Introduction: Chemical industry is obligatory to improve new chemically effective components. Spices are potential new antimicrobials.
Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of fifty aromatic spices and medicinal herbs obtained from Turkey.
Material and methods: In vitro antibacterial activities of a total of fifty acetone extracts from aromatic spices and medicinal herbs were studied by disc diffusion and agar diffusion method. The extracts were tested against three Gram-positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus), four Gram-negative bacteria (Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium) and two fungi (Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans).
Results: The highest antimicrobial activity was observed in the extract of Alpinia officinarum against Salmonella typhimurium and Cassia angustifolia against Bacillus cereus. Many of the extracts showed minimum inhibition concentration at even lowest dose.
Conclusion: The obtained results showed that aromatic spices and medicinal herbs may be used as natural antimicrobials against diseases.
Anna Muzykiewicz, Anna Nowak, Joanna Zielonka-Brzezicka, Katarzyna Florkowska, Wiktoria Duchnik and Adam Klimowicz
Introduction: Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) is a common plant in Europe, with many beneficial health effects. In addition to the use in brewing, hops are a valuable source of active substances used in conventional and folk medicine, such as humulones and lupulones, as well as antioxidants, including phenolic compounds.
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the antioxidant activity of alcoholic extracts of fresh hop leaves collected in 2017 and 2018.
Material and methods: The raw material consisting of fresh hop leaves was extracted using ultrasound-assisted extraction. Methyl, ethyl and isopropyl alcohol at three concentrations were used as extractants. The antioxidant activity of extracts was determined using DPPH and FRAP methods. Total phenolic content was evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteu technique.
Results: All the extracts showed antioxidant potential as well as the phenolic content. Regardless of the harvesting year and methods of evaluation, the highest antioxidant activity and the total polyphenol content were observed for extracts prepared in undiluted methanol, obtained during one hour lasting extraction.
Conclusion: The results of the studies have suggested that hop leaves can be a potential source of health-promoting antioxidants.
Marcin Ożarowski, Aurelia Pietrowiak, Agnieszka Gryszczyńska, Douglas Sigueira De A. Chaves, Anna Krajewska-Patan, Karolina Wielgus and Agnieszka Seremak-Mrozikiewicz
Introduction:. It is well documented that many species from Passifloraceae family can provide edible and nutritious fruits while the leaves of cultivated plants are renewable and waste material. This biomass may be further used in various sectors, especially as a bioactive food additive and as source of innovative pharmaceuticals, cosmetics or feed additives. The biomaterials and green chemistry are new sectors bioeconomy according to the high-level horizontal strategies and bio-based industries in Europe. In recent years, attention has been paid to the biological activity and phytochemical profiles of extracts from different species of Passiflora. However, there is little comparative studies using the same procedures and techniques in the same laboratory conditions for study of plant material obtained from the similar greenhouse conditions.
Objective: This study was focused on the examination of antioxidative activities of low concentrations of crude extracts from leaves of Passiflora incarnata L., Passiflora caerulea L., and Passiflora alata Curtis.
Methods: The activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. Results of study were supported by estimation of chemical composition with secondary metabolites profiling in extracts which were carried out previously for the same extracts from three Passiflora species. One-way ANOVA analysis revealed significant differences in the antioxidant activity of various concentrations of the extracts using the DPPH and ABTS radical models, and FRAP method.
Results: Measurement of antioxidant capacity (expressed as trolox equivalent, TE) showed that the most active was extract of P. caerulea > P. alata > P. incarnata. Phytochemical analysis for extracts of P. caerulea and P. incarnata showed greater similarities in metabolites content than P. alata. However, comparative statistical analysis of antioxidant activity showed that despite this phytochemical similarities, extract from P. alata leaves had higher activities than extract from leaves P. incarnata. Antioxidant effect of extract from P. alata can be explain by terpenoids presented in this extract. In this work, there have been discussed activities against Acanthamoeba castellanii strain, antibacterial and antifungal activities against selected clinical microorganisms (Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans, Micro-sporum gypseum), and anti-leukemic activities tested in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines for this extracts, which have been described in previous authors’ publications.
Conclusion: Our current and previous studies showed that the same crude extracts from leaves of P. alata, P. caerulea, P. incarnata exerted not only antioxidant potential in vitro but also few interesting properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, amoebostatic, amoebicidal activities, which indicate the possibility of using these extracts in both a healthy diet and natural cosmetics. Leaves of this species may become an interesting source of biomaterials which can exert health-promoting effects.
