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Development of EST microsatellite markers for the Tasmanian palaeoendemic conifer Lagarostrobos franklinii (Hook. f.) Quinn (Podocarpaceae)

Abstract

Nuclear Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) microsatellite markers were developed for the Tasmanian palaeoendemic conifer Lagarostrobos franklinii (Hook.-f.) Quinn for genetic studies. RNAseq data was mined for EST microsatellites, and primer pairs were synthesised from 70 contigs with 50 producing amplification products. Of these 50, 10 reliably amplified and displayed polymorphism across 8 samples representing the entire species range. The genetic diversity of these 10 loci was then examined in three wild populations (84 samples). The number of alleles varied from two to thirteen per locus with the average number of alleles per population ranging between 3.0 – 4.7. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.34 – 0.42 and 0.37 – 0.44, respectively. Marker cross-amplification was tested in the New Zealand sister species Manoao colensoi (Hook. f.) Molloy, but no markers amplified reliably, which possibly reflects the age of divergence between these species (~64 million years). These are the first microsatellite markers developed for the monotypic genus Lagarostrobos. They will be valuable for assessing the species extant genetic diversity, the impact of past climatic perturbations and human disturbance and the role of clonal propagation in recruitment.

Open access
Genetic control of coppice regrowth in Eucalyptus spp.

Abstract

Forest companies prefer a coppice system as a silvicultural strategy owing to its economic and sustainability advantages compared to developing new plantations for second rotations. However, studies aiming to determine the selection of superior genetic material for this management strategy are scarce. In this study, we evaluated five clonal tests of Eucalyptus spp. located in Itatinga and Angatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil, to determine the genetic correlations and control of productivity for regrowth management in two rotations. The volume (m3) and survival of the Eucalyptus spp. clonal tests were determined for the two rotations at 5.5 years of age. The experiments were carried out in a randomized block design with six replicates, five plants per plot, and unbalanced treatments. The heritability in the normal scale (h^n2) for the survival ranged from 0.056 to 0.11, the heritability in the broad sense (h^g2) ranged from 0.205 to 0.334, and the genotypic correlation was positive and high (0.71-0.86), and statistically significant to the genetic means for the two rotations. The ranking of the best clones in the second rotation was similar (76 %) to their ranking in the first selection. Thus, for the evaluated material, there was no need for the second measurement to obtain accurate selection when managing a coppice system.

Open access
Catch-and-Release Ice Fishing with a Mormyshka for Roach (Rutilus rutilus) and European Perch (Perca fluviatilis)

Abstract

This study examined and described the basic parameters of the catch-and-release angling of roach Rutilus rutilus and European perch Perca fluviatilis with the mormyshka technique. Catch efficiency, the size of the fish caught, the time required to unhook the fish and the total time during which the fish were handled, hooking location, the occurrence of injury and initial hooking mortality were determined. The study indicates that the mormyshka technique is an effective way to catch roach and European perch when ice fishing. The efficiency of the catches and landings was similar for barbed and barbless hooks. The mormyshka technique also proved to be safe for the fish during catch-and-release fishing. The decided majority of fish were hooked shallowly on the upper jaw, which is a safe location, and injury occurred rarely regardless of the hook type. Generally unhooking the fish from the mormyshka hook was seamless and fish handling was brief. Additionally, when roach were caught with barbless hooks, unhooking time and handling was shorter than it was with barbed hooks. No initial hooking mortality was observed in roach, while it occurred in only two specimens of European perch.

