Browse

1 - 10 of 2,077 items :

  • Life Sciences, other x
Clear All
Analysis of bovine tuberculosis transmission in Jalisco, Mexico through whole-genome sequencing

Abstract

Introduction

Bovine tuberculosis, caused by M. bovis, is endemic in Mexico and has had a big impact on public health. Jalisco is considered to be an important dairy region in the country, accounting for approximately 19% of the total milk production. Within Jalisco, the region of Altos Sur holds the largest proportion of the cattle inventory of the state.

Material and Methods

To determine the frequency of bovine tuberculosis in Altos Sur, Jalisco, as well as M. bovis genetic diversity, sampling of tissue (lymph nodes, lungs, and liver) from Holstein cattle was performed in four abattoirs belonging to three municipalities of this region (Tepatitlán de Morelos, San Miguel el Alto, and Arandas). Spoligotyping and whole-genome sequencing were carried out to assess the genetic relationships of M. bovis strains circulating in this area, as well as a comparison to isolates from other places in Mexico.

Results

Prevalence was 15.06%, and distribution similar among the three municipalities. The most frequent spoligotypes were SB0673, SB121, and SB0145. Whole-genome sequencing revealed three main clades (I, II, III), but isolates did not show clustering by region.

Conclusion

Phylogenetic analysis suggested ongoing transmission between herds of the different regions, and no unique source of infection was determined. This hinders efforts under the national program for the control and eradication of the disease, so serious attention must be paid to rural regions such as Altos Sur in order to improve its success.

Open access
Seroprevalence, clinical, and pathological characteristics of canine leishmaniasis in a central region of Colombia

Abstract

Introduction

Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease which is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Canids are the most important reservoir of the parasites; however, limited data are available on the species of Leishmania prevalent in these animals and their impact on human health. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs from an inter-Andean region of Colombia during July 2016–July 2017, and to describe the clinical and histopathological features of the disease.

Material and Methods

A total of 155 dogs were subjected to clinical examination and a serological test for detection of antibodies against Leishmania. Necropsy was carried out on positive animals and tissue samples were processed by routine histopathology.

Results

Altogether 19 dogs were positive in the serological test, establishing a 12% seroprevalence of Leishmania. Clinical examination and necropsy revealed exfoliative and ulcerative dermatitis with haemorrhagic borders on the ears, head, nose, and legs. Histopathology revealed severe multifocal dermatitis with abundant Leishmania amastigotes within the cytoplasm of phagocytic cells, depletion of lymphocytes in lymphoid tissues, interstitial pneumonia, and interstitial nephritis. Tissue samples were positive for Leishmania by PCR.

Conclusions

The macro- and microscopic changes correlated with the presence of Leishmania as established by serological test and PCR.

Open access
Short-term heart-rate variability in healthy small and medium-sized dogs over a five-minute measuring period

Abstract

Introduction

Five-minute heart-rate variability (HRV) measurement is a useful tool for assessing the autonomic nervous system (ANS) balance in humans, but there are no studies on healthy dogs. The aim of the study was, therefore, to provide the reference ranges in small and medium-sized breeds for short-term HRV time and frequency domain (TFD) analyses.

Material and Methods

A total of 79 healthy dogs were included in the study between 2015 and 2019. Grouping by age with the breakpoint at six years and subgrouping by reproductive status and sex was imposed. All the dogs were included after physical and cardiological examinations and blood analyses. The TFD of HRV were analysed from a five-minute-long digital ECG recording after removal of non-sinus complexes.

Results

There were no statistically significant differences in any TFD parameters between age, reproductive status or sex groups. A mild increase in all time domain parameters and the high-frequency (HF) band was observed in older dogs, and the low frequency (LF):HF ratio decreased in these dogs. In males, the time domain parameters and HF band increased slightly.

Conclusions

The normal ranges for HRV derived from short-term ECG recording in the usual clinical environment now have proposed reference ranges. Our findings suggest that accommodation time, age, sex, or reproductive status do not influence the results derived from these recordings, indicating that this method is reliable for assessing the ANS function in small and medium-sized dog breeds.

