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Chemical Composition of Mealworm Larvae (Tenebrio molitor) Reared in Serbia

Summary

The use of insects as “novel” and natural feed materials seems to be an attractive alternative protein source for poultry, pigs and fish since more than 80% of their chemical composition (dry weight basis) is crude protein and crude fat content. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine some chemical composition parameters of powdered mealworm larvae, as a potential animal feed as well as human novel food. It was found that the crude protein (55.83%) and crude fat (25.19%) content was predominant, as well as that the content of nitrogen-free extract was low. Coincided with the high protein content, the levels of the most important amino acids were found to be considerable, especially lysine (3.18%) and threonine (1.34%). Crude fibre content was 7.15%, while ash was 4.84%. The samples were found to be rich in most nutritive elements, especially phosphorus (1.06%) and potassium (1.12%) in terms of macroelements, and zinc (138.2 mg/kg) in terms of microelements. Based on our research and other experimental results, it can be concluded that meals from the insects originating from the order Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae (mealworms) may be successfully used as feed material in diets of livestock animals, especially poultry.

Open access
Comparative Analysis of Organic Food Markets in the Republic of Serbia and the Neighbouring Countries

Summary

The aim of this paper is to analyze the current state and the achieved development of organic production in the countries of the region and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Serbia has significant potential for production of organic food, mostly due to its favourable climatic conditions. The comparative analysis in this paper includes the analysis of the areas under organic production, the number of organic producers and the development of organic food markets. Starting from the fact that organic production is still not sufficient in the countries of the region, the aim of this paper is to determine the prospects of organic production and appropriate measures to be taken in order to intensify this type of production in the Republic of Serbia and the neighbouring countries.

Open access
Distribution of the Invasive Species Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill.) Swingle Along the Danube River Banks on the Territory of Novi Sad

Summary

As an invasive species, Ailanthus altissima (P.Mill) Swingle can pose a serious threat to biodiversity and ecosystems. The purpose of this research is to determine the distribution of A. altissima along the Danube river bank in the urban and ruderal areas of Novi Sad during the period 2017-2018. The level of weediness was determined using the European Weed Research Society (EWRS) method based on the investigated species count per 1 m2 (in 10 repetitions). A total of 7 localities with a widespread population of the species were identified and examined. The largest number of A. altissima individuals featured tree heights of up to 1 m, followed by trees of up to 10 m in height, whereas older trees exceeding 10 m in height accounted for the smallest number of individuals. The species examined was found to be predominant on chernozem and alluvial soils.

Open access
Effects of the Low-Level Western Corn Rootworm Egg Infestation on Maize Plants in the Field

Summary

From the economic perspective, the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera sp. virgifera (Col., Chrysomelidae), poses the gravest threat to the field maize production in Serbia. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of WCR larvae on the morphology of maize characters during a low-level artificial egg infestation. A field experiment involving the Serbian cultivar ‘NS-640’ was carried out in Bečej, Vojvodina Serbia, in 2016. In the experimental field, a total of 96 maize plants were selected, marked and arranged in 48 pairs. Each pair consisted of an infested plant (WCR eggs injected in the root zone) and an uninfested plant (distillate water injected in the root zone). The number of leaves, height and stem diameter of the plants observed were recorded. Root damage and root weight were measured and evaluated at the end of the trail. For the purpose of statistical analysis, the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and a correlation matrix were used. The statistical analysis performed indicate a highly significant difference in the number of leaves and plant height between the infested and uninfested maize plants examined in July (the third field observation). During the last field inspection, significant differences were recorded only between the stem diameters of the infested and uninfested maize plants. A negative correlation was found to exist between the root damage and root weight of the plant pairs. There were positive correlations between the stem diameter, plant height and number of leaves of the infested plants, whereas positive correlations were found between the root damage and plant height of the uninfested plants.

Open access
Electronic Nose for Pesticides: The First Study Towards a Smart Analysis

Summary

Within a project co-funded by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the final aim of which is to develop a WSN for smart monitoring of pesticides on agricultural land, the Italian and Serbian researchers have developed a hardware section of an electronic nose for pesticides. Since there are no specialized sensors which can smell the presence or absence of pesticides in the air, the electronic nose has been designed starting from an array of commercial gas sensors developed for other environmental applications. These sensors have a great advantage as they are COTS components. A measurement bench for testing the performance of the system has also been developed. Experimental tests have been conducted and the results have demonstrated the appropriateness of the idea. A test for calibration has been designed, as well, and it will be performed in the near future.

