Osama I. El-Sabbagh, Yamany B. Yamany and Hany A. Eldeab
Novel complexes of Ru (III), Cu (II) and Au (III) (2–4) were prepared using 6-phenyl-2-thioxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2- dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (HL, 1) adopting either electrochemical or traditional chemical methods. The electrochemical method is preferred in the synthesis of the complexes than the chemical one because it affords pure products with higher yields in shorter reaction time. The novel thiopyridine complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H, 19F-NMR, TGA and DTA measurements. The antimicrobial activity evaluation revealed that the complex bearing copper metal 3 has nearly the same activity as the reference drug ciprofloxacin. Anti-inflammatory activity evaluation showed that complex 4 containing gold displayed anti-inflammatory activity higher than the reference drug celecoxib upon using carrageenan rat hind paw edema method.
Katarína Hroboňová, Andrea Špačková and Martina Ondáková
Coumarins can be as a result wine storage and aging in wood drums and they can affect organoleptic characteristics of wine. The aim of this work was to determine the content of coumarins in wine samples originated from Slovak Tokaj wine region. The HPLC method with high specificity, accuracy, precision, and recovery was proposed. SPE sorbents of C18 type, styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer and molecularly imprinted polymers were compared for extraction of six coumarins, coumarin, aesculin, scoparone, scopoletin, 4-methylumbelliferone, and herniarin. Higher recoveries (above 89 %; except aesculin – recoveries higher from 68 %, RSDs less than 6 %) were obtained with selective polymeric sorbent laboratory prepared by molecularly imprinted technology. The results showed that content of coumarins in wine samples are in ng.mL−1 concentration levels and depend on the age and wine puttony.
Katarína Vulganová, Tibor Maliar, Mária Maliarová, Peter Nemeček, Jana Viskupičová, Andrea Balážová and Jozef Sokol
Sage is medicinal plant, known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Eight extract samples were tested in this study: extract from Salvia officinalis L. varieties from two different geographical localities (Jaslovské Bohunice and Pobedim, Slovakia), Salvia officinalis L., variety “bicolor”, Salvia officinalis L., variety “purpurescens”, Salvia apiana, Salvia divinorum, and two callus cultures of Salvia sclarea L. and Salvia aethiopis L. The highest values for composite parameters were observed for extract from Salvia apiana. It can be concluded that prepared sage extract samples are rich on polyphenolic acids (2 950±265 μg.mL−1 GAeq.) and amines (197±5.50 μg.mL−1 TRPeq.). HPLC analysis confirmed the dominant content of rosmarinic acid in the extracts; the highest content was detected in the Salvia apiana extract (1 120±15 μg.mL−1). Extract from Salvia apiana expressed too the highest antioxidant activity (1 710 – 4 669 μg.mL−1TEAC). Similarly, the highest inhibition activity was observed for this extract on thrombin (57±3.3 %) and on other proteinases (over 80 %). Spearman correlation analysis and PCA analyses revealed a coherence between antioxidant activity of samples and their content of rosmarinic acid as well as inhibitory activity towards particular proteases, and revealed the significance of thiol based secondary metabolites. Cluster analysis demonstrates the differences of Salvia apiana extract from extracts of S. officinalis L., the group of S. divinorum extract and from callus cultures.
Nodir Sh. Berdiev, Jamolitdin F. Ziyavitdinov, Akmal M. Asrorov, Shukhratjon S. Olimjonov and Shavkat I. Salikhov
Lipases cleaving oils into fatty acids and glycerol are of great interest for the use in increasing the efficiency of fuels. In this work, a novel lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa A12, was isolated by ion-exchange and hydrophobic chromatography. The purity of lipase was shown by electrophoresis and its molecular weight was estimated to be ~ 31.6 kDa. The whole amino acid sequence was analyzed by an LC-MS/MS method. Temperature- and pH-dependent optimum of the enzyme compiled 30 °C and 7.5, respectively. The obtained enzyme exhibited 79 % similarity of amino acid sequence to a lipase isolated from the same strain of P. aeruginosa. Thus, the novel lipase was determined to belong to I.1 subfamily of bacterial true lipases. Three dimensional structure of the isolated lipase isoform was modeled based on obtained sequences. Amino acids forming the catalytic domain were shown in the model. Lid domain is suggested to be in the open conformation. These results provide a potential alternative for enzymatic digestion of fuel oils and serve for the development of fundamental knowledge of lipase activity.
Alicja Wodnicka, Elżbieta Huzar, Małgorzata Dzięcioł and Maria Krawczyk
The yield, composition and fungicidal activity of essential oils obtained from fennel fruits cultivated in Poland (FEOPOL) and Egypt (FEO-EG) were compared. The influence of the duration of hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus on the essential oil yield was studied. The composition of the fennel essential oils was determined by GC-MS method. Studies have shown that FEO-POL and FEO-EG are two distinct chemotypes, which differ in yield and composition. The fennel fruits cultivated in Poland contained 4.14% of essential oil with trans-anethole as a main component. The plant material from Egypt was characterised by low content of essential oil (1.32%) with a predominant share of estragole. The fungicidal activity was tested in vitro against ten species of pathogenic fungi. The best result for FEO-POL was achieved against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea. Antifungal activity of FEO-EG against tested fungi was weak or none.