Open access
Utility of urinary markers in the assessment of renal dysfunction in familial glomerulonephritis in Dobermann dogs

Abstract

Introduction

Dobermann dogs are reportedly predisposed to familial glomerulonephropathy. Proteinuria is a hallmark of canine familial glomerular diseases. The identification of glomerular abnormalities in breeds so predisposed is of great importance in improving breeding policy. Therefore, markers that allow the detection and localisation of renal damage are needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the urinary concentrations of immunoglobulin G (uIgG), retinol-binding protein (uRBP), and Tamm–Horsfall protein (uTHP) in a family of Dobermanns with proteinuria and compare these concentrations with the corresponding values in healthy controls.

Material and Methods

Ten dogs of the Dobermann breed with proteinuria (five with a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) of 0.5–1 and five with a UPC >1) and twelve healthy dogs were enrolled. An ELISA was performed to measure uIgG, uRBP, and uTHP, and these proteins were quantified in relation to urinary creatinine (uCrea).

Results

uIgG/uCr and uRBP/uCr were significantly higher in the family of Dobermanns than in the healthy dogs. A significant difference in the uTHP/uCr value was found only in dogs with a UPC of >1.

Conclusions

IgG seems to facilitate the diagnosis of primary hereditary glomerulopathy in Dobermanns. Moreover, in affected dogs, proteinuria characterisation seems to be a promising alternative option for the detection and localisation of renal lesions.

Open access
Diffuse Cutaneous Mastocytosis (Pigmented Maculopapular Cutaneous Mastocytosis) in a Cat

Abstract

Diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis was diagnosed in a 6-year-old, indoor, neutered female domestic European shorthair cat. Marked pruritus located mainly on the head and neck was noticed in the cat and in this area the animal had developed alopecia, crusts, and plaques. Histologically, monomorphic mast cells were found in the superficial dermis and around the hair follicles. Mast cells were well differentiated, with central nuclei and granular cytoplasm, with metachromatic granules which stained positively with Toluidine blue stain. The animal was successfully treated with oclacitinib at a dose of 1 mg/kg, twice a day per os.

Open access
Milkability Evaluation of Jersey Dairy Cows by Lactocorder

Abstract

Since there is not enough data about milkability of the Jersey cows, the aim of this paper is to show basic milkability traits of this cattle breed depending on the parity and milk flow curve types. Cows had average daily production (DMY) of 22.23 kg, milk yield per milking (MYM) of 9.72 kg, and average and maximum milk flow about 1.66 and 2.49 kg/min, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that DMY and MYM of the cows in 4th parity was significantly (p---lt---0.05) higher comparing to cows in 1st and 3th parity. The duration of entirely milking is similar regarding the paritiesand only the cows in 3th and 4th differ significantly (p---lt---0.05). Regarding the effect of milk flow curve, the significant (p---lt---0.05) difference between unspecified and rectangular milk flow curve has been found for the average milk flow (AMF) and descending phase of the milk flow curve (TD). Cows with unspecified milk flow curve, have significantly (p---lt---0.05) lower AMF and longer TD compared to cows with rectangular curve. Cows with bimodal milk flow curve have significantly (p---lt---0.05) longer duration of the ascending phase compering to: unspecified, descending and rectangular. The results of this study have shown that Jersey cows have lower production and milk flow compared to other dairy cattle breeds. Nonetheless, they have uniform milkability traits, and a large representation of desirable milk flow curves which are associated with a beneficial effect on the udder health.

