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The role of acetyl-L-carnitine (LAC) in the treatment of mental disorders

Abstract

Introduction: Currently, there are no fully reliable biomarkers to identify individuals suffering from depression, and conventional antidepressant treatment has its limitations. The potential influence of acetyl-L-carnitine (LAC) on the treatment of mental disorders, including depressive disorders, was noted already in the 1980s.

Goal and method: The literature on the role of LAC in the treatment of mental disorders, in particular depressive disorders, was reviewed using the Google Scholar and Pub Med databases. Two lines of research were considered:

1. the role of LAC in the therapy of various mental disorders and

2. the role of LAC in the treatment of depression and dysthymia

Conclusions: Because LAC is safe to use and has a very good tolerance profile, authors have explored its role in the treatment of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. There are studies showing that LAC supplementation has a positive effect on ADHD treatment outcomes in boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome and plays a role in the treatment of dementia. Research has also been conducted on the impact of LAC on the treatment of depressive and dysthymic disorders. Positive outcomes of such therapy have been reported. An important correlation has been observed between LAC concentrations and the severity and onset of depressive symptoms. For instance, reduced levels of LAC have been found in people with treatment-refractory depression. It has also been proposed that LAC could decrease vulnerability to depression.

Open access
Comparative study among lactophenol blue, lactophenol solution and proteinase-K lytic solution for rostellar hooks morphometry of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices

Summary

Echinococcus granulosus is a tapeworm whose life cycle includes dogs and other canines as final hosts, while domestic and wild ungulates act as intermediate hosts for the tissue-invading larval stage (metacestode). E. granulosus has a worldwide geographical distribution. Protoscolices and rostellar hooks of E. granulosus are useful for diagnosis and rostellar hook morphometric features may be useful to discriminate E. granulosus and related species. The present study was aimed to determine a more suitable lytic solution and to obtain a clearest vision for performing morphometric studies on the rostellar hooks of E. granulosus protoscolices. Five fertile hydatid cyst samples were collected from sheep in Kirkuk slaughterhouse, Iraq, during June of 2015. According to the results of the present study, proteinase-K lytic solution is the best approach in morphometric analysis to get a clear vision of rostellar hooks and a safer usage in comparison with solutions containing lactophenol (lactophenol, lactophenol blue).

Open access
Copro-prevalence and risk factor assessment of gastrointestinal parasitism in Indian domestic pigs

Summary

The aim of the present study was to determine copro-prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and their associated potential risk factors in pigs of Punjab (India). A total of 839 faecal samples were collected from pigs of all age group and sex from different agro-climatic zones of Punjab covering all seasons and subjected to qualitative and quantitative examination. Among the samples examined, 28.4 % were positive for gastrointestinal parasites and their respective prevalences were Ascaris suum (11.1 %), coccidia (9.41 %), Trichuris suis (6.43 %), Balantidium coli (4.5 %), amphistome (3.33 %), strongyle (2.14 %) and Ascarops strongylina (1.78 %). Upon sporulation of coccidian positive samples, 8 species of Eimeria were recorded (Eimeria polita, E. spinosa, E. scabra, E. perminuta, E. suis, E. debliecki, E. neodebliecki and E. porci). Among the various risk factors analysed, season, agro-climatic zones and managemental practices had a signifi cant (p<0.05) effect on gastrointestinal parasitism of pigs. Quantification of the infection levels in various seasons and age groups revealed the highest mean egg per gram in rainy season (1966. 6± 1146.5) and grower pigs (1457.1 ± 500.4). Coproculture analysis revealed the presence of larvae of Hyostrongylus rubidus and Oesophagostomum species. The results of the current study would be of immense help in formulation and implementation of control strategies for effective control of gastrointestinal parasitism in pigs.

Open access
Drug efficacy of ivermectin against primary nematodes parasitizing captive Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) after ten years of annually treatment

Summary

Reintroduction of endangered species to natural habitat is considered as an important tool for conservation. The effect of drug management on captive population of reintroduced species is largely neglected. Decreased drug efficacy could pose a substantial threat to health of animals. More importantly, captive population without proper drug administration could act as transmission medium of resistance nematodes to wild population, making it important to delay the occurrence of drug resistance in captive population. Ivermectin have been used in captive Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) to eradicate intestinal parasitic nematodes annually, while no available studies describing the drug efficacy in the recent ten years. Here, fecal egg counts pre- and post-treatment were performed with ivermectin through individual trace. Both large and small strongyles were identifi ed by larval culture. The fecal egg count reduction was almost 100% based on egg counting data of 448 samples from 13 Przewalski’s horses. Feces of two Przewalski’s horses were sampled for successive 20 days. Eggs per gram feces usually increased dramatically at the period of 1 – 2 post-treatment days and declined persistently to 0.0 within 15 days. A sustained high ivermectin efficacy against neither Parascaris equorum nor strongyles was indicated, which can be partly explained by the low deworm frequency.

Open access
Evaluation of a marketed polyherbal dewormer against intestinal strongyles in naturally infected donkeys

Summary

The study evaluated the effectiveness of a commercially available polyherbal dewormer to control intestinal strongyles in naturally infected donkeys. The animals were allotted to two groups: treated with the herbal dewormer (n=8) according to manufacturer recommendations and untreated control group (n=6). Fecal samples were taken from each animal on days 0 (day of treatment), 14, 21 (day of second additional treatment), 35, and 42. Faecal egg count reduction tests showed very negligible or no reduction in number of strongyle eggs for donkeys in the phytotherapeutic treatment group compared to those in the control group. Thus, the herbal dewormer was mostly ineffective in reducing fecal egg counts in donkeys infected with intestinal strongyles. These findings can make equine practitioners aware of possible disadvantages of herbal dewormers.