Open access
Cooperative Financing and the Growth of Catfish Aquaculture Value Chain in Nigeria

Abstract

Cooperative-based growth model for agricultural enterprises is gradually gaining popularity in application. This study examined the effect of cooperative financial intervention on the growth of catfish aquaculture value chain in Nigeria. Primary data collected, with well-structured questionnaire from 120 participants in aquaculture value chain, were analyzed with descriptive statistical tools, cost and return function and 4-point likert-type scale. The result shows that 32.3% and 27.3% of processors and input suppliers accessed N320,000 and N270,000, respectively. Only 18.2% of producers accessed N180,000. The result indicates that there are more catfish producers than any other operators in the value chain. There is interdependence between catfish producers and input suppliers, processors and marketers in the value chain. Furthermore, catfish processors and inputs suppliers accessed more cooperative loan because their activities were capital intensive. The relatively high amount of cooperative fund accessed by these groups translated high growth rate of 55% and 53%, respectively. The major constraints to the growth of catfish value chain were inadequate credit access and high expenditure on inputs. Operators in the catfish aquaculture value chain should be encouraged to attend workshops on management techniques to improve the efficiency of their businesses.

Open access
First Record of Harry Hotlips Plectorhinchus gibbosus (Lacepède, 1802) (Perciformes: Haemulidae) From the Iranian Coast of the Gulf of Oman

Abstract

Harry hotlips (Plectorhinchus gibbosus), belonging to the fish family Haeumulidae, is recorded for the first time off the Iranian coast of the Oman Sea, Chabahar Bay (25°18′N, 60°37′E). Identification confirmed by comparing morphological data of the collected specimen with data of reported congener species off this area.

Open access
Sublethal Cobalt Toxicity Effects on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the sublethal Co toxicity on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were exposed to Co and selected parameters were evaluated at intervals of 1, 15 and 30 days. Fish exposed to higher levels of Co grew slower than fish exposed to lower levels of Co. Weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) decreased linearly with the increase of cobalt in the water. The body condition factor (CF) of fish reared in water with low cobalt concentration decreased substantially but this decrease was not significant for fish exposed to higher cobalt concentration. The values of the feed conversion ratio (FCR) increased in fish exposed to higher levels of Co. Co significantly changed the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and decreased at day 30, and in both cases this decrease was more remarkable at day 15 so that the level of AST and ALT reached the control value at day 30. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level also showed a remarkable 15-day decline. There was a significant increase in glucose (G) concentration in both Co-exposed groups on day 15. However, serum cholesterol (Chl) was significantly reduced on day 15 and increased on day 30; there were no significant differences in both exposed Co-groups. The triglyceride (TG) level also decreased substantially. There was no regular pattern of total protein (TP) in the serum, so that no significant differences were found in the level of TP between low and high-exposed fish. In summary, this study suggests that exposure of essential trace elements such as cobalt may change growth and biochemical parameters, and that measurement of these parameters may be used in toxicological studies to determine the general health status of fish.

Open access
Update of Ichthyofauna and its Conservation Status in the Aghien Lagoon, Côte d’Ivoire

Abstract

This study focused on the diversity of fish fauna, its conservation status and its vulnerability in the Aghien freshwater lagoon (southeast of Côte d'Ivoire). For the fish data collection, two sampling approaches were used: experimental fishing and artisanal fishing. As a result, 80 species observed in this lagoon are distributed into 55 genera, 27 families and 10 orders. The best represented orders are the Perciformes, Siluriformes, Osteoglossiformes, Characiformes, Cyprinodontiformes and Pleuronectiformes. The Cichlidae, Mormyridae and Clupeidae represented the best diversified family. With an occurrence of 100%, the most frequent species are: Brycinus longipinnis, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Pellonula leonensis, Schilbe intermedius and S. mandibularis. In the whole fish population, according to IUCN red list, four species where described as Near Threatened (Coptodon walteri, Marcusenius furcidens, Galeoides decadactylus and Cynoglossus senegalensis), four as Vulnerable (B. brevis, Rhexipanchax nimbaensis, Enteromius raimbaulti and Tilapia busumana) and one as Endangered species (Pseudotolithus senegalensis). These categories of species that have a conservation interest according to the IUCN Red List represent respectively 10.26% of the whole population. Fish population of the Aghien Lagoon are divided into seven classes ranging from “low” to “very high” vulnerability, regarding the vulnerability to stress due to fishing pressure.

