Andrea Berndgen-Kaiser, Tine Köhler, Maja Lorbek and Markus Wiechert
For some years, increased attention has been paid to the single-family housing stock in Germany and the further designation of building land by municipalities. A Germany-wide anonymous survey of municipalities sheds light on the municipalities’ land management strategies with regard to declining populations and their anticipation of future problems for the further use of the single-family housing stock. The results of the quantitative survey are supplemented by qualitative interviews with municipal experts from case studies that were selected on the basis of criteria such as population decline, old-age dependency ratio, the share of single-family homes and vacancy rates. The aims of the survey and the interviews are to assess municipal representatives’ perceptions of population decline and of the necessity of undertaking measures to deal with shrinkage. Research questions are: What measures do municipalities consider appropriate to counter population loss and falling demand for housing in shrinking regions? How important are single-family housing areas in the perception of German municipalities? The results indicate that a continued designation of building land seems to be one of the most important measures used to cope with insufficient demand. The aim is to attract new inhabitants, particularly to shrinking cities. However, this approach reinforces current problems because it lowers demand for the housing stock and increases the risk of vacancies.
The presented research concerns the methodology for selecting settlements and road networks from 1:250 000 to 1:500 000 and 1:1 000 000 scales. The developed methodology is based on the provisions of the Regulation of the Ministry of Interior from 17 November 2011. The correctness of the generalization principles contained in the Regulation has not yet been verified. Thus this paper aims to fulfil this gap by evaluating map specifications concerning settlement and road network generalizations.
The goal was to automate the selection process by using formalized cartographic knowledge. The selection operators and their parameters were developed and implemented in the form of a generalization model. The input data was the General Geographic Object Database (GGOD), whose detail level corresponds to 1:250 000 scale. The presented research is in line with works on the automation of GGOD generalization performed by the National Mapping Agency (NMA) in Poland (GUGiK). The paper makes the following contributions. First, the selection methodology contained in the Regulation was formalised and presented in the form of a knowledge base. Second, the models for the generalization process were developed. The developed methodology was evaluated by generalizing the settlements and roads in the test area. The results of the settlement and road network generalization for both 1:500 000 and 1:1 000 000 detail levels were compared with the maps designed manually by experienced cartographers.
Inquiry based science education has been more and more popular strategy in teaching sciences in recent years. Transregional pressure put by international, standardized knowledge and skills tests (e.g. PISA) to converge curricula (Rundgren 2015) of different European states paradoxically helps to promote the open inquiry method which involves the student in the teaching process. Earlier research done in many countries such as Turkey, Israel, Sweden, The Czech Republic (Heinz et al. 2017), Ireland (Dunne et al. 2013) or The Netherlands (Uum van Martina et al. 2016) shows the increase of interest in IBSE both in Europe and in the world.
Teaching geography in Polish primary schools follows international educational trends. This study analyses several proposals of educational activities connected with Space which support geography teaching. All of them are conducted with using open inquiry method, which is recommended in New National Curriculum of geography (Core Curriculum, 2017, Geography-classes V-VIII).
Andreas Farwick, Heike Hanhörster, Isabel Ramos Lobato and Wiebke Striemer
Due to their lack of financial resources, poor residents of deprived neighbourhoods are very much reliant on support and assistance from their personal networks. Studies refer to the key importance of neighbourhood contacts transcending social boundaries to promote upward social mobility. Based on a mix of quantitative and qualitative findings, this paper looks at the importance of social mix within a person’s neighbourhood and immediate surroundings for transferring different kinds of resources. The results show that even residents of deprived neighbourhoods can call on a well-developed support network to deal with everyday problems. The contribution also shows that network contacts to people endowed with more resources are no guarantee for the upward social mobility of the less well endowed. Indeed, it would seem that ‘getting-ahead’ resources are also accessible via their homogeneous networks. Much more to the point, the immediate surroundings turn out to be an important spatial context for contacts and resource transfers, especially for families with children.
Der Beitrag beantwortet zwei bislang kaum behandelte Fragen: Wie gut schöpfen deutsche Regionen ihr Potenzial zur Erzeugung regenerativer Energien aus und welche Faktoren beeinflussen diese Ausbaueffizienz? Mit dem neuartigen quantitativ-empirischen Konzept der Ausbaueffizienz wird das Ausmaß ermittelt, mit dem Regionen ihre natürlichen und sozioökonomischen Potenziale zur Erzeugung von Energie aus erneuerbaren Quellen zu einem bestimmten Zeitpunkt ausgeschöpft haben. Dieser Ansatz erlaubt unter Berücksichtigung der Energieträger Wind-, Solar- und Biogasenergie einen relativen Vergleich von Regionen, ihre Ausbaueffizienz über die Zeit sowie die Identifikation von Best-practice-Regionen. Mittels der innovativen Methodik werden deutsche Landkreise im Zeitraum 2000 bis 2014 verglichen. Dabei kommt eine robuste nichtparametrische Effizienzanalyse zum Einsatz, deren Ergebnisse durch qualitative Experteninterviews in ausgewählten Kreisen Niedersachsens validiert werden. Die Ergebnisse der Untersuchung zeigen große regionale Unterschiede in der Ausbaueffizienz sowohl zwischen Landkreisen als auch zwischen (Landkreisen in verschiedenen) Bundesländern. Auch bezüglich der Art der drei betrachteten regenerativen Energieträger unterscheiden sich die deutschen Landkreise erheblich. Die empirischen Befunde sind räumlich und zeitlich sehr differenziert und erlauben auch deshalb diverse lokal- und landespolitische Schlussfolgerungen. Insbesondere sollten Landkreise (und Bundesländer) mit bislang eher geringer Ausbaueffizienz von solchen mit hoher Ausbaueffizienz lernen. In der Breite können diese politischen Lerneffekte nachhaltig zum Gelingen der Energiewende beitragen.
