The increased use of Holstein genetic material in the Irish dairy herd has consequences for beef production. In all, 42 spring-born steers [14 Holsteins (HO), 14 Friesian (FR) and 14 Charolais × Holstein-Friesian (CH)] were reared to slaughter at between 26 and 37 mo of age. Carcass weight was higher and the lipid concentration of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum was lower (P < 0.05) for CH than the dairy breeds. Overall acceptability tended to be lower (P = 0.055) while tenderness, texture and chewiness were lower (P < 0.05) for CH compared with the dairy breeds. The proportion of C16:1 in the total lipid tended to be lower (P = 0.055) for CH than the dairy breeds. Replacing male offspring of traditional “Irish” Friesian bulls with offspring from a genetically superior (from a dairy perspective) strain of Holstein bull had no commercially important impact on beef nutritional or eating quality.
The impact of regulated drip-irrigation on productivity and fruit quality of tomato ‘Tofane’ has been studied under a warm dry desert climate in southern Algeria. Yield, fruit weight and size, water content and parameters of fruit quality – total soluble solids, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, vitamin C, pH and titratable acidity were determined. Two irrigation treatments were applied in 2012 and 2013: T1, optimal irrigation (100% evapotranspiration – ETc) during the whole growth period (growth stages I, II and III); T2, optimal irrigation during I and II stages, and regulated deficit irrigation (67% ETc) during stage III (from fruit set to full fruit maturity of first and second bunch). T1 treatment during the whole season showed the highest values of soil water potential (Ψsoil), between −0.02 MPa and −0.06 MPa, on depths of 0.3 and 0.6 m, respectively. During stage III, regulated deficit irrigation caused the lowest Ψsoil values, which were between −0.1 MPa and −0.12 MPa on a soil depth of 0.3 and 0.6 m, respectively. Deficit irrigation caused significant decrease of water content in fruits and not significant decrease of fruit weight and size, as well as fruit yield while water saving for irrigation amounted to 10%. Comfort-irrigated tomato plants produced fruits containing significantly higher titratable acidity, total soluble solids and vit. C content. There was a tendency to decrease carotenoid content and increase phenolic content in both years of the study. Due to the possibility of water saving with not significant yield decrease, it seems that the reduction of water use in growth stage III would be an adequate strategy for tomato cultivation in hot, dry climate.
Ultrafiltration of skim cow’s milk with a UF10-PAN membrane at volume reduction ratios (VRRs) of 2 and 3 was performed. The ultrafiltration retentates obtained were used for production of probiotic yoghurts with three different starters. A control sample was prepared using skim cow’s milk. All yoghurts were analysed according to the following parameters: titratable acidity, dry matter, organoleptic characteristics, number of specific microorganisms (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and the total count of viable lactic acid bacteria for 28 d of storage. The results showed that the increase in the VRR during ultrafiltration increased the titratable acidity, as well as the dry matter of all yoghurts. Ultrafiltration concentration led to an increase in the count of viable lactic acid bacteria in all yoghurts which improved their functional properties. The highest values of the total number of viable lactic acid bacteria were determined in yoghurts obtained with starter 1CM, followed by starters MZ2 and ZD for both VRRs. Probiotic yoghurts with the highest organoleptic evaluation were obtained from ultrafiltration retentates at VRR = 2 and starters 1CM and MZ2.
The properties of biomass-based fuel and combustion tests showed that logging residues are promising renewable energy sources. The data used in this study were collected from four clear-felling areas in Järvselja Training and Experimental Forest Centre, Southeast Estonia in 2013–2014. Logging was carried out by harvesters in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) dominated stands with a small admixture of other tree species according to the cut-to-length method and logging residues were placed in heaps. The aim of this research is to assess different characteristics of logging residues (quantity, moisture content, energetic potential, ash content and amount) in clear-felling areas. The highest load of slash was measured on the birch dominated study site, where the dry weight of the logging residues was 29 t ha−1. Only the branch fraction moisture content on the black alder dominated site (35.4%) was clearly different from respective values on other sites (21.6–25.4%). The highest calorific value of the residues was assessed with the residues from the birch dominated site, where in moist sample it was 365 GJ ha−1 and in dry matter 585 GJ ha−1. The heating value of the fresh residues is highest in coniferous trees. The highest ash content in branch segments was registered for the black alder dominated site. Järvselja data indicate higher quality in conifer dominated sites, yet a higher load of logging residues in broadleaf dominated stands.
This study focused on the occurrence of xylophagous beetles and nematodes in the different parts of Pinus sylvestris L. trees of different health condition in the pure stands in Zhytomyr region (Central Polissya). Stem fragments with thin, thick and transitional bark, branches and twigs were examined in each of 12 model trees. Xylophagous beetles were identified by adults or by galleries. Nematodes were isolated from wood samples in the laboratory using the Baermann method and identified by morphometric characteristics. Among 10 species of xylophagous beetles, Ips acuminatus (frequency 16.7%; dominance 17.9%) and I. sexdentatus (frequency 11.1%, dominance 54.6%) dominated, which prefer the fragments with thin and thick bark respectively. No xylophagous beetle was found in the healthy and slightly weakened trees. Among 15 nematode species, 40% were saproxylic, 33.3% entomophilic, 13.3% phytophagous, and by 6.7% predators and species associated with fungi. An entomophilic nematodes Cryptaphelenchus macrogaster f. acuminati was common in all parts of stem and branches (frequency of occurrence 25–33.3%). An entomophilic nematodes Parasitorhabditis acuminati and a predator Fuchsia buetschlii acuminati had the highest frequency of occurrence (41.7%) under the thin bark and in the branches. The frequency of these species in colonized with xylophagous insects stem fragments with thin bark was significantly higher than in respective not colonized fragments.
Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) are main tree species of Central Europe that are currently highly vulnerable in times of global climate change. The research deals with the effect of climate and air pollution on radial growth of silver fir and Norway spruce in mixed age-varied (56 – 146 years) forests in the Jeseníky Protected Landscape Area, the Czech Republic. The objectives were to evaluate biodiversity, structure and production, specifically interaction of radial growth of fir and spruce to air pollution (SO2, NOX, tropospheric ozone) and climatic factors (precipitation, air temperature). Concentration of SO2 and NOX had negative effect on radial growth of fir, while radial growth of spruce was more negatively influenced by tropospheric ozone. Fir showed higher variability in radial growth and was more sensitive to climatic factors compared to spruce. On the other hand, fir was relatively adaptable tree species that regenerated very well when the pressure of stress factors subsided (air pollution load, Caucasian bark beetle, frost damage). Low temperature was a limiting factor of radial growth in the study mountainous area, especially for fir. Fir was significantly sensitive to late frost, respectively, spruce to winter desiccation and spring droughts with synergism of air pollution load. Generally, older forest stands were more negatively influenced by air pollution load and climatic extremes compared to young trees.
The study was conducted in pure Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests and mixed forests of Scots pine and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) within the Chernihiv Polissya physiographic region of Ukraine. The aim of the study was a comparative analysis of forest mensuration characteristics and health condition of pine and mixed pine-birch stands planted on formerly arable lands and cutover areas after pine stands infected by annosum root rot. It was found that in pine stands planted on formerly arable land, the average diameter of living trees in the root rot disease focus was 1–6% larger and the average diameter of dead trees was 11–23% larger than those outside the disease focus. Due to the pathological loss inside the disease foci, the pine stand density was much lower – by 14–38% and the growing stock volume was 16–35% less as compared to the outside areas. Mixed pine-birch stands (with a predominance of pine trees), established on the cutover areas after pine stands affected by root rot, had a 20% greater stock volume and the birch-pine stands (with birch predominance) in the clear-cuts had 18% greater stock volume than pure pine stands inside the root rot disease area. The pine trees were assessed as “weakened” in the mixed stands and as “severely weakened” in the pure pine stand inside the disease focus. The birch trees in mixed stands were characterized as “healthy”.
The goal of the present research is to analyze parameters of a bundle of logs for various models of forwarders in the Pryazha division of forestry of the Republic of Karelia. The investigated parameters were mass and volume of a bundle of logs, stacking factor of the bundle and the number of wood assortments in the bundle. The following models of forwarders have been investigated: John Deere 1210E, John Deere 1110E, Ponsse Elk, Ponsse Wisent, Amkodor 2661-01, Rottne F13D, Rottne F15D, Rottne F18D. We estimated the parameters of bundles formed from spruce sawlog 6.1 m long and bundles formed from spruce pulpwood 4 m long. Data on stem forms from harvester recorders have been collected to assess the parameters of a bundle of logs. Parameters of bundles have been determined based on computer experiment. The experiment consists of the following steps: random selection of the stem from the database; simulation of the cut-to-length process; simulation of log stacking process; calculation of parameters of a bundle of logs. We found that parameters of bundles vary to a quite substantial extent. Average variability of a bundle of logs formed of 6.1 m long spruce sawlog is 4.5 t, variability of the volume is 5.8 m3, and variability of the number of wood assortments in a bundle is 49 pcs. For a bundle made up of 4 m long spruce pulpwood variability of mass is on average 2.8 t, that of volume – 2.09 m3, that of the number of wood assortments – 57 pc. The presented results can inform transportation of wood on cutting areas, planning timber harvesting, as well as development new logging machines.
Mating disruption (MD) has been a successful approach for pest control of several lepidoptera. Field trials to evaluate the efficacy of communication disruption of low pheromone load formulation on Thaumetopoea pityocampa were carried out in 2010 and 2011 in an urban park. The efficacy of MD was assessed by comparing male T. pityocampa catches in pheromone traps, between MD and Control areas. In the 1st year of the application the percentage of male inhibition ranged from 85 to 100% during the 1st month of the flight period and 95-100% during the whole flight period in the 2nd year. The pheromone remained in the polymeric matrix was almost 30% after 7 weeks under laboratory aging conditions. Combining the pheromone release results with the male disorientation results we can assume that after 7 weeks the remaining pheromone concentration was still sufficient to achieve MD. This study indicates that air permeation with the major sex pheromone component (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate, at a rate of 20 g/ha for one application per season, can affect the orientation of T. pityocampa males. Since mating disruption is an environmentally safe method for pest control, it could be a valuable tool to control T. pityocampa in urban areas and parks.
The interactive relationship between the root–knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the root-rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina in a root–rot disease complex of chickpea (Cicer arietinum var. avrodhi) was studied in a net house. The present study was carried out in such a manner so that the pathogenic potential of M. incognita and M. phaseolina individually, simultaneously and sequentially could be monitored. The pathogens singly as well as in combination led to significant reduction in growth, yield, nutrient and biochemical parameters. Gaseous exchange parameters like photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were also reduced following infection of plants by the pathogens. However, maximum reduction was noticed in simultaneous inoculation with both pathogens. Sequential inoculation, where M. incognita preceded M. phaseolina by 15 days, was more damaging to the crop in comparison to that where M. phaseolina preceded M. incognita inoculation by 15 days. Infection by M. phaseolina caused a considerable reduction in the number of galls, egg–masses and nematode multiplication, with the highest reduction observed in plants simultaneously inoculated with the pathogens. Those plants also showed the highest disease severity in terms of percent root–rot. Thus, a manifold action plan to reduce the impact of the root-rot disease complex on chickpea crops has to be formulated.