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Archiwum Fotogrametrii, Kartografii i Teledetekcji

Abstract

Exchange of and access to spatial data is the principal goal of any Spatial Data Infrastructure, therefore, one of the key concepts of SDI is interoperability, especially semantic and syntactic. Whereas application schemas and quality issues are one of the aspects that have to be considered to ensure a successful data interchange in SDI.

Two types of application schema are widely used in the European SDI as well as in the Polish SDI. They cover both semantic and syntactic interoperability and are an integral parts of spatial data specifications and relevant regulations in the form of data models. However, working out accurate and correct application schemas may be a challenge.

Additionally, faulty or too complex application schemas can influence the ability for valid data interchange, and consequently, prevent achieving interoperability within SDI. Therefore, the capability to examine and estimate the UML and GML application schemas quality seems to be a worthwhile and important issue in the context of semantic and syntactic interoperability in SDI.

The main subject of this article it to set out the context of performed studies, among others, the role of application schema in the interoperable data exchange, issues related to the concept of quality and its measures.

Abstract

A geoid or quasigeoid model allows the integration of satellite measurements with ground levelling measurements in valid height systems. A precise quasigeoid model has been developed for the city of Krakow. One of the goals of the model construction was to provide a more detailed quasigeoid course than the one offered by the national model PL-geoid2011. Only four measurement points in the area of Kraków were used to build a national quasigeoid model. It can be assumed that due to the small number of points and their uneven distribution over the city area, the quasigeoid can be determined less accurately. It became the reason for developing a local quasigeoid model based on a larger number of evenly distributed points. The quasigeoid model was based on 66 evenly distributed points (from 2.5 km to 5.0 km apart) in the study area. The process of modelling the quasigeoid used height anomalies determined at these points on the basis of normal heights derived through levelling and ellipsoidal heights derived through GNSS surveys. Height anomalies coming from the global geopotential model EGM2008 served as a long-wavelength trend in those derived from surveys. Analyses showed that the developed height anomaly model fits the empirical data at the level of single millimetres – mean absolute difference 0.005 m. The developed local model QuasigeoidKR2019, similar to the national model PL-geoid2011, are models closely related to the reference and height systems in Poland. Such models are used to integrate GNSS and levelling observations. A comparison of the local QuasigeoidKR2019 and national PL-geoid2011 model was made for the reference frame PL-ETRF2000 and height datum PL-KRON86-NH. The comparison of the two models with respect to GNSS/levelling height anomalies shows a triple reduction in the values of individual quartiles and a mean absolute difference for the developed local model. These summary statistics clearly indicate that the accuracy of the local model for the city of Krakow is significantly higher than that of the national one.

Abstract

Selection is a key element of the cartographic generalisation process, often being its first stage. On the other hand it is a component of other generalisation operators, such as simplification. One of the approaches used in generalization is the condition-action approach. The author uses a condition-action approach based on three types of rough logics (Rough Set Theory (RST), Dominance-Based Rough Set Theory (DRST) and Fuzzy-Rough Set Theory (FRST)), checking the possibility of their use in the process of selecting topographic objects (buildings, roads, rivers) and comparing the obtained results. The complexity of the decision system (the number of rules and their conditions) and its effectiveness are assessed, both in terms of quantity and quality – through visual assessment. The conducted research indicates the advantage of the DRST and RST approaches (with the CN2 algorithm) due to the quality of the obtained selection, the greater simplicity of the decision system, and better refined IT tools enabling the use of these systems. At this stage, the FRST approach, which is characterised by the highest complexity of created rules and the worst selection results, is not recommended. Particular approaches have limitations resulting from the need to select appropriate measurement scales for the attributes used in them. Special attention should be paid to the selection of network objects, in which the use of only a condition-action approach, without maintaining consistency of the network, may not produce the desired results. Unlike approaches based on classical logic, rough approaches allow the use of incomplete or contradictory information. The proposed tools can (in their current form) find an auxiliary use in the selection of topographic objects, and potentially also in other generalisation operators.

