Moi Subhas Chandra, Rudrapati Ramesh, Pal Pradip Kumar and Bandyopadhyay Asish
Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding is a multi-input and multi-output variant process. The input process parameters and other factors of welding process interact in a complicated manner and influence the weld quality – directly or indirectly. Keeping this in mind, the present work has been planned to study the impact behaviour of TIG weldment through experiments, analysis and optimization. Experimental runs have been considered as per Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM). Based on the recorded data, the mathematical models have been developed to study the effect of process parameters on impact strength. ANOVA has been utilized to identify the influence of input process parameters on the response i.e. impact strength. RSM and cuckoo search optimization (CSO) algorithm have also been applied to optimize the impact strength.
This paper presents a simple-to-use system for estimating non-measurable components of crane state vector considering parameter changes. To obtain them, it is possible to use a numerical derivative, where the measurement noise causes great inaccuracies, or the Luenberger observer and Kalman filter, which require knowledge of the dynamics of the controlled system, which is constantly changing with the crane.
In various machining processes, the vibration signals are studied for tool condition monitoring often referred as wear monitoring. It is essential to overcome unpredicted machining trouble and to improvise the efficiency of the machine. Tool wear is a vital problem in materials such as nickel based alloys as they have high hardness ranges. Though they have high hardness, a nickel based alloy Inconel 718 with varying HRC (51, 53, and 55), is opted as work material for hard turning process in this work. Uncoated carbide, coated carbide and ceramic tools are employed as cutting tools. Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array is considered by taking hardness, speed, feed and depth of cut as four input parameters, the number of experiments and the combinations of parameters for every run is obtained. The vibration signals are recorded at various stages of cutting, till the tool failure is observed. Taking this vibration signal data as input to ANOVA and Grey relation analysis (GRA) which categorizes the optimal and utmost dominant features such as Root Mean Square (RMS), Crest Factor (CF), Skewness (Sk), Kurtosis (Ku), Absolute Deviation (AD), Mean, Standard Deviation (SD), Variance, peak, Frequency and Time in the tool wear process.
Most of the people living in developing or less developed countries have limited earning to provide somehow their basic needs and usual staff. Carrying goods is a regular task in life and several products have been invented to minimize efforts in this purpose. However, the price and features of most available products are out of the reach for the people of limited earnings. Stair climbing cart is very useful for those houses where a lift is not available. In this research, a modified mechanical design with eight wheels providing pause-rest feature has been represented with the equations of pulling force, constraints of stair dimensions and climbing mechanism. The ‘House of Quality Diagram ‘(QFD)’ has been added to accomplish the vision of further market research and customer satisfaction. The factor of safety and different types of stress have been determined for different types of loads and conditions. In addition, the details of the material with dimension, design and feasibility analysis have led this research to uniqueness.
Macho Oliver, Čierny Matúš, Gabrišová Ľudmila, Juriga Martin, Ružinský Radovan and Peciar Peter
The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of Dynamic Image Analysis for determination of size, shape and distribution of granules of microcrystalline cellulose, created by high shear granulation. A series of experiments was carried out to analyse the effect of process parameters on a created granule morphology. The amount of the granulation liquid and speed of the impeller have a significant effect on the median size granule value, the sphericity, the granule distribution width, but also on the granulation process yield.
The melting conditions of the electrode wires and the structure of coatings, obtained by the electric arc spraying method depending on the pressure of the spraying air flow, are analysed in the current paper. The effect of air pressure on the spraying angle of the flow of melted metal droplets is demonstrated. It is established that due to the decrease in this spraying angle, the temperature of the droplets increases. In addition, high-speed airflow is more easily captured by smaller molten metal droplets and during the contact with the substrate surface their deformations were more strongly. Due to such phenomenon, the porosity of the coatings was reduced and the number of lamellae, welded to each other, increased. With the increasing pressure of the air flow, the thicknesses of the lamellae were decreased, however, the amount of the oxide phase in the coatings has increased. As a result, the hardness, wear resistance and cohesive strength of the coatings, obtained at a higher pressure of the air flow, have increased, and the level of residual stresses of the first kind in them decreased.
