Countries can check the performance of their logistics’ activities to determine their competitiveness in trade logistics. One way to check these performances is to analyze the country’s LPI value in detail which is released by the WB every two years. When calculating the LPI, six indicators (criteria) are taken into account. The weights (importance level) of these criteria are important for countries which would like to focus more on the most important criteria and move their ranking up in the LPI list. However the WB takes into account indicators (criteria) weights equally when calculating LPI values. In order to overcome this problem some studies have used subjective weighting methods and others have used objective weighting methods. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study is to integrate two weighting methods (subjective (SWARA) and objective (CRITIC)) in determining the weights of criteria in order to balance the two weighting methods. Unlike other studies in the literature this study combines two weighting methods. Additionally the PIV method, which is seldom used to address any MCDM problem, is used in this study and a new integrated MCDM model is introduced to literature. In this respect this study contributes to the literature.
This study aims to investigate the impact of savings and foreign direct investment on economic growth in Poland. Savings play an important role in achieving sustainable growth. High saving rates are also an important tool to increase resilience to financial shocks. The economic climate that emerged following the financial crisis revealed problems with the economy of Poland to obtain foreign financing. The decrease in foreign direct investment has led to an unpredictable economic environment for developing countries such as Poland. The decrease in foreign direct investment has led to lower growth rates for an emerging market such as the economy of Poland. The relationship economic growth rate, saving and foreign direct investment are examined for Poland over the period 1992-2016 by using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach. According to this approach there is a cointegration relationship between the series and a 1% increase in savings which leads to a 0.81% increase on economic growth rate. Also a 1% increase in foreign direct investment (FDI) leads to a 1.52% increase in the economic growth rate.
Corporate Governance (CG) in India has undergone major transformation in the recent past with the enactment of Companies Act, 2013 and revision of SEBI’s Listing Agreement. Though some studies were undertaken in the Indian context few conventional aspects of CG have been repetitively addressed with conflicting results. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of some prominent CG attributes such as board size, board independence, role duality, board’s gender diversity, ownership concentration and audit committee independence on both market as well as accounting based measures of firm performance (FP). To this end the study uses a sample of top 100 non-financial and non-utility firms listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) for the period of 2014-2018 and employs two stage least square with instrumental variables technique of estimation which takes into account potential endogeneity in CG-FP relationship. The findings reveal a significant positive impact of board size, ownership concentration and audit committee independence on market based measure of FP while board independence is found to have a significant negative impact on accounting based measure of FP. Moreover role duality and gender diversity are not associated with FP. The outcome of this study highlights how the relationship between CG and FP works in the unique institutional setting of India and it should be of interest to regulators, practitioners and other market participants.
The new audit regulation came into force in Poland in 2017 and imposed mandatory audit rotation. The new regulation aims to strengthen the auditor’s independence but it might also affect concentration on the audit market. The aim of this paper was to analyse whether mandatory audit rotation has a potential to reduce the audit market concentration in Poland. The sample included 198 capital groups with the parent company listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The own compilation was prepared based on the audit opinions which included information about appointed audit firms in the period 2011-2017 (1,386 observations in total). The paper includes the analysis of audit tenures, their length, frequency of changing the audit firm and direction of the changes (to Big-4 or to Non-Big-4). The results showed that the biggest capital groups tend to appoint Big-4 audit firms and if they change auditor—they choose another firm from the Big-4. Additionally, the high number of short-term tenures (up to five years) suggests that Big-4 firms have strong bargaining power and they benefit more from the rotation of the clients rather than from their retention. The findings significantly contribute to the hypothesis that mandatory audit rotation will not reduce the concentration on the audit market in Poland. The findings might be valuable for the regulators and supervisory authorities responsible for the monitoring of the concentration level on the audit market.
Art is increasingly perceived as an investment asset among investors in Poland. In order to achieve high rates of return it is crucial to identify the main factors affecting the value of the works of art in the art market. Death of the artist seems to be one of the essential determinants influencing art market prices. The main aim of the study is to examine if the artist’s living status (i.e. information whether the artist did or did not live when the transaction was held) affects the prices of the works of art. According to the findings the largest percentage of the works of art that showed a price increase between the first and second auction was in the group of artists alive at the time of the first sale and deceased at the time of the second sale in comparison with artists alive and deceased at the time of both transactions.
This paper argues that provision of industrial commons (IC), might be considered as a crucial factor of a cluster’s attractiveness in digital transformation, e.g. in Industry 4.0 (I4.0) time. By drawing on the qualitative case study method of Hamburg Aviation cluster (HAv), it aims at exploring the nature of IC in the leading German I4.0 cluster. Proximity emerges, even if sometimes not explicitly, as the recurring topic facilitating the provision of IC, along with the advancement of I4.0. As Industry 4.0 stipulates much uncertainty, the closeness featuring in clusters, seems to bring various benefits, which can help address challenges associated with I4.0, and faced mainly by small and medium firms (SMEs). The vicinity to key actors and the gains of networking, reflect the importance of (un)articulated proximity.3
Ana Pavković, Mihovil Anđelinović and Ivan Pavković
Background: Cryptocurrencies represent a specific technological innovation in financial markets that keeps getting more and more popular among investors around the world. Given the specific characteristics of the cryptocurrencies, this paper examines the possibility of their use as a diversification instrument.
Objectives: This paper examines the direction and strength of the relationship between the selected cryptocurrencies and important financial indicators on the European Union market. Since cryptocurrencies are a novelty in the financial system, the empirical literature in this area is rather scarce.
Methods/Approach: In order to assess diversification properties of cryptocurrencies for European traders, a comprehensive econometric analysis was carried out. The first part of the analysis refers to the estimation of the multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model, whereas the second part focuses on wavelet transforms.
Results: Bitcoin and Ripple proved as a possible diversification instrument on most of the observed European markets since corresponding coefficients of unconditional correlation are negative.
Conclusions: The relationship between the value of the cryptocurrencies and selected indices is generally very weak and slightly negative, indicating that some cryptocurrencies can serve as a means of diversification. However, investors need to take into account the extreme volatility, exhibited in all existing cryptocurrencies.
The results of happiness analysis are presented in the form of a World Happiness Report that covers 156 countries and 17 different indicators. In the article model-based clustering ensemble is built to determine what selected European countries have similar patterns of happiness. The results are analyzed using multidimensional scaling and a decision tree to find out what factors determine cluster memberships. In the empirical part, three clusters were detected The first contains countries: Austria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. They have the highest values for all the variables, except the negative affect. The second cluster contains seven countries: Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. This cluster is also the most homogeneous one. The third cluster contains eight countries: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain.
Andrea Andrejević Panić and Zagorka Lozanov-Crvenković
Background: Higher education has the main role in generating innovative activity in knowledge-based economies. Therefore, the efficiency of the higher education sector reflects the alignment of the higher education policy with government expenditure. However, countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE region) have been struggling with national budget optimisation, which can cause fiscal stress and thus affect the efficiency of higher education.
Objectives: The main objective is to examine mutual interaction of higher education indicators, through formulating financial models that connect performance and financial indicators.
Methods/Approach: A total of 4 higher education indicators were analysed and observed in the time period of 10 years in selected CEE countries. The statistical analysis was based on panel data models.
Results: The main result of the paper is the analysis of coherency of selected higher education indicators in selected CEE countries in order to establish functional links between government expenditure and efficiency through formulating financial models.
Conclusions: Formulated financial models can predict the behaviour of selected performance indicators, depending on financial indicators. Therefore, the obtained models can contribute to the efficient allocation of funds and comprehensive macro-level decision making assessments in higher education policy reforms.