Open access
Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis Pathogens in Small Dairy Farms in Republic of North Macedonia

Abstract

Subclinical mastitis is an asymptomatic udder infection distributed worldwide with enormous losses in the dairy industry. The study’s objective was to determine the presence of this pathological condition in small dairy farms in the R. of N. Macedonia and to identify the most common associated bacteria. Milk samples were obtained from 96 dairy cows (378 udder quarters) in seven dairy farms, in 3 consecutive samplings 24-72 hours apart. The samples were cultured on routine bacteriological growth media and incubated for 24-48 hours. The isolates were identified by AximaiD Plus MALDITOF MS Platform. Subclinical mastitis was found in 49 animals (51%) and 104 infected quarters (27%). The most frequent isolated bacteria on cow level were Streptococcus uberis (19.4%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (13.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (7.4%) and Staphylococcu ssimulans (7.4%). On quarter level, the most isolated pathogen was Streptococcus uberis (35.6%) followed by Staphylococcu shaemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus (10.3% and 9.2% respectively). Subclinical mastitis was found to be highly present in the selected small dairy farms. The most prevalent bacteria identified in the dairy farms (Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase–negative staphylococci) indicate that poor management and udder health practices, inadequate milking procedures and lack of mastitis control strategies greatly contribute to occurrence and persistence of subclinical mastitis.

Open access
Study of Correlations Between Clinical Signs and Morphological Features Identified in Dogs Affected with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Abstract

This paper evaluates possible relations between the clinical activity and the histopathological findings of the entire intestine in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To perform this study, hospital records of 64 dogs of different sex and breed diagnosed with IBD were evaluated. The results of this study did not show a statistically significant correlation between clinical activity and the histopathological assessment of dogs with IBD. Certain connections were found between diarrhea and lacteal dilation in duodenum, and hematochezia and villous epithelial injury in colon but no other associations were found between the rest of the lesions and symptoms.

Open access
Effects of α-enolase gene silencing on reproductive-related hormone receptor expression and steroid hormone synthesis of primary granulosa cells from goose F1 follicles

Abstract

Introduction

Enolases are enzymes in the glycolytic pathway, which catalyse the reversible conversion of D-2-phosphoglycerate into phosphoenol pyruvate in the second half of the pathway. In this research, the effects of α-enolase (ENO1) on steroid reproductive-related hormone receptor expression and on hormone synthesis of primary granulosa cells from goose F1 follicles were studied.

Material and Methods

Primary granulosa cells from the F1 follicles of eight healthy 8-month-old Zi geese were separated and cultured. An ENO1 interference expression vector was designed, constructed and transfected into primary cultured granulosa cells. The mRNA expression levels of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinising hormone receptor (LHR), oestrogen receptor α (ER α), oestrogen receptor β (ER β), growth hormone receptor (GHR) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in the cells were evaluated as were the secretion levels of oestradiol, activin, progesterone, testosterone, inhibin and follistatin in cell supernatant.

Results

α-enolase gene silencing reduced the expression of FSHR, LHR, ERα, ERβ, GHR, and IGFBP-1 mRNA, potentiated the secretion of oestrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and follistatin of granulosa cells, and hampered the production of activin and inhibin.

Conclusion

ENO1 can regulate the reactivity of granulosa cells to reproductive hormones and regulate cell growth and development by adjusting their hormone secretion and reproductive hormone receptor expression. The study provided a better understanding of the functional action of ENO1 in the processes of goose ovary development and egg laying.

Open access
PCR based prevalence study of Francisella tularensis in Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, and Mykolaiv oblasts during 2015–2018

Abstract

Introduction

Tularaemia is a zoonotic disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis, which is endemic to Ukraine. The aim of this work was to provide screening of different field samples (rodent tails, ticks, pellets, water, and hay) to obtain an actual picture of the tularaemia epizootic situation in the Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, and Mykolaiv oblasts.

Material and Methods

Samples were collected using the flag method (for ticks) and break-back traps (for rodents). Also, hay, water and owl pellets were collected for study. The F. tularensis genetic material in samples was detected using a 16S qPCR.

Results

It was found that in Kharkiv oblast, 23% of collected samples were positive for F. tularensis, in Dnipropetrovsk oblast 1.9%, and in Mykolaiv oblast 0.4%.

Conclusion

Among the sample types, 34.7% of ticks, 1.8% of rodents, and 36.4% of pellets were positive for F. tularensis. The most frequent carriers of F. tularensis were the D. reticulatus and I. ricinus ticks (74.2% and 29.3%, respectively, of positive results).

Open access