Artur Adamczak, Mariola Dreger, Katarzyna Seidler-Łożykowska and Karolina Wielgus
Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L., Onagraceae) is one of important medicinal plants used especially in the treatment of urogenital disorders, including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatitis. The therapeutic effects of E. angustifolium extracts comprise antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and also antimicrobial activities. The aim of the present review was to provide the information on the botany, phytochemistry and traditional uses of E. angustifolium. This plant is a widespread circumboreal species of North America and Eurasia, tolerant in terms of habitat conditions, and often occupying man-made open habitats. Phytochemical studies on E. angustifolium resulted in the identification of about 250 different metabolites, including about 170 substances found for the first time in this plant in the last six years (2014–2019). Fireweed has an abundance of polyphenolic compounds, particularly ellagitannins. Oenothein B and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide are proposed as markers for the identification and standardization of the plant raw material. E. angustifolium exhibits significant phytochemical variability in relation to the geographical origin, plant part and time of harvest/vegetation phase. Survey of the ethnobotanical literature showed that the above-mentioned species has been widely used not only as a medicinal, but also as an edible, honey and decorative plant.
A lot of products from food category specified in Regulation No. 609/2013 may contain herbal substances or their preparations. Definitions of food for infants and toddlers, food for special medical purposes, and total diet replacement for weight control are now clearly regulated by UE food legislation. The concept and definition of foodstuffs for particular nutritional published in Directive 2009/39/EC of the European Parliament and Council of 6 May 2009 do not apply. On 22 February 2019, Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/128 complementary to Regulation (EU) No. 609/2013, regarding specific compositional and information requirements for food of special medical purposes was applied. Novel foods and novel food ingredients are foods which have not been used for human consumption in UE to a significant degree before 15 May 1997.
Zbigniew Marczyński, Marian Mikołaj Zgoda, Andrzej Stańczak, Sławomira Nowak, Jerzy Jambor and Beata Skibska
Introduction: The broad spectrum of pharmacological properties of linden inflorescence extracts results from polarity and the level of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of solvents (medium) used to separate compatible phytochemical structures with the expected pharmacotherapeutic profile.
Objective: The use of the general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility to calculate the predicted solubility of classes of phytochemicals contained in linden inflorescences (Tiliae flos) and the indication of those structures which, due to their high solubility in the medium, are responsible for the profile of pharmacological activity.
Material and methods: The Hildebrand, Scatchard equation, supported with computational technique proposed by Fedors, allows calculation of the solubility parameters of the extraction medium. Despite application reservations, it is a fundamental tool for estimating the predictable solubility of phytochemicals in real solution.
Results: The structure of phytochemicals isolated from linden inflorescences (Tiliae flos) owing to the use of solvents of significantly diversified polarity (–dielectric constant – εM) was the basis for calculating the molar evaporation energy – ΣΔEi (cal/mol) and molar volume – ΣΔVi (cm3/mol) by Fedors method, which are fundamental quantities necessary to estimate the solubility parameter – δ1/2 and required solubility level of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance – HLBRequ.
Conclusions: Results of the presented research indicate that basing on the parameters characterizing the structure of phytochemicals and the calculated ideal (–logxi2) and predicted real (– log x2) solubility, it is possible – using the general Hildebrand-Scatchard-Fedors theory of solubility – to choose selectively the cascade of extraction media in order to distinguish in the plant material chemical and structural individuals of different polarity.
Ighodaro Igbe, Osaze Edosuyi, Agbonlahor Okhuarobo, Adarki Pongri, Nkechi Maduako and Isaac Ehimen
Introduction: Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important vegetable crop in Syria. Potato tuber moth Cussonia barteri is a small tree that grows in the sub-Saharan part of Africa. Various parts of the plant are used for the treatment of a variety of ailments in ethno-medicine.
Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of the methanol leaf extract of Cussonia barteri.
Material and methods: The leaves were air-dried, powdered and repeatedly extracted with methanol using a Soxhlet apparatus. The resulting methanol extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced paw oedema, xylene-induced ear oedema and formalin-induced arthritis tests. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced mouse writhing, hot plate and tail flick tests.
Results: All doses of the extract significantly (p<0.05) reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema, however the 400 mg/kg dose gave a sustained effect. The extract significantly inhibited xylene induced ear oedema at all doses. There were no significant (p>0.05) reductions in paw swellings due to formalin. In the acetic acid induced writhing test, the extract significantly (p<0.05) decreased writhing at 400 mg/kg only. Reaction times were not significantly different from the control in the hot plate and tail flick tests.