This paper shows an analysis of the free vibration of functionally graded simply supported nanoplate. The nonlocal four variables shear deformation plate theory is used to predict the free vibration frequencies of functionally graded nanoplate simply supported using non-local elasticity theory with the introduction of small-scale effects. The effect of the material properties, thickness-length ratio, aspect ratio, the exponent of the power law, the vibration mode is presented, the current solutions are compared to those obtained by other researchers. Equilibrium equations are obtained using the virtual displacements principle. P-FGM Power law is used to have a distribution of material properties that vary across the thickness. The results are in good agreement with those of the literature.
The PMS-EDDG is an effective hybrid process to beat the problems identified in machining of Inconel 600 through the conventional machining process. This hybrid-machining-process is a combination of SDG and Powder Mixed-EDM process. Modeling, comparative investigation, determination of optimal setting of process factors, and various surface developments in S-EDDG of Inconel 600 with chromium and absence of chromium-powder blended dielectric fluid (DF) have been narrated in this research work. One set of 31 experiments with chromium-powder and another set of 31 experiments without chromium-powder mixed DF was conducted on this set-up in accordance with the C-C-R-D plan of experimentation. The developed models through RSM support to investigate the behavior of input process-factors over the responses. The input factors in this research work are ampere-current (I), pulse-on-time (Ton), wheel speed (WS), and duty cycle (DC). The MRR and Ra are the output-responses in this machining process. The optimum setting of process-parameters is computed through the integrated Grey-Taguchi based WPCA-approach. The confirmation experiment is conducted on this set-up at the optimum-condition and its results display the agreeable matching among the actual and predicted values. The WMPI is improved by 0.414. The SEM investigation has been conducted at the optimum-condition on the produced machined-surfaces and on the produced white recast-layer thickness.
The paper deals with the influence of selected component of synthesis gas on internal parameters of combustion engine that is planned to be used in micro-cogeneration unit. The aim is to better understand the mechanism of combustion of carbon monoxide mixed with methane and as a follow-up to optimize the operation of the Lombardini LGW 702 engine on change of fuel composition. Generally, an increasing proportion of carbon monoxide in methane mixture leads to a decrease in engine performance (mean indicated pressure) and the hourly fuel consumption in each of the operating modes of the engine increases. With growing proportion of CO in mixture with CH4, the maximum pressure in the cylinder increases together with pressure rise rate up to approximately 10 % vol. of CH4. With further increasing proportion of CH4, there is a significant decrease of the before-mentioned engine parameters. The optimum ignition angle for pure methane, or carbon monoxide, does not change significantly and it is about 27° CA BTDC.
M. M. Vishwanath, N. Lakshamanaswamy and G. K. Ramesh
Fiction Stir welding (FSW) a unique type of metal joining process in solid state, where the heat generation takes place due to the friction action between the rotating tool and the work piece. It is generally used to join all series of Aluminum alloys with good strength and other metallic alloys finds difficult to weld through regular fusion welding techniques. The metal joining takes place in the solid state as the metal to be welded reaches about 80% to 90% of its melting temperature. The joining of metals in friction stir welding does not require any filler metals all classes of Aluminium alloys can be joined and in some desirable cases dissimilar metal compositions and Aluminiun metals composites can be joined satisfactorily. Joining of dissimilar metals has become a trend in the industries like aerospace, automotive chemical etc. as the helps in reducing the cost incurred by eliminating the costly materials. In the present study an experimental investigations are made to study the heat transfer behavior by determining the temperature distribution in AA5052-AA6061 plates during the Friction Stir welding. A three dimensional transient analysis is made by using ANSYS finite element analysis software. Thermocouples are placed at the suitable locations and the same point the temperature readings were taken from the simulation results. The experimental data is compared with the numerically simulated results. The numerical simulations results obtained are in better agreement with the experimental data obtained.