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Challenges for tourism research in the 21st Century
Open access
Cross-border Shopping Tourism: A Switzerland-Germany Case Study

Abstract

Border issues continue to be of interest in tourism literature, most significantly that which focusses on cross-border shopping (e.g., currency values, taxation, security). Borders as destinations are recognized in this area but the notion of shopping as a destination is perhaps less acknowledged. Following a review of the relevant literature, including the presentation of a table summarizing key areas of cross-border tourism research around the world, this paper presents a unique example of a border region with two-way traffic for cross-border shopping tourism: the border between Germany and Switzerland. The particular case is where two cities meet at the border: Konstanz, Germany and Kreuzlingen, Switzerland. An intercept survey and key informant interviews were conducted in both communities in the spring of 2015. The results indicate high levels of traffic for various products and services. And while residents are generally satisfied with cross-border shopping in their communities, there are emerging issues related to volume and, in particular, too many in Konstanz and not enough in Kreuzlingen. The paper concludes with a discussion that includes the development of a model cross-border shopping tourism that recognizes the multiple layers in space and destination. The paper concludes with a proposal to further investigate the particular issues related to the volume on both sides of borders where cross-border shopping is the destination.

Open access
High performance work practices and well-being at restaurant work

Abstract

This study focuses on human resource management (HRM) and high performance work practices in small restaurants. Empirical material is collected through interviews aimed at individuals working in the restaurant industry. In the first phase of this study in 2010, ten employees were interviewed, and in the second phase in 2018, five of them were re-interviewed. In 2010, the interviewees were working as employees in a restaurant where well-being was constantly challenged during work. During the second round of interviews in 2018, the interviewees had continued their careers in the sector and worked in five different restaurants. The findings indicate the signs of rapid change within the specific restaurant studied and provide insights into managing well-being at work in the restaurant industry as a whole – an industry that is constantly facing new types of challenges related to new working modes. Findings indicate that well-being at work is a holistic combination of individual and work-level activities; thus, a comprehensive approach to HRM is required.

Open access
Local Communities and Sport Activities Expenditures and Image: Residents’ Role in Sustainable Tourism and Recreation

Abstract

The practice of sports by resident communities is a tool for healthy lifestyles, inclusive growth and the promotion of sustainable cities. Nevertheless, the relationship between sport, tourism and recreation still remain an under researched theme. Focusing on the economic pillar of sustainability, this study intends to quantify and analyse the economic costs incurred by families in formal and informal sport practices, as well as the contribution of these activities and related events to the territory’s image projection and attractiveness, by overlapping resident’s and visitor’s perception of sports in the destination. Applied to the municipality of Guimarães (Portugal), this analysis of the sports consumer’s behaviour contributes to filling the gap of knowledge resulting from the studies that, as a rule, exclusively evaluate the investments (supply) and/or the expenses (demand) of events and not the regular practice of sport. A total of 179 questionnaires were applied to residents throughout 2017, through the self-administrate questionnaire method. Findings reveal that residents see sports as one of the factors contributing to the identity of the municipality, underlying motivations for participation as the search for happiness, health, wellbeing, and fun. Expenditures generate multiplier effects in the local economy, allowing to compare growth scenarios. This analysis is a scientific instrument to support territorial innovation and the decision at the local level of public policies for sustainable development, in agreement with objective eight of sustainability defined by the United Nations.

Open access
Motivations and attitudes toward domestic tourism in Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Beginning with the establishment of a Supreme Commission for Tourism and Antiquities’ (SCTA) in 2000, there have been official attempts by the government of Saudi Arabia to encourage domestic tourism in order to tap into the huge amounts that Saudis spend annually on vacations. This paper examines the motivations and attitudes of consumers toward tourism destinations and activities within the country (domestic tourism). Using data collected through a structured self-administered questionnaire, the study finds that familiarity and trust of the local environment, perceptions of the safer domestic environment, and limitations imposed by respondents’ vacation timing are the primary motives for choosing to spend their vacations locally, while lack of quality domestic tourist sites and services (including entertainment facilities), lack of tourism information, insufficient tourism organization services, and the harsh local environmental conditions during summer are factors that ‘push’ people from spending the vacations locally. Attitudes toward domestic tourism are generally negative, although there are significant differences in attitudes between respondents who prefer domestic destinations and those who prefer to travel out of Kingdom. Implications of the findings are outlined and discussed.

Open access
Motivations for Tourism Shopping in Department Stores: An Exploratory Research about Tourists’ Profiles Visiting El Corte Inglés Gaia

Abstract

Shopping forms a part of tourism activity. It can be the main motivation to travel (shopping tourism), or a parallel tourist action (tourism shopping). Existing literature explores the attributes of products that tourists look for, as souvenirs. However, department stores are increasingly prominent on tour itineraries and promoted by tour guides, exploring the trend of purchasing luxury goods in tourism experience. This study identifies the profile and motivations of tourists to shop in department stores, whose main products refer to global luxury brands and do not show the authenticity of the destination.