Open access
Indoor Ecosystem Services: Impacts of Plants on Air Quality

Summary

Ecosystem services have been the focus of recent research on ecology, biodiversity and human health. As most of this research has placed emphasis on natural ecosystems, there is a lack of data on the effect of indoor and urban ecosystems on both human health and the quality of human life. One of the most common health issues associated with urban and indoor spaces is the quality of air. Considering that humans spend most of their time indoors, accompanied by a lack of fresh air due to industry growth and environmental degradation, there is an obvious need for a non-invasive and non-obtrusive air purification system. This paper presents the results of the indoor air quality monitoring under non-controlled conditions, i.e. the changes in air quality induced by the common indoor ornamental plant Sansevieria trifasciata ‘Laurentii’. The following air quality parameters were observed: the relative humidity and temperature of air, as well as the concentrations of carbon-dioxide, methane and overall VOCs. Measurements were performed using the commercial CO2 data logger Extech SD800 and the in-house developed Arduino Uno-based measuring device with different sensors. The results obtained show the changes in the indoor air quality relative to the presence or absence of the selected plants. A sudden increase in the overall VOC (NH3, NOx, benzene and smoke), methane and carbon-dioxide concentrations was recorded after the plants were removed from the indoor space. The purpose of this research is to form a basis for designing a biological purification system as a low-cost and environment-friendly method for the monitoring and purification of indoor air.

Open access
Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Sweet Cherry Fruits from Vojvodina Province

Summary

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) contain various phenolic compounds which contribute to total antioxidant activity. The present study was conducted to assess the antioxidant activity of 15 sweet cherry cultivars from Vojvodina province (north Serbia). The free radical scavenging properties of fruits were evaluated employing two different methodologies, including DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Strong correlations were found between total phenolics, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins and DPPH and FRAP assays. In particular, cultivar Peter showed the highest antioxidant capacity and possesses the highest amount of measured phenolic compounds. This investigation shows large variability among sweet cherry cultivars in measured chemical attributes.

Open access
The Storage Efficiency of Immobilized Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strain Using Encapsulation Method

Summary

There is a growing need for new formulations of carriers with better protection for bacterial inoculum. One of the newer techniques in inoculum making is encapsulation method. With this method, the whole bacterial cells are immobilized in defined space – matrix, where the cells are protected from environmental activities before use. Encapsulation of the inoculum was performed with ionic gelation method. The alginate-based microparticles (500-600 µm) containing viable B. japonicum strain were solidified in CaCl2. The initial number of viable bacteria in every sample was 9.0 log CFU/ml. Chitosan coated particles had a higher mortality rate than non-coated particles, with 1.3 log CFU/ml in lyophilized and wet microparticles stored at room temperature. High viability of B. japonicum was registered in wet particles stored at constant −20°C for thirty days with a viability rate of 8.84 log CFU/ml.

Open access
Aflatoxin M1 Transfer Rate from Milk into Cheese and Whey During the Production of Hard Cheese

Summary

The aim of this study was to investigate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) transfer from naturally contaminated raw milk into cheese and whey, during the production of Livanjski cheese (hard cheese type). Raw milk samples were collected from 4 farms in Serbia. The samples were then tested for AFM1 content and were later used for hard cheese production. Four cheese samples were produced, and the matching whey samples were also collected. The milk samples included two samples containing AFM1 above the EU maximum level (0.077±0.009 and 0.118±0.008 µg/kg) and the other two samples below the maximum level of 0.05 µg/kg (0.021±0.002 and 0.034±0.004 µg/kg). Regarding AFM1 transfer into cheese from the milk samples containing AFM1 above the EU maximum level, the rate was approximately 4-fold (383% and 410%). On the other hand, in the cheese samples made from milk containing AFM1 below the EU maximum level, almost 10-fold levels of AFM1 content in milk were found (transfer rates of 934% and 961%). As for the whey samples, AFM1 levels were below the levels found in the milk samples (transfer rates of 78%, 74%, 68% and 57%). The difference in the transfer rates for the cheese made from the milk samples contaminated at different levels may indicate the possibility that the AFM1 transfer rate from milk into cheese depends on the content of this toxin in milk.

Open access
Article Entitled: Determination of Multi-Class Pesticide Residues in Sour Cherries by LC-MS/MS

Summary

During 2018 a total of 42 sour cherry samples were collected and analysed for pesticide residues by LCMS/MS with the carbofuran–D3 and acetamiprid-D3 as internal standards. The study showed that 42.86% of the analysed samples contained pesticide residues. In percentage terms, it seems to be high, but most of the detections were below the recommended MRL values, which is encouraging. The analysis indicated that three of the analysed sour cherry samples (7.14%) contained pesticide residues above the MRLs (propiconazole, methomyl, dimethoate and prochloraz). In spite of the low concentrations, ten samples contained multiple detections, i.e. 55.56% of the analysed samples contained more than one pesticide residue.

Open access