Conclusion: This study has shown that the methanol extract possesses acute anti-inflammatory and peripherally mediated analgesic effects.
Said Oulkheir, Hadia Boumariem, Hanane Dand, Mohamed Aghrouch, Khadija Ounine, Allal Douira and Smail Chadli
Introduction: Recently, efforts regarding the discovery of the effectual components of plants possessing antimicrobial properties are advanced. Herbal essential oils are widely used for treatment of various diseases, and they play an important role in healthcare considerations.
Objective: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Cinnamomum verum, Eucalyptus globulus, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha pulegium essential oils against Candida albicans and some pathogenic bacteria.
Methods: The antibacterial activity of four essential oils (EOs) against different microbial strains was evaluated using the disk diffusion method as well as determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), and bactericidal concentration (MBC). For Candida albicans, the MFC of the plant oils was determined using a macro broth dilution assay. A range of concentrations (50 to 0.2 mg/ml) were prepared in Mueller Hinton Broth medium in flasks. Tween 80 (0.01% v/v) was included to enhance oil solubility. Each flask was inoculated with 108 CFU/ml of C. albicans. The flasks were incubated at 35°C for 48 hours. From each flask 13 μl of culture was inoculated onto Mueller-Hinton Agar plates and incubated at 35°C for 48 h. The plates were observed and the MFC was determined as the lowest concentration of plant oil completely inhibiting the growth of C. albicans.
Results: The obtained results showed that all bacteria and yeasts tested were sensitive to cinnamon essential oil with an inhibition zone ranging from 22 to 39.33 mm and a MIC ranging from 0.20 mg/ml to 1.56 mg/ml. At low concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 3.13 mg/ml, this essential oil has shown the most important bactericidal effect. Eucalyptus essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus with a diameter of 21.33±1.15 mm. The antibacterial effect of mint indicates that the most sensitive bacterium is A. boumannii. However, S. enteritidis, C. albicans, K. pneumoni and P. aeruginosa are resistant germs whose inhibition diameter varies from 7.33±1.15 mm to 11.33±1.15 mm. Lavender EO has an inhibitory effect against S. aureus (20.67±1.15 mm) and an intermediate effect against Streptococcus pyogenes, Serratia marcescens and Enterococcus faecalis.
Conclusions: The antibacterial activity of essential oils, especially those of cinnamon against the strains studied, supports their potential use as a remedy against infectious microbial diseases.
Joanna Poniatowska, Karolina Wielgus, Milena Szalata, Marlena Szalata, Marcin Ożarowski and Katarzyna Panasiewicz
Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) attracts increasing interest of growers, in relation to both industrial and medical purposes. Construction is the most promising area of the economy for hemp, and specifically, the fast-growing production of insulation and bio-composite materials.
The most significant factors affecting the final yield of hemp seeds and biomass include: climatic factors, i.e. influence of weather conditions that determines the content of cannabinoids in plants; genetic predisposition of the variety used as well as agrotechnical factors. The article provides information on the botanical characteristics of fiber hemp, hemp cultivation area, Polish monoecious varieties of industrial hemp, hemp's agricultural requirements, including: the demand for macroelements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium); choice of soil, pioneer crop, and field preparation; sowing timing and density; harvest time; water conditions; heat and light requirements for hemp. The review article is focused mainly on the results of studies carried out at the Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants, data of the Agency for Restructuring and Modernization of Agriculture (ARiMR), Research Centre for Cultivar Testing (COBORU), European Industrial Hemp Association (EIHA), published in 2008 - 2018.
Jacobs Mobolade Adesina, Kayode David Ileke and Yallappa Rajashekar
Introduction: Post-harvest protection of food grains against stored products insects’ infestation is a complementary means towards ensuring food security.
Objective: Powders and extracts from Eugenia aromatica O. Berg and Aframomom melegueta K. Schum are to be evaluated for their synergetic effects on Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricus under laboratory conditions.
Methods: The products were applied at rates of 1 g/20 g and 1% conc./20 g cowpea seeds respectively.
Results: Findings show that E. aromatica products was more effective by evoking 100% mortality within 24 and 48 h, while synergetic effects of the two products evoked 100% mortality at 72 and 96 h. The survival of the bruchids treated with plant powder from eggs to adults indicated that, control had significant (p<0.05) progeny development (75.50%) in comparison with sole application of E. aromatica and combination with A. melegueta which recorded no progeny development.
Conclusion: The study revealed that the plant products exerted toxicity effect against cowpea bruchid. Thus, they can be used to prevent egg hatching and thereby helping in the management of cowpea seeds.