In order to produce valuable syngas, industrial processes of dry reforming of methane and steam reforming of methane must be further developed. This paper is focused on reviewing recently examined catalysts, supporting the mentioned technologies. In both processes the most popular active material choice is usually nickel, due to its good availability. On the other hand, noble metals, such as ruthenium, rhodium or platinum, provide better performance, however the solution is not cost-effective. Materials used as a support influence the catalytic activity. Oxides with basic properties, such as MgO, Al2O3, CeO2, are frequently used as carriers. One of the most promising materials for reforming of methane technologies are hydrotalcites, due to adjustable composition, acid-base properties and possibility of incorporation of various metals and complexes.
Oľga Šestinová, Jozef Hančuľák and Tomislav Špaldon
This study was conducted to investigate heavy metals bioaccumulation in industrialized soils in surrounding of Košice city (Slovakia), using earthworms. In the present research, we used ecotoxicity tests with Dendrobaena veneta (7 and 28-day bioassays) to infer about potential toxic risks to the agricultural (A) and permanent grass vegetation (PGV) of soils around the plant U. S. Steel Košice. The total Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and As contents and eco-toxicological tests of industrialized soils from the Košice area were performed for 12 sampling sites in years 2016 – 2017. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the largest steel producer plant on the total concentrations of heavy metals was determined for Fe, Cd, Cr and As. It was found that earthworms (Dendrobaena veneta) in some cases caused a decrease of metals concentration in contaminated soils, the largest metal concentration differences were recorded in the samples PGV (4) U. S. Steel-plant-main gate. The results of the bioaccumulation factors of heavy metals in D. veneta (BAFs/7-28 d) are < 1 for the studied metals order in the sequence: Cr < Fe < Pb < Cu < As and > 1 for Zn > Cd.
Ewa Możdżer, Krystyna Cybulska, Teresa Krzyśko-Łupicka and Edward Meller
Therefore the carried out study aimed at determination of the effect of high-calcium brown coal ash and compost being produced from municipal sewage sludge on the content and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in potato tubers, wheat grains and rapeseeds during a three-year period. Rapeseeds contained most Cd whereas wheat rains less. Potato tubers, wheat grains and rapeseeds contained more Mn, Ni and Zn in the fertilization objects with municipal sewage sludge with or without coal ash and compared to those where calcium carbonate or coal ash had been introduced into the soil at a dose corresponding to 1.5 Mg CaO · ha–1 at the beginning of this study. Differences in the Mn, Ni and Zn contents in test plants between the fertilization objects with sewage sludge of with and without addition of ash were not significant.
Sinoyolo Nondlazi, Nosiphiwe Ngqwala, Bongumusa M. Zuma, Paul K. Mensah and Roman Tandlich
Acute toxicity of raw and treated greywater towards Daphnia magna was assessed in this study. Treatment was performed with exposure of greywater to the fly-lime mixture After 48 h of exposure, 100 % mortality of D. magna was recorded when testing the following volumetric fractions of the raw greywater streams in the tested liquid medium (%; v/v): 10 % for kitchen greywater, 5 – 10 % for bathroom greywater and 1.25 – 10 % for laundry greywater. After greywater treatment with the fly-ash-lime mixture with pH adjustment to 7.0, 80 % of neonates of D. magna survived after exposure to treated laundry greywater in all dilutions at 48 h. At the same time, 100 % of neonates survived exposure to treated bathroom and kitchen greywater at all volumetric fractions. Therefore greywater had acute toxicity to D. magna, i.e. greywater treatment was required before its discharge or reuse. Values of the Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the chemical components of the raw greywater and treated greywater and the survival of D. magna indicated a lack of statistically significant correlation at 5 % level of significance (p-value > 0.05 in all cases), i.e. the survival of D. magna was independent of the concentration of chemical constituents in greywater samples tested. Further studies will have to be conducted on the chronic toxicity of the greywater effluent after treatment with the fly-lime mixture. Experiments from this study will have to be re-run for the fully scaled-up version of the fly-lime mixture-based greywater treatment systems.
Jiří Horák, Lenka Kuboňová, Milan Dej, Vendula Laciok, Šárka Tomšejová, František Hopan, Kamil Krpec and Jan Koloničný
Ashes were prepared by annealing selected types of solid fuels (biomass: corn cobs, sunflower husks, olive pomace, hay pellets and rice husks; coal: lignite and bituminous; and alternative fuel: paper sludge) at different temperatures (550°C, 815°C and 975°C). Based on X-ray fluorescence spectra, the slagging/fouling indexes were used to study the effects of the type of ash and the ashing temperature on the ash fouling and slagging properties. Slagging indexes were compared with the ash fusion temperatures. Ash fusion temperatures were measured by a LECO AF-700. The lowest deformation temperature (below 1000°C) was seen for the ashes prepared from hay pellets and corn cobs. On the other hand, the deformation temperature exceeded 1500°C for ashes prepared from paper sludge, sunflower husks and rice husks. By calculating the different slagging/fouling indexes, all the ashes exhibited slagging/fouling problems of varying degrees.