases and neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio in 67.53% of cases.

Conclusions

Neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio and procalcitonin significantly decreased in the first 72 hours, while C-reactive protein increased in the first 24 hours. The proportions of patients with major decrease of baseline values were higher for neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio and procalcitonin.

Open access