Open access
Biological Aspect of Bullet Tuna Auxis rochei (Risso, 1810) in the Makassar Strait, West Sulawesi, Indonesia

Abstract

The objectives of the present study were to determine the size distribution, growth pattern, feeding habit and stomach fullness index of bullet tuna Auxis rochei in the Makassar Strait, West Sulawesi. The research was conducted for six months between March and August 2017. Sampling collection was carried out using the handline technique. A total of 2160 fish were caught. Their total length ranged from 15.8 to 28.5 cm and weight ranged from 52.3 to 366.5 g. The total length of male fish ranged from 18.5 to 28.5 cm and weight ranged from 77.5 to 366.5 g. The total length of female fish ranged from 15.8 to 27.5 cm and weight ranged from 52.3 to 328.8 g. The growth pattern of bullet tuna for both male and female fish was classified into a positive allometry (b>3); the type of food found in the fish gut consisted of crustacean (12.50% to 25.64%), chepalopods (7.32 to 34.80%) and unidentified (47.69 to 64.51%), respectively. Nonetheless, the predominant food condition was not identified and in the gut there was generally no food present. The stomach fullness index ranged from 1.13% to 7.18%, ¾ (12.11 to 15.74%), ½ (12.27 to 23.14%) and empty (59.26 to 65.74%). The length size distribution of male bullet tuna was larger than the female with a positive allometric growth pattern. However, the growth pattern of male and female bullet tuna statistically showed no difference.

Open access
Dietary Administration of Ethanol and Methanol Extracts of Withania somnifera Root Stimulates Innate Immunity, Physiological Parameters and Growth in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

Abstract

Efficacy of ethanol and methanol extracts of medicinal herb Withania somnifera roots was evaluated in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus on immunostimulation and growth. Withania roots were extracted with water, ethanol, methanol, methylene chloride, hexane, successive methanol. Phenol, flavonoid content and antiradical activity of all the extracts were measured. Ethanol extract showed the highest phenol, flavonoid content and antiradical activity followed by methanol extract. Subsequently, Nile tilapia (n = 126) were fed diets containing different concentrations (0.0, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 g kg−1 feed) of ethanol and methanol extracts of W. somnifera roots for 30 days (3 replicates). Fish fed plant extract fortified diets showed significantly better (P<0.05) immunological, haematological, biochemical and growth parameters compared to the fish fed control diet. Fish fed diet containing ethanol extract at the concentration of 0.7 g kg−1 feed showed the highest immunological (phagocytotic activity, respiratory burst activity, serum lysozyme, total protein, total immunoglobulin), haematological (total red blood cells, haemoglobin, hematocrit, total white blood cells, lymphocyte), biochemical (reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase activity) and growth (final weight, weight gain, daily weight gain, specific growth rate) parameters. The plant extract might act as potent free radical scavenger in fish tissues and have tissue protecting ability, thus increasing fish health.

Open access
The Impact of Treated Wastewaters on Fish Bacterial Flora: A Public Health Perspective

Abstract

Wastewaters from a treatment plant discharging into a canal harboring fish may present sources of microbiological hazard for wild fish. Such fish, inhabiting microbiologically polluted bodies of water, can be contaminated by human pathogens and, if used for human consumption, may pose a risk to public health. Hence, in this work the aim was to identify tested strains from tissues of wild fish living in the receiving water bodies, captured from locations up to 12 km from the point of discharge of treated water of town Virovitica in order to assess the bacterial threat of the WWTP on fish and potentially on public health. A rather rich diversity of bacterial genera was isolated from gill tissues and internal organs. The most frequent isolate was Aeromonas hydrophila which has gained public health recognition as an opportunistic pathogen. Vibrio cholerae, an indicator bacterium for aquatic contamination, was retrieved from all investigated tissues. Opportunistic human pathogens as well as some zoonotic agents were also retrieved from fish tissues (Enterobacter amnigenus, Acinetobacter spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Flavimonas (Pseudomonas) oryzihabitans, Shewanella putrefaciens and others). Public health hazard is particularly pronounced regarding local recreational fishermen who fish out, handle and consume fish from respective waters.

Open access