Abstract

The subject of the considerations presented in the article is the question of the criteria according to which the comparables, in the market value estimating process, should be selected. As the most important in the selection of comparative properties, the factor of similarity in relation to the subject property (measured by the Euclidean distance) was considered. As the key issue, the similarity assessment criterion and the influence of the adopted critical value of this criterion on the accuracy of estimates were chosen. The analysis of the above was carried out with taking into account the role of the significance of independent variables (measured by their correlation with the vector of the dependent variable). The results of the simulation tests carried out in the variants set by the criteria adopted were presented. On this basis, it has been shown that there is a potential most relevant solution in the collection of obtainable estimation results. This solution corresponds with the smallest sum of the differences of model prices (accepted as known) and corresponding estimates. The found minimum occurs for a specific layout of the above criterion values only.

Abstract

The paper describes the problem of conversion of heights to the European Vertical Reference Frame 2007 for Poland (PL-EVRF2007-NH). The subject of the study is height data, and especially the detailed vertical reference network. The aim of the article is to present an alternative method of conversion to the one recommended by the Polish Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography. The proposed approach is characterised by a low implementation cost while maintaining the required accuracy.

The publication is illustrated by the case of Kętrzyn district (in the north-east part of Poland). The local reference network was converted from Kronstad’60 to PL-EVRF2007-NH in 2017.

Abstract

The article discusses a method applied for combining the results of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and 75-year old triangulation measurements to estimate the crustal movements in central western Bulgaria region. It was examined for joint analysis based on the results of GNSS with angular measurements of the first order triangulation network in Bulgaria during the period 1923–1930 year. As a result of the processing of GNSS and angular measurements, horizontal velocities of 15 points, strain rates, and rotation rates have been obtained. The results show dominating N–S extension at a rate of 1–2 mm/y and the deformation is not uniformly distributed over the studied area. The obtained results indicate the possibility of using old angular measurement of first-order triangulation points, together with GNSS data, to obtain estimates of the horizontal crustal movements.

Abstract

Databases are a basic component of every GIS system and many geoinformation applications. They also hold a prominent place in the tool kit of any cartographer. Solutions based on the relational model have been the standard for a long time, but there is a new increasingly popular technological trend – solutions based on the NoSQL database which have many advantages in the context of processing of large data sets. This paper compares the performance of selected spatial relational and NoSQL databases executing queries with selected spatial operators. It has been hypothesised that a non-relational solution will prove to be more effective, which was confirmed by the results of the study. The same spatial data set was loaded into PostGIS and MongoDB databases, which ensured standardisation of data for comparison purposes. Then, SQL queries and JavaScript commands were used to perform specific spatial analyses. The parameters necessary to compare the performance were measured at the same time. The study’s results have revealed which approach is faster and utilises less computer resources. However, it is difficult to clearly identify which technology is better because of a number of other factors which have to be considered when choosing the right tool.

Abstract

The use of cartographic sources and methods are the basic tools of historical geography. One of the main research trends in this field is the analysis of the spatial layout and number of old settlement units. The confrontation of maps with historical data allows the drawing of a town’s area at a certain time to be studied. The retrogression (R) and progression (P) methods that are currently used are imperfect and the model created (map) is usually incomplete and its reliability is limited. In the author’s opinion, the joining of retrogression and progression (a new method; combined – K)1 increases the quality of cartographic reconstruction of natural and cultural landscapes. The use of basic mathematical methods from the scope of set operations means the component reliability of the researched cartographic model can be varied because the common part of the retrogression and progression cartographic model represents mutual verification of source data. Quantitative effectiveness assessments of retrogression (R), progression (P) and the combined method (K) can be made for countable elements (e.g. buildings). As part of the conducted study, the effectiveness of separate methods was calculated: R = 76% for retrogression, P = 59% for progression and K = R ∪ P = 85% for the combined method. The mutual verification of the methods (R ∩ P) included 45% of residential buildings. The author describes the proposition of a new method and the course of verification research.

Abstract

The authors’ main goal is to highlight the additional research potential of the method of analysing changes in the routes and names of streets introduced by Paweł E. Weszpiński in 2012. The proposed method was based on the old city maps of Warsaw and, according to Weszpiński, described “wandering streets and their names”. Taking the changing routes and names of streets on Lublin city maps from the last century as the research subject, the authors demonstrate that the method can be used to analyse how urban spaces are perceived and how they function in the minds of local residents. The authors propose to modify the method by adding one more important factor – the function of the place or street affected by the “wandering”. They claim that the study of changes in streets’ topography, territorial scope and names should be supplemented each time with an analysis of the administrative, economic or social significance of the place.