The IGRF filtered Aeromagnetic data over Iwo, southwestern part of Nigeria within the basement complex was subjected to reduction to magnetic equator filtering, residual filtering, upward and downward continuation filtering, automatic gain control filtering, tilt angle derivative, second vertical derivative, analytical signal and Euler deconvolution. This reveals the geologic information such as structural trend. Based on the result of the total magnetic intensity map, reduction to equator map, analytical signal map and residual magnetic intensity map, it can be concluded that; The rocks in the study area have a trend of approximately northeast-southwest direction as seen on the upward continuation map. Most of the delineated lineaments found within the study area strike mostly in NNE-SSW, NE-SW and NW-SE with minor trend of E-W and ENE-WSW direction. Structural lineament orientation suggested that they were products of Pan-African orogeny (NE-SW, NW-SE and NNE-SSW trends) and pre-Pan-African orogeny (NNW-SSE and E-W trend). The interpretation of the aeromagnetic dataset gave an insight into the regional geology and structural trends of the area.
Old maps, mainly from the period between 1890 and 1940, have been collected in the framework of the project “Old Maps of the Jizera Mountains”. These maps provide us with a complex picture, mainly of tourism, in this currently Czech–Polish territory.
The territory of the Jizera Mountains was inhabited mainly by a German-speaking population on both sides of the border until 1945. Yet it is interesting to examine how the border between the two states – in those times Czechoslovakia and Germany, now Czechia and Poland – was illustrated on these old maps. This article argues that the border was not perceived as a barrier as such until later on, mainly due to the ethnic change in the borderlands. It also reveals that the borders on the maps are of manifold nature and cannot be simply limited to the national borders.
Inam ur Rahim, Shahid Ghazi, Qamar Uz Zaman Dar and Noman Zaib
The early Cambrian Abbottabad Formation mainly comprises of dolomite, sandstone, shale and conglomerates at Khote-di-Qabar section, Hazara region, Pakistan. The formation makes lower contact with Hazara Formation and upper contact with Hazira Formation. The formation is comprehensively studied during the field and lab work to interpret its provenance. Five distinguishable sedimentary units including 1) Tanaki boulder bed; 2) Sanghargali siltstone/shale; 3) Mohammdagali Dolomite/quartzite; 4) Mirpur sandstone; 5) Sirban dolomite can be identified in the field that indicate variable depositional strata of the formation under various depositional setting. Additionally, petrographic analysis of Sanghargali siltstone/shale unit and Mirpur sandstone unit of the formation indicate the main lithologies of these units are litharenite and sublitharenite respectively. Moreover, the provenance of these sandstone units of the formation most probably belong to Aravali and Malani Ranges located in the South of the study area.
Mazozo M. Mahlangu DFMR and Jennifer M. Fitchett CDMR
Wedding tourism is a fast emerging niche market both globally and in South Africa, as destination weddings are becoming increasingly popular. Wedding industries across the world, and specifically in South Africa, are increasingly dependent on the natural environment. Wedding venues with floral gardens, farms, orchards or forests are particularly popular. Beyond the venue, flowers are important for the bouquets and decoration, with popular blooms changing year on year. Shifting phenology – the timing of annually recurrent biological events – has been identified as one of the most sensitive responses to climate change. This poses a threat to the sustainability of floral wedding venues and the floral industry relating to weddings. This exploratory study utilizes an interdisciplinary mixed-method approach to record the importance of flowers in South African weddings and the perceived threats of climate change to this subsector. The respondents reveal the importance of flowers and the outdoors in both symbolism and the enjoyment of the wedding day, and had organised their wedding date to align with flowering. Destinations highlight a lack of awareness regarding phenological threats and are relatively unperturbed about the threats of climate change. Comparison to global phenological shifts reveals that these are misplaced. There is, therefore, a need for such wedding venues to adopt adaptive strategies to preserve their environment which drives wedding tourism.
Voting is becoming of significance in Nigeria, as in many other countries in Africa. Although Nigerian electoral politics has attracted full attention from scholars, there is little research on the factors that determine voter turnout in the country at the local level, especially the South-East geopolitical zone (GPZ). This paper is a stepwise logistic regression analysis of the determinants of voting in Nsukka council in Enugu State, South-East GPZ of Nigeria. The results show that age (0.230), education (0.532), marital status (1.355), political trust (1.309) and partisanship (˗0.570) are significant predictors of voter turnout. The effect of age, education, marital status and political trust on voting is positive and statistically significant, but partisanship has a statistically significant negative relationship with voting (p<0.01). The paper highlights the importance of local level geographical differentials in the factors influencing voting in Nigeria.