In the recent years, when it comes to topics concerning rural areas and agriculture, sustainability has become a key term resonating in the political, economical, social and environmental discussions. These issues are discussed across the globe and Poland is not an exception. There are many features that have impact on sustainability. Among others it is situation in agricultural production, employment in agriculture, access to the land and situation at the land market, aspects of the environmental protection or the administrative structure of the country. Therefore, the main objective of the presented paper is to a comprehensive summary of different aspects influencing rural development in Poland with an emphasis on sustainability. Based on the conducted analysis it can be stated that even though many positive changes have been implemented in the Polish reality, there are still many issues with need to be urgently addressed.