The research was developed in the department store El Corte Inglés Gaia, the only department store in the Porto destination. A survey was applied in the store during four days to 210 tourists who contacted the tourism office of the store. The results show that purchasing is not the main motivation for travelling, but it is an important activity. The department store is chosen for tourism shopping because of the quality and variety of products and services, personal selling and the advantages of tax refund for non-residents in the European Union. The paper contributes with the idea that shopping should be seen as an important activity in tourism and retailers should enhance the provision of differentiated services and experiences rather than just the authenticity of local products.

Open access
New Trends in Geoproducts Development: Železné Hory National Geopark Case Study

Abstract

Geotourism is still a relatively new direction of tourism and its development is bound mainly to the territory of geoparks. Many geoparks try to develop different types of geo-products with a focus on different target groups. However, the nature of these products is very different and their development is evident mainly in the time scale. In the past, simple forms of interpretation and application of geoproducts were popular, whereas currently, modern technologies such as animations or augmented reality are thriving. This is mainly due to the better availability of technological equipment. At the same time, a number of geoparks boast of above-average interpreters, who are able to render and simplify difficult geological topics. This also applies to their ability to create of new geoproducts, where the need to abbreviate and condense information is evident. The results of the study show a positive trend in the use of modern methods in geoscience interpretation and in the creation of new geoproducts. At the same time, it is clear that without a modern concept it is very difficult to reach the current visitors. Therefore, such a concept is necessary in order to develop geoscientific issues, especially in the area of geoparks.

Open access
Occupancy of the Slovak Accommodation Establishments by Foreign Tourists

Abstract

Accommodation has an important role in the development of tourism in every country we perceive as the tourism destination. Due to the increasing competition in the tourism industry, it is necessary to analyze the occupancy of the accommodation establishments, and thus to find specific segments of the market, which the tourism development strategy should focus on. The aim of this study is to describe, which types of the selected accommodation establishments are preferred in the Slovak Republic by foreign tourists with a special focus on seven specific nationalities (Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Ukrainian, German, Austrian, and Russian nationalities). Formally, the hypothesis being tested is whether there is a statistically significant relationship in the choice of the accommodation establishment by tourists of any of these nationalities over time. In addition, we aim to discuss the development of the selected types of the accommodation establishments in the Slovak Republic in 2014–2017, and at the same time to emphasize the development of the hotels according to hotel classes. The results showed that in the Slovak Republic, the most numerous groups of the accommodation establishments by their type, were hotels, motels, botels, and guesthouses, and these establishments are also the most used by foreign tourists. Furthermore, the set hypothesis has been confirmed, on the basis of the results of Friedman ANOVA and the Kendall coefficient of concordance.

Open access
Reviewing the Past to Inform the Future: A Literature Review of Social Media in Tourism

Abstract

Acknowledging the significant advancement of social media, the role and impact of social media has been widely discussed in tourism research. As a result, it has become increasingly difficult to obtain an overview of the knowledge produced in relation to the topic. Review studies provide such overviews to guide future research efforts. This study reviews and analyses 152 tourism-related social media publications since 2008. Based on a qualitative systematic analysis of publications that address the topic from a consumer perspective, the paper identifies publication trends and highlights patterns in the topics, aims, and research designs of existing publications. Specifically, it captures a broader array of consumer-centric topics than previous reviews and highlights methodological gaps. Moreover, the research argues that there is still ample room for more research on social media in tourism, particularly as the existing literature neglects social media beyond review platforms while demonstrating that user-generated content greatly influences tourist behaviours and experiences.

Open access
The Visit Rate of Bardejov Spa in the Context of its History

Abstract

The main objective of this article was to evaluate the impact of historical events on the visit rate of Bardejov Spa in various periods of its development (in the years of 1814–2016). The collection of information on clients’ spa visits, especially the oldest data, was difficult (19th century and 1st and 2nd World War). Much information was available only in the State Archive of the Ministry of the Interior of the Slovak Republic in Hungarian and Latin. Some data for several years were not available at all, and some data were not recorded in writing. The paper summarizes the history of the spa, natural medical sources, spa treatment and indications. At present, the number of guests has an increasing trend, as evidenced by the visit rate for 2016, as well as by current data for 2017. In 2016, Bardejov Spa reached a pick of the visit rate with 25,863 clients. In 2017, there were 27,170 clients. The main clients are the Slovaks, about 90%.

Open access