The issue of protecting the natural persons has been triggering a lot of interest due to the need for providing them with proper means for this purpose. In Romania, the court of guardianship and family plays an important role in protecting this category of persons, court established as a result of the entering into force of the new Romanian Civil code in 2011. The legal norms distinguish between the prerogatives of this court on the protection of the major persons and its attributions in this matter towards the minors. Further on, it will be analyzed certain prerogatives of the guardianship and family court meant for the minor persons.
Some aspects of the possibility of using euthanasia are covered. The author draws attention to the relation between the categories “euthanasia” and “bioethics”. The emphasis has been placed on the legal and medical aspects of the applying of euthanasia, based on the practice of the Netherlands.
The article deals with limitation of claims in Poland, Ukraine and Germany. The authors made a conclusion that the most liberal solution in the area of contractual regulation of limitation is provided in the German Civil Code, which allows shortening and prolonging the statutory limitation period, whereas the most severe is provided for in the Polish Civil Code, prohibiting it altogether. An indirect solution has been adopted by the Ukrainian Civil Code, which allows only the extension of the statutory limitation period. These different legislative solutions demonstrate that the national legislators are partially different in their view of the reasons justifying the statute of limitations. Newer prescription regulations, to which the German and Ukrainian ones belong, are largely similar to each other. The same can be said about the Polish academic project of the general section of the civil code. The Principles of European Contract Law have had a significant impact on teaching of civil law, as well as on national legislators.
One of the continuing problems, which had faced the African Charter, is many of its substantive provisions that are raven with qualifications without reasonable justification. These rights guaranteed under the Charter are subject to “claw-back” clauses that are introduced by governments and public authorities thereby undermining their citizen‟s basic constitutional rights of securing fundamental freedoms. They are those rights that impose negative duty on the state and are meant to promote the values of pluralism, equality and human dignity, which should be enjoyed free from state interference. It is in the interference of these rights that commentators have frequently criticized the African Charter for rendering its protective mandate meaningless and unenforceable. With hindsight, it is evident that the foregoing critique levelled against the “claw-back” clauses under Charter is justified, as they have a chilling effect on the exercise of human and peoples‟ rights on the African continent. Such condition has produced intense academic discussion on the interpretation and implications of the rights and freedoms enshrined in the Charter. None the less, the scope and the significance of the legal measures adopted by the African Commission have minimized the impact of the clauses affected considerably. Accordingly, a strong principle of interpretation adopted by the Commission has contributed to shaping the Charter‟s legal structure in harmony with international human rights law standards.
Through this article, we propose an (original) analytical approach on the consultative referendum of May 2019 and a wider critical landscape regarding the consultative referendum institution by enforcing a teleological interpretation. In this sense, we propose three sections. We will start with a short overview on the use of the consultative referendum in the recent years of Romanian democracy. In the second section we will focus on the consultative referendum from 26 May, 2019. In the third section we will ask the Founding Fathers of the Constitution for an “opinion” regarding the possibilities and impossibilities of the consultative referendum.
The article presents two cases of the Arad Medico-Legal Department illustrating just a part of the role of the forensic pathologist at the death scene but there are sufficient to fully justify the importance of this investigation as no example can comprise the complexity of problems and the particularity of each case, nor a statistic can be made. Both cases were found dead at home and forensically autopsied, but the two of them were distinct in terms of forensic pathologist's request death scene participation. In the first case, the autopsy did not find traumatic lesions, but revealed that the death was due to massive hemoptysis caused by cavernous tuberculosis with subsequent exsanguination, microscopically confirmed. The death was nonviolent. In the second case, the autopsy revealed findings of mechanical asphyxia due to neck compression, both macroscopically and microscopically. The death was violent. In both cases the forensic expert participation is required at the death-scene.
In the first case it allowed the correct interpretation of the traces of blood found on site, and in the second case, an onsite research would have properly helped for restoring the death‟s occurrence.
The scene investigation and autopsy provide, together, the basis for an accurate determination of cause and circumstances of death.
Florin Dumiter, Ștefania Amalia Jimon and Florin Gheorghe Bene
International double taxation represents one of the main problems’ for which taxpayers have to deal within a world fulfilled with globalization, uncertainty, risk, asymmetrical information and moral hazard. In this sense, in this article it is provided a qualitative overview regarding the appearance and evolution of the main double taxation conventions and their legal framework. In this article it is tackled some important issues, namely: the rationale behind the construction and engaging in double taxation conventions; the need for a coherent and just application of those conventions; the historical appearance and evolution of the double taxation conventions, as well as the quid pro quo OECD Model Convention and UN Model Convention. The conclusions of this article highlight the importance and ultimately need for construction of best practices new and complex multilateral tax convention at the UE level in order to diminish the contagious effects of the treaty shopping practices. The case study presented in this article from the Romanian jurisprudence highlights the multi-faced concept of double taxation and the comprehension approach which must be undertaken in order to solve the complex issues of the international taxation via double taxation treaties.
Seyyed Ahmad Mir Khalili, Abbas Kalantari and Fatemeh Rezaei Zarchi
The disguise of truth as one of the main sources of blameworthy in the Qur’an and the customs has been extremely condemned and has cautioned the concealer. In light of the Quranic documentation and the legitimacy of the disguise of reality, it has been acknowledged and acknowledged that instances of household and outside business sectors that reason doubt of merchants and uncertainty in the monetary space have been a wellspring of perplexity by the gatherings to the agreement. In Iran’s law, regardless of the expectation of common risk, including pay and end for hiding reality, no assurance of criminal requirement has been predicted. In this article, alluding to the refrains and portrayals, the standard of wellbeing and the guideline of the supply of products reality in contracts where the purposeful camouflage causes unsalvageable harm, by adjusting the components of wrongdoing, notwithstanding thoughtful risk, for hiding criminal obligation.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is one of the post-Second World War international organizations set up to promote good international economic cooperation among states. Unlike international organizations like the United Nations (UN) and the World Trade Organization (which succeeded the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade 1947), decision-making in the IMF is quite peculiar in that it is based on the joint stock company model where the value of shares determine the value of a member’s vote. Thus the principle of sovereign equality of states that underpins the one-member-one-vote system in the UN and WTO is absent in the IMF. This paper discusses the various decisionmaking organs in the IMF and concludes with a discussion on the sovereignty implications of the use of IMF conditionalities in the giving of loans, especially to developing countries.
The ability of foreign investors to sue host states without reliance on diplomatic protection is one of the most important developments in international investment law in the post-World War II era. The rise of investor-state dispute settlement under international regimes like the Convention Establishing the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID Convention) raises some concerns from states regarding loss of sovereignty. However, there are defences available to states when they intervene in their economies for purposes like public utility or the need to safeguard an essential interest. Thus in spite of treaty commitments that bind states to protect the investments of foreign investors within their domains, there are available defences for their intervention in their economies even if such interventions become inimical to the interests of foreign investors and could, prima facie, raise the possibility of infringements of the rights of foreign investors. One of such defences available to states is the principle of necessity. This article explores the principle of necessity in international law and how it operates as a defence for states in investor-state dispute settlement. It also conducts analysis of the Annulment Decision in the CMS v Argentina case to shed light on the principle of necessity.