Open access
First report on clinical feline heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection in Romania

Summary

Dirofilaria immitis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) is the causative agent of heartworm disease (HWD), a severe and potentially fatal condition in dogs. Although cats are considered more resistant to infection than dogs, they are also susceptible to heartworm infection. Moreover, the clinical importance of feline dirofilariosis has increased in recent years, especially in heartworm endemic areas. In contrast to dog, definitive antemortem diagnosis of heartworm infection in cat is difficult to achieve and a combination of testing methods must be used for clinical confirmation. Here we describe a clinical case of heartworm infection in a 12-year-old male mixed breed cat, originated from Southern Romania, which was referred to a veterinary clinic with a history of vomiting and clinical signs of respiratory distress. The thoracic radiograph showed a diffuse bronchointerstitial pattern of the pulmonary parenchyma. The serological test for D. immitis circulating antibody was positive and heartworms were visualized by echocardiography in the main pulmonary artery. In conclusion, the present study clearly shows that cats are at risk for D. immitis infection in heartworm-endemic areas in Romania. Additionally, the findings highlight the urgent need for increased awareness among veterinary practitioners of the existence of feline heartworm diseases and for adequate prophylactic measures to be applied. To our knowledge, this is the first report on clinical evolution and radiographic and echocardiographic features of a naturally heartworm-infected cat in Romania.

Open access
Giant kidney worm: novel report of Dioctophyma renale in the kidney of a dog in Greece

Summary

Dioctophyma renale is the largest nematode that infects domestic mammals and is the aetiologic agent of a serious renal disease, dioctophymatosis. It has an indirect life cycle with carnivores serving as final hosts and earthworms as intermediate hosts. The parasite can infect humans with signifi cant zoonotic potential. The pathogenesis of dioctophymatosis is mainly associated with the extent of renal atrophy caused by the parasites, the risk of bilateral renal infestation and the location of the parasite (extrarenal cases). Clinical diagnosis is challenging, and the only treatment option is nephrectomy or nephrotomy to remove the adult nematode. A 6-year-old female crossbreed dog presented with tachypnea, tachycardia and severe hematuria, but died shortly after presentation. Postmortem examination found the right kidney was enlarged and two adult nematodes were found in the renal pelvis. The left kidney was normal. The nematodes were collected and submitted for identifi cation. The two specimens were identifi ed as D. renale using specific identifi cation keys. Herein we present the first case of renal parasitosis by the nematode D. renale in a dog from Greece. This case highlights the need for investigation of the actual prevalence of the parasite and the use of measures for the control of its expansion aiming the protection of dogs and public health.

Open access
The molecular profile of Paratrajectura longcementglandatus Amin, Heckmann et (Acanthocephala: Transvenidae) from percid fishes in the marine waters of Iran and Iraq

Summary

Paratrajectura longcementglandatus Amin, Heckmann et Ali, 2018 (Transvenidae) was recently described from two species of percid fishes collected from the marine territorial waters of Iraq and Iran in the Persian Gulf. The genus Paratrajectura Amin, Heckmann et Ali, 2018 is a close relative to transvenid genera Trajectura Pichelin et Crib, 2001 and Transvena Pichelin et Crib, 2001. Morphologically, Paratrajectura is characterised by having apical proboscis cone, long, tubular cement glands, short lemnisci, prominent roots on all proboscis hooks, subterminal female gonopore, and males with long pre-equatorial testes. Molecular studies of P. longcementglandatus using 18S rDNA and cox1 genes compared with available data of members of other families of Echinorhynchida showed that P. longcementglandatus is grouped with species of the genus Transvena forming a clade within the family Transvenidae.

Open access
On the first occurrence of Xiphinema santos in Brazil

Summary

Based on morphology, measurements of juveniles and female specimens and sequences of the D2/ D3 expansion 28S rDNA gene and ITS1 analysis by DNA barcode technique, a Xiphinema americanum group species associated with olive trees from state of Sao Paulo, Brazil was identifi ed as X. santos. This is the first report of X. santos in Southern Hemisphere and outside the European and African continents, thus extending its geographic range.

Open access
Phylogenetic position of Pleurogenoides species (Plagiorchiida: Pleurogenidae) from the duodenum of Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Amphibia: Dicroglossidae) inhabiting the Western Ghats, India

Summary

Two species of digenetic trematodes of the genus Pleurogenoides viz., P. cyanophlycti Shinad & Prasadan (2018a) and P. euphlycti Shinad & Prasadan (2018b) have been described from India. Information regarding the molecular data of various species of the genus Pleurogenoides Travassos, 1921 is virtually lacking. This study addresses the application of molecular markers to validate the phylogenetic position of P. cyanophlycti and P. euphlycti. In the present study, two species P. cyanophlycti and P. euphlycti were collected between January 2016 to October 2017, infecting the freshwater frogs inhabiting the Western Ghats, India. In the present study, the two species were identifi ed morphologically and by PCR amplification of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Phylogenetic tree results clearly demonstrate that both P. cyanophlycti and P. euphlycti belongs to the family Pleurogenidae Looss, 1899. Based on these results, we presented and discussed the phylogenetic relationships of P. cyanophlycti and P. euphlycti within family Pleurogenidae from India. Phylogenetic analyses showed that P. cyanophlycti and P. euphlycti cluster according to their vertebrate host and revealed an important congruence between the phylogenetic trees of Pleurogenoides and of their vertebrate hosts. P. cyanophlycti and P. euphlycti clearly constitute a separate, sister branch with other species of the genera, Pleurogenoides, Pleurogenes (=Candidotrema), Prosotocus and Brandesia. The present study firstly provides important information about the molecular study and phylogenetic analysis of P. cyanophlycti and P. euphlycti. This study will also serve as a baseline for Pleurogenoides species identifi cation for further studies.

Open access